Airport operation

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Airport operation

  1. 1. Table of contents Introduction……………………………………….2 Contents ICAO…………………………………………….3 Air Traffic Services………………………..4 Airspace Classification…………………..6 The Principal How Aircraft Fly………...7 Local Control(Aerodrome)……………….8 Area Control…………………………………..9 Conclusion………………………………………….10 Bibliography………………………………………..11 1
  2. 2. A Introduction ir traffic control (ATC) is a part of airport operation service provided by ground- based controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other support for pilots when able. Air traffic controllers are persons who operate the air traffic control system to expedite and maintain a safe and orderly flow of air traffic and help prevent mid-air collisions. They apply separation rules to keep each aircraft apart from others in their area of responsibility and move all aircraft efficiently through 'their' airspace and on to the next. In many countries, ATC services are provided throughout the majority of airspace, and its services are available to all users (private, military, and commercial). When controllers are responsible for separating some or all aircraft, such airspace is called "controlled airspace" and "uncontrolled airspace" where aircraft may fly without the use of the air traffic control system. Depending on the type of flight and the class of airspace. Their immediate concern is safety, but controllers also must direct planes efficiently to minimize delays. Some regulate airport traffic through designated airspaces; others regulate airport arrivals and departures. 2
  3. 3. I ICAO CAO is stand for International Civil Aviation Organization. International Civil Aviation Organization is a special agency that codifies the principle and technique of international Air Navigation. The Headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Canada. The ICAO Council adopted and recommended practice air navigation, infrastructure, flight inspection to prevent interference, border crossing procedure, air classification, and traffic control mostly about rule of airspace that been signed and agree by 52 state on Chicago Convention on 1944 that established rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety. The Convention later been revised eight times. The latest is on 2006. The Convention also support eighteen annexes that are amend regularly by ICAO. ICAO also defined an International Standard Atmosphere temperature, density model and for standard viscosity atmosphere. ICAO also introduced with variation altitude the currently in pressure, the earth adopt airspace classification. They are all defined in term of IFR and VFR 3 of
  4. 4. Air Traffic Services A ir Traffic Services or ATS is a generic term which encompasses Air Traffic Control ATCO’s, Flight Information, Alerting Service and Air Traffic Advisory. The Objective of The Air Traffic Services are to prevent aircraft from colliding each other and obstructions in the maneuvering area, expedite and maintain flow of air traffic, provide advice and information for the safety of aircraft and control of the flight. Air traffic control service including area, approach and aerodrome control services. Provided by HF and VHF. Air Traffic Services that are provided in Malaysian is Kuala Lumpur and Kota Kinabalu Flight Information Region FIR that been recommended by ICAO that been state in Annexes Document. To understand the ATS provided, one need to know the various type of Airspace Designated.They actually Divided by Two:- Control Airspace - Controlled airspace is an aviation term used to describe airspace in which ATC has the authority to control air traffic, the level of which varies with the different classes of airspace. The term "controlled airspace," by the way, doesn't mean that somebody or some agency is up there controlling traffic, but controllers have a pretty good idea of what is up there. Use of our national air traffic control (ATC) service is mandatory in Class A airspace that begins at 18,000 feet MSL and extends upward to 60,000 feet MSL. Altitudes at 18,000 feet MSL and above, in Class A airspace, are commonly referred to in thousands of feet as "Fight Levels," abbreviated FL. For example, flight level two zero zero, or FL 200 = 20,000 feet MSL, FL 600 = 60,000 feet MSL, etc. Control Airspace usually exists in the immediate vicinity of busier airports, where aircraft used in commercial air transport flights are climbing out from or making an approach to the airport, or at higher levels where air transport flights would tend to cruise. ICAO classifies airspace in seven classes from classes A to G. Controlled airspace is classes A to E, in order of decreasing ATC regulation of flights. Flight under instrument flight rules (IFR) is allowed in all controlled airspace. Flight under visual flight rules (VFR) is permitted in all airspace except A.They are generally 3 types of Control Airspace:- Airways, CTR and TMA. 4
  5. 5. Uncontrolled space - Uncontrolled airspace is an aviation term to describe airspace where an Air Traffic Control(ATC) service is not deemed necessary or cannot be provided for practical reasons. According to the airspace classes set by ICAO both class F and class G airspace are uncontrolled space. It is the opposite of controlled airspace. o Air Traffic Zone(ATZ) is the part of Airspace encompassing the Aerodrome circuit and the holding areas over the designed airport navigation aid. It provided protection to all flight within the vicinity of the aerodrome circuit. The main airspace is a zone 5 nautical miles in radius from the surface to 3000 feet . o The control Zone(CTR) is an aviation term that describe a volume of control Airspace or Approach control normally around airport extend from the surface to specific upper limit established to protect air traffic To and From that airport. Aircraft can only fly in it airspace after receiving a specific clearance from ATC.That mean what aircraft and to ensure they are aware of each other o Terminal control Area (TMA) is an aviation terms to describe a volume of control airspace set up at the airways in the vicinity of one or more airport and Control Area that require more air classification. A Control Area is an aviation term that describe a volume control airspace Control Area are useful where there are busy airport located together. In this case a single control area will be used that known as Terminal Manouvering Area (TMA). 5
  6. 6. Airspace Classifications T he world’s navigable airspace is divided into three-dimensional segments, each of which is assigned to a specific class. On March 12, 1990, ICAO adopted the current airspace classification scheme. The classes are fundamentally defined in terms of flight rules and interactions between aircraft and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Some key concepts are: Separation: Maintaining a specific minimum distance between an aircraft and another aircraft or terrain to avoid collisions, normally by requiring aircraft to fly at set levels or level bands, on set routes or in certain directions, or by controlling an aircraft's speed. Clearance: Permission given by ATC for an aircraft to proceed under certain conditions contained within the clearance. Traffic Information: Information given by ATC on the position Most nations adhere to the classification specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) which places further rules on air navigation for reasons of national security or safety are described below:Class A: All operations must be conducted under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC. Class B: Operations may be conducted under IFR or Visual flight rules (VFR). All aircraft are subject to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC. Class C: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and VFR are separated. Class D: Operations may be conducted under IFR,or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance. Aircraft operating under IFR and VFR are separated from each other, and are given traffic information in respect of VFR flights. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in respect of all other flights. Class E: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. Flights under VFR are not subject to ATC clearance. As far as is practical, traffic information is given to all flights in respect of VFR flights. Class F: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation will be provided, so far as practical, to aircraft operating under IFR. Class G: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation is not provided. Classes A-E are referred to as Controlled Airspace. Classes F and G are Uncontrolled Airspace. 6
  7. 7. T The Principle How Aircraft Fly he Aircrafts fly with the principle of Lift (i.e, allowing air to pass below the vehicle while moving at high speeds). The engine used in a typical aircraft is a turbojet engine which propel the aircraft to obtain high velocity and as the speed increases the air below the aircraft lift the craft and as it reach higher and higher the air pressure becomes more delicate and makes a plane an easy flier. For a moment think of an airplane moving from right to left and the flow of air moving from left to right. There 4 forces which act on the aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust. As the aircraft gain speed that created by the engine that create thrust force see Newton Third Law of Motion , air passes faster and faster over its wing and lift force is create see Bernoulli’s Principle and because the engine is attached to the wing and the wing is attached to the aircraft fuselage carried the aircraft fly in the sky. So about the matter of aircraft weight the calculation need to be done using the Lift formula according to the major part of airplane, primary control surface, additional control surface and engine power. Lift force must be greater than the plane’s weight and Thrust force must be greater than the Drag force to make the aircraft fly and doesn’t drop to the ground. All 4 Forces must be applied and controlled at the same time. Once a plane is in the air, it continues climb until it reaches the cruising altitude, which is determined by the pilot and approved by the ATC. At this point power is reduced from the setting that was needed to climb, and the aircraft maintains a consistent level altitude. To fly level, the Weight of the aircraft and the Lifting force generated by the wings are exactly Equal. 7
  8. 8. A Local Control (Aerodrome) n Aerodrome or Airfield is a term for any location from which aircraft flight operations take place, equipped with control tower. Including any runaway, taxi tracks, aprons, buildings, installations, and equipment intended to be used either wholly or in part for the parking, maintenance, arrival, departure, and surface movement of aircraft . When used in the provisions relating to flight plans and ATS (air traffic services). The term is used and designated as in ICAO Annex 14 to the Convention. The Standards and Recommended Practices were based on recommendations of the Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division, their physical characteristics and their operation. Tower controllers control aircraft within the immediate vicinity of the airport and use visual observation from the airport tower. The tower’s airspace is often 5 nautical mile radius around the airport, but can increased greatly in sized and shape depending on traffic configuration and volume 8
  9. 9. Area Control A rea controllers are responsible for the safety of aircraft at higher altitudes, in the phase of their flight.In most nations they are known as “area” or “en route” controllers. Airspace under the control of area controllers is split into sectors. Each sector will be managed by at least one Area controller. This can be done either with or without the use of radar; radar allow a sector to handle much more traffic, however Procedural control is used in many areas where traffic levels do not justify radar. Procedural Control :- is a method of providing air traffic control service without the use of radar. A system using calculation and position report of aircraft flying along the airways . Radar Control Service :- is a method of providing air traffic control services with the use of radar. uses electromagnetic waves to identify the range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain. Using procedural control, the controller must maintain a mental picture of the location of aircraft based on each aircraft's flight progress strip, which contains its route, altitude and estimated times over reporting points. That information is compared against all other aircraft in the sector to determine if there are any conflicts. For aircraft that conflict, the controller issues an altitude, speed or routing change that both separates the conflicting aircraft from each other, while still remaining separated Flight Strip from all others. After all conflicts have been resolved in this way, the sector is considered "separated" and the controller only needs to check again for conflicts when new aircraft are added. 9
  10. 10. Conclusion A ir Traffic Controllers play an important role to prevent aircraft from colliding into each other on airport operation.All the Rules ,regulations, Standard practices are being recommended by ICAO depending on their classification The Tower or Aerodrome position are split into many different position such as Flight Data/Clearance Delivery, Ground Control and Local Control; at busier airport a limited radar approach control position maybe needed. The roles of position are:Flight Data: issues IFR flight plan clearance, usually prior to taxi Ground : issues taxi instruction and authorized movement at the airport Local (Tower): issues take off and landing instruction/clearance Controllers shall monitors visually the aircraft as they approach this positions so that the appropriate clearance will be issued with out delay. Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing flight/taxi instruction. Take off clearance issued. Aircraft reports on downwind leg and cleared to final. pilot will be given his position .Base leg report if requested. final report. Long final .Taxiing and parking instruction issued. Aircraft flying VFR normally joined the Aerodrome circuit at 1,500. When aircraft is on the cruising altitude the Area controllers will take over guiding the aircraft . Area Control Center (ACC), also known as a Center, is a facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region) at high altitudes between airport approaches and departures. 10
  11. 11. Bibliography 1. For Books: Author(s) Year Title City Publisher AMC Air Traffic Management KL AMC 2010 2. For Encyclopedias (no author) Article Title Year Encyclopedia Title Publisher Volume/Page(s) Aircraft Air Legislation and Maintenance 1998 Airworthiness Engineer’s Licence Requirements Aero Precision Resources Vol.1, pp.1-66 3. For Internet Sources (no author) Date Article Title URL (Internet Site Address) (Year/Month/Day) Airspace Classification Area Control Center Controlled airspace Air Traffic Control 19 August 2008 aspmhelp.faa.gov/index.php/AirspaceClassification 26 January2010 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Area_Control_Center 23 December 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_airspace 10 November 2009 www.newworldencyclopedia.org/Air_traffic_control 4. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals: Name(s) Position Kol (B) Ramli Robani Lecturer 11
  12. 12. AIRPORT OPERATION 12
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