Table of contents
Air Traffic Services………………………..4
The Principal How Aircraft Fly………...7
ir traffic control (ATC) is a part of airport operation service
provided by ground- based controllers who direct aircraft on the
ground and in the air. The primary purpose of ATC systems
worldwide is to separate aircraft to prevent collisions, to organize and
expedite the flow of traffic, and to provide information and other support
for pilots when able. Air traffic controllers are persons who operate the
air traffic control system to expedite and maintain a safe and orderly
flow of air traffic and help prevent mid-air collisions. They apply
separation rules to keep each aircraft apart from others in their area of
responsibility and move all aircraft efficiently through 'their' airspace
and on to the next.
In many countries, ATC services are provided throughout the
majority of airspace, and its services are available to all users (private,
separating some or all aircraft, such airspace is called "controlled
airspace" and "uncontrolled airspace" where aircraft may fly without the
use of the air traffic control system. Depending on the type of flight and
the class of airspace.
Their immediate concern is safety, but controllers also must direct
planes efficiently to minimize delays. Some regulate airport traffic
through designated airspaces; others regulate airport arrivals and
CAO is stand
for International Civil Aviation Organization.
International Civil Aviation Organization is a special agency that
Navigation. The Headquarters are located in the Quartier International
of Montreal, Canada.
navigation, infrastructure, flight inspection to prevent interference,
border crossing procedure, air classification, and traffic control mostly
about rule of airspace that been signed and agree by 52 state on
Chicago Convention on 1944 that established rules of airspace, aircraft
registration and safety. The Convention later been revised eight times.
The latest is on 2006. The Convention also support eighteen annexes
that are amend regularly by ICAO. ICAO also defined an International
atmosphere. ICAO also introduced
classification. They are all defined in term of IFR and VFR
Air Traffic Services
ir Traffic Services or ATS is a generic term which
encompasses Air Traffic Control ATCO’s, Flight
Information, Alerting Service and Air Traffic Advisory. The
Objective of The Air Traffic Services are to prevent aircraft
from colliding each other and obstructions in the maneuvering area,
expedite and maintain flow of air traffic, provide advice and information
for the safety of aircraft and control of the flight. Air traffic control
service including area, approach and aerodrome control services.
Provided by HF and VHF. Air Traffic Services that are provided in
Malaysian is Kuala Lumpur and Kota Kinabalu Flight Information Region
FIR that been recommended by ICAO that been state in Annexes
understand the ATS provided, one need to know the various type of
Airspace Designated.They actually Divided by Two:-
Control Airspace - Controlled airspace is an aviation term used to describe airspace in
which ATC has the authority to control air traffic, the level of which varies with the different
classes of airspace. The term "controlled airspace," by the way, doesn't mean that somebody or
some agency is up there controlling traffic, but controllers have a pretty good idea of what is up
there. Use of our national air traffic control (ATC) service is mandatory in Class A airspace that
begins at 18,000 feet MSL and extends upward to 60,000 feet MSL. Altitudes at 18,000 feet MSL
and above, in Class A airspace, are commonly referred to in thousands of feet as "Fight Levels,"
abbreviated FL. For example, flight level two zero zero, or FL 200 = 20,000 feet MSL, FL 600 =
60,000 feet MSL, etc.
Control Airspace usually exists in the immediate vicinity of busier
airports, where aircraft used in commercial air transport flights are climbing
out from or making an approach to the airport, or at higher levels where air
transport flights would tend to cruise. ICAO classifies airspace in seven
classes from classes A to G. Controlled airspace is classes A to E, in order
of decreasing ATC regulation of flights. Flight under instrument flight rules
(IFR) is allowed in all controlled airspace. Flight under visual flight rules
(VFR) is permitted in all airspace except A.They are generally 3 types of
Control Airspace:- Airways, CTR and TMA.
Uncontrolled space - Uncontrolled airspace is an aviation term to describe airspace
where an Air Traffic Control(ATC) service is not deemed necessary or cannot be provided for
practical reasons. According to the airspace classes set by ICAO both class F and class G airspace
are uncontrolled space. It is the opposite of controlled airspace.
Air Traffic Zone(ATZ) is the part of Airspace encompassing the Aerodrome
circuit and the holding areas over the designed airport navigation aid. It provided
protection to all flight within the vicinity of the aerodrome circuit. The main airspace is a
zone 5 nautical miles in radius from the surface to 3000 feet .
The control Zone(CTR) is an aviation term that describe a volume of control
Airspace or Approach control normally around airport extend from the surface to
specific upper limit established to protect air traffic To and From that airport. Aircraft can
only fly in it airspace after receiving a specific clearance from ATC.That mean what
aircraft and to ensure they are aware of each other
Terminal control Area (TMA) is an aviation terms to describe a volume of
control airspace set up at the airways in the vicinity of one or more airport and Control
Area that require more air classification. A Control Area is an aviation term that describe
a volume control airspace Control Area are useful where there are busy airport located
together. In this case a single control area will be used that known as Terminal
Manouvering Area (TMA).
he world’s navigable airspace is divided into three-dimensional
segments, each of which is assigned to a specific class. On March 12,
1990, ICAO adopted the current airspace classification scheme. The
classes are fundamentally defined in terms of flight rules and interactions
between aircraft and Air Traffic Control (ATC). Some key concepts are:
Separation: Maintaining a specific minimum distance between an aircraft and another aircraft or
terrain to avoid collisions, normally by requiring aircraft to fly at set levels or level bands, on set
routes or in certain directions, or by controlling an aircraft's speed.
Clearance: Permission given by ATC for an aircraft to proceed under certain conditions contained
within the clearance.
Traffic Information: Information given by ATC on the position
Most nations adhere to the classification specified by the International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) which places further rules on air navigation for reasons of national security or safety are
described below:Class A: All operations must be conducted under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) and are subject to
ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC.
Class B: Operations may be conducted under IFR or Visual flight rules (VFR). All aircraft are subject
to ATC clearance. All flights are separated from each other by ATC.
Class C: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance.
Aircraft operating under IFR and VFR are separated.
Class D: Operations may be conducted under IFR,or VFR. All flights are subject to ATC clearance.
Aircraft operating under IFR and VFR are separated from each other, and are given traffic
information in respect of VFR flights. Flights operating under VFR are given traffic information in
respect of all other flights.
Class E: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. Flights under VFR are not subject to ATC
clearance. As far as is practical, traffic information is given to all flights in respect of VFR flights.
Class F: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation will be provided, so far as
practical, to aircraft operating under IFR.
Class G: Operations may be conducted under IFR or VFR. ATC separation is not provided.
Classes A-E are referred to as Controlled Airspace. Classes F and G are Uncontrolled Airspace.
The Principle How Aircraft Fly
he Aircrafts fly with the principle of Lift (i.e, allowing air to pass
below the vehicle while moving at high speeds). The engine used
in a typical aircraft is a turbojet engine which propel the aircraft
to obtain high velocity and as the speed increases the air below the
aircraft lift the craft and as it reach higher and higher the air pressure
becomes more delicate and makes a plane an easy flier.
For a moment think of an airplane moving from right to left and the
flow of air moving from left to right. There 4 forces which act on the
aircraft. These are lift, drag, weight and thrust. As the aircraft gain
speed that created by the engine that create thrust force see Newton
Third Law of Motion , air passes faster and faster over its wing and lift
force is create see Bernoulli’s Principle and because the engine is
attached to the wing and the wing is attached to the aircraft fuselage
carried the aircraft fly in the sky.
So about the matter of aircraft weight the calculation need to be
using the Lift formula according to the major part of airplane,
primary control surface, additional control surface and engine power.
Lift force must be greater than the plane’s weight and Thrust force must
be greater than the Drag force to make the aircraft fly and doesn’t drop
to the ground. All 4 Forces must be applied and controlled at the same
Once a plane is in the air, it continues climb until it reaches the
cruising altitude, which is determined by the pilot and approved by the
ATC. At this point power is reduced from the setting that was needed to
climb, and the aircraft maintains a consistent level altitude. To fly level,
the Weight of the aircraft and the Lifting force generated by the wings
are exactly Equal.
n Aerodrome or Airfield is a term for any location from which
aircraft flight operations take place, equipped with control tower.
Including any runaway, taxi tracks, aprons, buildings,
installations, and equipment intended to be used either wholly or
in part for the parking, maintenance, arrival, departure, and surface movement
of aircraft . When used in the provisions relating to flight plans and ATS (air
traffic services). The term is used and designated as in ICAO Annex 14 to the
Convention. The Standards and Recommended Practices were based on
recommendations of the Aerodromes, Air Routes and Ground Aids Division,
their physical characteristics and their operation.
Tower controllers control aircraft within the immediate vicinity of the
airport and use visual observation from the airport tower. The tower’s airspace
is often 5 nautical mile radius around the airport, but can increased greatly in
sized and shape depending on traffic configuration and volume
rea controllers are responsible for the safety of aircraft at higher
altitudes, in the phase of their
flight.In most nations they are
known as “area” or “en route” controllers. Airspace under the
control of area controllers is split into sectors. Each sector will be managed by
at least one Area controller. This can be done either with or without the use of
radar; radar allow a sector to handle much more traffic, however Procedural
control is used in many areas where traffic levels do not justify radar.
Procedural Control :- is a method of providing air traffic control service without the use of radar. A
system using calculation and position report of aircraft flying along the airways .
Radar Control Service :- is a method of providing air traffic control
services with the use of radar. uses electromagnetic waves to identify the
range, altitude, direction, or speed of both moving and fixed objects such as
aircraft, ships, motor vehicles, weather formations, and terrain.
Using procedural control, the controller must maintain a mental picture
of the location of aircraft based on each aircraft's flight progress strip, which
contains its route, altitude and estimated times
over reporting points. That information is compared
against all other aircraft in the sector to determine
if there are any conflicts. For aircraft that conflict,
the controller issues an altitude, speed or routing
change that both separates the conflicting aircraft
from each other, while still remaining separated
from all others. After all conflicts have been resolved in this way, the sector is
considered "separated" and the controller only needs to check again for
conflicts when new aircraft are added.
ir Traffic Controllers play an important role to prevent aircraft from colliding into
each other on airport operation.All the Rules ,regulations, Standard practices are
being recommended by ICAO depending on their classification
The Tower or Aerodrome position are split into many different position such as Flight
Data/Clearance Delivery, Ground Control and Local Control; at busier airport a limited radar
approach control position maybe needed. The roles of position are:Flight Data: issues IFR flight plan clearance, usually prior to taxi
Ground : issues taxi instruction and authorized movement at the airport
Local (Tower): issues take off and landing instruction/clearance
Controllers shall monitors visually the aircraft as they approach this positions so that the
appropriate clearance will be issued with out delay. Aircraft initiates call to taxi for departing
flight/taxi instruction. Take off clearance issued. Aircraft reports on downwind leg and
cleared to final. pilot will be given his position .Base leg report if requested. final report. Long
final .Taxiing and parking instruction issued. Aircraft flying VFR normally joined the
Aerodrome circuit at 1,500. When aircraft is on the cruising altitude the Area controllers will
take over guiding the aircraft . Area Control Center (ACC), also known as a Center, is a
facility responsible for controlling instrument flight rules aircraft en route in a particular
volume of airspace (a Flight Information Region) at high altitudes between airport approaches
1. For Books:
Air Traffic Management
2. For Encyclopedias (no author)
Year Encyclopedia Title
Air Legislation and
3. For Internet Sources (no author)
URL (Internet Site Address)
19 August 2008
23 December 2009 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Controlled_airspace
10 November 2009 www.newworldencyclopedia.org/Air_traffic_control
4. For Educated Person and Other Periodicals:
Kol (B) Ramli Robani