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SKYLARK AVIATION TRAINING SCHOOL
AIRPORT HANDLING PROCEDURE
Abdur Rahim Khan
Roll No- SATS-02-006
Course- Skylark Advance Program
This section of the assignment gives us information
regarding to history of aviation and different governing body
like IATA, ICAO, MOCA, DGCA, BCAS etc. and their
function. And also get information about Airport Handling
Procedure (AHP. Its include Reservation Counter, Check-in
Counter, BMA, Boarding gate/SHA, RAMP, Arrival and Cargo
The history of aviation has extended over more than two thousand years from the
earliest attempts in kites and gliders to powered, heavier-than-air, supersonic,
and hypersonic flight.
The first form of man-made flying objects were kites. The earliest known record of
kite flying is from around 200 BC in China, when a general flew a kite over enemy
territory to calculate the length of tunnel required to enter the region. Yuan
Huangtou, a Chinese prince, survived by tying himself to the kite.
Leonardo da Vinci's 15th-century dream of flight found expression in several
designs, but he did not attempt to demonstrate his ideas by actually constructing
With the efforts to analyze the atmosphere from the 17th to 19th centuries, gases
such as hydrogen were discovered which in turn led to the invention of hydrogen
balloons. Various theories in mechanics by physicists during the same period of
time, notably fluid dynamics and Newton's laws of motion, led to the foundation of
modern aerodynamics. Tethered balloons filled with hot air were used in the first
half of the 19th century and saw considerable action in several mid-century wars,
most notably the American Civil War, where balloons provided observation during
the Battle of Petersburg.
Fig:- Tethered balloons
Experiments with gliders provided the groundwork for heavier-than-air craft, and
by the early 20th-century advances in engine technology and aerodynamics made
controlled, powered flight possible for the first time.
The Wright Brothers
Following a step by step method, discovering aerodynamics forces then controlling
the flight, the brothers built and tested a series of kite and glider designs from 1900
to 1902 before attempting to build a powered design. The gliders worked, but not
as well as the Wrights had expected based on the experiments and writings of their
19th-century predecessors. Their first glider, launched in 1900, had only about half
the lift they anticipated.
Their second glider, built the following year, performed even more poorly. Rather
than giving up, the Wrights constructed their own wind tunnel and created a
number of sophisticated devices to measure lift and drag on the 200 wing designs
they tested. As a result, the Wrights corrected earlier mistakes in calculations
regarding drag and lift.’
Their testing and calculating produced a third glider with a higher aspect ratio and
true three-axis control. They flew it successfully hundreds of times in 1902, and it
performed far better than the previous models. By using a rigorous system of
experimentation, involving wind-tunnel testing of airfoils and flight testing of fullsize prototypes, the Wrights not only built a working aircraft, the Wright Flyer, but
also helped advance the science of aeronautical engineering.
The Wright Flyer: the first sustained fkight with a powered, controlled
The Wrights appear to be the first to make serious studied attempts to
simultaneously solve the power and control problems. Both problems proved
difficult, but they never lost interest. They solved the control problem by
inventing wing warping for roll control, combined with simultaneous yaw control
with a steerable rear rudder. Almost as an afterthought, they designed and built a
low-powered internal combustion engine. They also designed and carved wooden
propellers that were more efficient than any before, enabling them to gain adequate
performance from their low engine power. Although wing-warping as a means of
lateral control was used only briefly during the early history of aviation, the
principle of combining lateral control in combination with a rudder was a key
advance in aircraft control. While many aviation pioneers appeared to leave safety
largely to chance, the Wrights' design was greatly influenced by the need to teach
themselves to fly without unreasonable risk to life and limb, by surviving crashes.
This emphasis, as well as low engine power, was the reason for low flying speed
and for taking off in a head wind. Performance (rather than safety) was also the
reason for the rear-heavy design, because the canard could not be highly
loaded; anhedral wings were less affected by crosswinds and were consistent with
the low yaw stability.
The first flight by Orville Wright, of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds, was recorded
in a famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the same day, Wilbur Wright flew
852 feet (260 m) in 59 seconds. The flights were witnessed by three coastal
lifesaving crewmen, a local businessman, and a boy from the village, making these
the first public flights and the first well-documented ones.
INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA)
The International Air Transport
Association is the trade association for
the world’s airlines. It represents some
240 airlines or more than 80% of total
air traffic. IATA is formed in 19th April
1945 at the Havana of Cuba.
IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards.
It is headquartered in Montreal, Canada with Executive Offices in Geneva,
Switzerland. The Director General (DG) & CEO is Mr. Tony Tyler.
THE FUNCTION OF IATA:
IATA assigns three-letter & two-letter codes to airport & airlines,
respectively, which are commonly used worldwide.
Travel Agent accreditation is available for travel professionals. Full
accreditation allows agents to sell tickets on behalf of all IATA member
airlines. Cargo Agent accreditation is a similar program. IATA /IATAN
(International Association of Travel Agents Network) ID card is globally
recognized industry credential for travel professionals.
IATA also runs the Billing and Settlement Plan, which is a $300 billion-plus
financial system that looks after airline money. And it provides a number of
business intelligence publications and services.
Simplifying the Business was launched in 2004. This initiative has
introduced a number of crucial concepts to passenger travel, including the
electronic ticket and the bar coded boarding pass. Many other innovations
are being established as part of the Fast Travel initiative, including a range
of self-service baggage options.
IATA regulates the shipping of dangerous goods and publishes the IATA
Dangerous Goods Regulations manual(DGR).
In 2003, the IATA Operational Safety Audit (AOSA) was launched with the
aim to serve as a standard and worldwide recognized certificate of airlines’
INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO)
agency of the United Nations. It codifies the
principles and techniques of international air
navigation and fosters the planning and
development of international air transport to
ensure safe and orderly growth. Its
headquarters are located in the Quartier
International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
ICAO is formed on 4th April 1947 but India is
a member of ICAO in 1st March 1947. The
head of the ICAO is Mr. Raymond Benjamin.
The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air
navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference,
and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil
aviation. Additionally it also defines the protocols for air accident investigation
followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation in respective countries.
MINISTRY OF CIVIL AVIATION (INDIA)
The Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India is the nodal
Ministry responsible for the formulation of national policies and programs for
development and regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing
schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. Its functions
also extend to overseeing airport facilities, air traffic services and carriage of
passengers and goods by air. The Ministry also administers implementation of the
1934 Aircraft Act and is administratively responsible for the Commission of
The ministry is under the charge of Ajit Singh. The Secretary is the head of
the Ministry and is assisted by one Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser, three
Joint Secretaries, seven officers of the level of Director / Deputy Secretary /
Financial Controller and ten officers of the level of Under Secretary. It is located
at Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan, Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi.
The minister has under its preview the organization such bas
Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS).
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA).
BUREAU OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY (BCAS)
The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS)was initially set up as a cell in the
Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in January 1978 on the
recommendation of Pande Committee constituted in the wake of hijacking of the
Indian Airlines flight on 10th September, 1976.
The roll of the cell was to co-ordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil
Aviation Security matters.
The BCAS was recognized into an independent department on 1st April, 1987
under the MOCA as a sequel to the Kanishka Tragedy in June 1985. The main
responsibility of BCAS are lay down standards and measures in respect of security
of civil flight at International and domestic airports in India.
The BCAS conducting surprise/Dummy checks to test professional sufficiency and
alertness of security staff. And also mock exercise to test efficiency of contingency
plan and operational preparedness of the various agencies
DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION
The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the Indian governmental
regulatory body in the field of civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation
primarily dealing with safety issues. It is responsible for regulation of air transport
services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety
and airworthiness standards. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with
International Civil Aviation Organization. The headquarters are located in New
Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India.
The Director General is Mr. Arun Mishra.
DGCA has fourteen Regional Airworthiness Offices (RAO) at Delhi, Mumbai,
Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna,
Bhubaneswar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala. It has also five Regional Air Safety
offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad. It has a
Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and a Gliding
Centre at Pune
AIRPORT HANDLING PROCEDURE (AHP)
It includes several operation like
Check –in counter
Baggage Make Up Area (BMA)
Region of aircraft movement and parking(RAMP)
Fig: - Over view of Airport
Reservation counter means a counter, where from a passenger can purchase
his/her ticket for travel. Generally we can see reservation counter in airports.
Fig: - Airlines E-Ticket
SSR(Special Service request) booking
Refund(depending on point of purchase)
CHECK –IN COUNTER
Airport check-in uses service counters
found at commercial airports handling
commercial air travel. The check-in is
normally handled by an airline itself
or a handling agent working on behalf
of an airline. Passengers usually hand
over any baggage that they do not
wish or are not allowed to carry on to
the aircraft's cabin and receive
a boarding pass before they can
proceed to board their aircraft.
Check-in is usually the first procedure for a passenger when arriving at an
airport, as airline regulations require passengers to check in by certain times prior
to the departure of a flight. This duration spans from 15 minutes to 4 hours
depending on the destination and airline. During this process, the passenger has the
ability to ask for special accommodations such as seating preferences, inquire
about flight or destination information, make changes to reservations,
accumulate frequent flyer program miles, or pay for upgrades.
The airline check-in's main function, however, is to accept luggage that is to go in
the aircraft's cargo hold and issue boarding passes
FUNCTIONS OF CHECK –IN COUNTER:
When passenger presents himself/herself at the check-in counter the
following checks must be done. Along with that always wish passengers with a
pleasant or warm smile and wish the time of the day followed by:
Check for the security sticker and condition of the baggage. Make
sure baggage has been screened and does not contain any dangerous
Request for ticket if not already presented. Check ticket detailsvalidity of ticket, sector of travel etc.
Check photo id card of the passenger without any mistake.
Ask for seat preference.
Provide assistance according to passenger status( be more active for
Weigh baggage and ask about the fragile item.
Charge for excess baggage( only then passenger baggage weight is
more than FBA(Free Baggage Allowance)).
Issue Boarding Pass and Baggage Tag.
Confirm passenger about sector, seat number and baggage.
Inform passenger about flight status, gate numbers.
BAGGAGE MAKE UP AREA
Baggage Make Up Area (BMA) is the adjacent place of terminal building where
the check-in /registered baggage are segregated as per flight detail, reconciled by
the employee, and consolidated in trolleys and dispatched to the RAMP(Region of
Aircraft Movement and Parking)
The staff/employee is allocated in the BMA should be vigilant at all time as
it is here that a lot of pilferage takes place.
Fig: Airport Baggage Handling
FUNCTIONS OF BMA:
Arrange trolleys according to the flights load.
Check security sticker of the baggage and segregated as per the destination.
Check the types of baggage(i.e. hardcase, soft baggage, fragile baggage
etc.) and then align.
Reconcile baggage and load in trolley.
Dispatch baggage to aircraft for loading.
Inform RAMP staff about trolley count, baggage count and baggage weight.
BOARDING GATE/SECURITY HOLD AREA:
Boarding gate is the place wherefrom passengers move to board the aircraft.
FUNCTIONS OF BG/SHA:
Ensure all passengers’ hand baggage tags are stamped.
Take details of all SSR passengers before boarding.
Inform AAI (Airport Authority of India) about boarding of the particular
Make announcement from the PA Booth (Passenger Addressing Booth).
Reconcile passenger boarding passes.
Assist senior citizen passengers, first time traveler, UM (Unaccompanied
Minor), mother with infant.
Inform RAMP about missing passenger (if in case).
Pass TOB (Total on Board) to RAMP.
Close door within restricted time.
REGION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AND PARKING (RAMP)
There is growing realization in the aviation industry that encouraging prompt
reporting of issue actually reduces the number of accidents and incidents. An
environment of “open reporting” is a key element in fostering “just culture” for the
systematic reporting, collection, analysis and dissemination of safety information
that will be solely to prevent accidents.
Implementation of just culture begins with commitment and action not just by
supervisors, managers on the RAMP, they by senior managers as well.
Encouraging RAMP personnel to promptly and fully report incidents and accidents
is a key element in just culture. RAMP personnel must be trained to view safety as
a much more important priority than meeting schedules, and they should be
encouraged to report immediately to their supervisor the slightest scratch or dent in
an aircraft any collision between ground equipments and aircraft.
So RAMP is the most sensitive area to work. For that staffs need to be more
cautious while working.
FUNCTIONS ON RAMP:
Take all details like ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival), bay no., incoming
load, baggage weight and count, transfer baggage, SSR passengers details
Report on the RAMP beforehand for checking GSE (Ground Support
Pass c/on (chocks on) to all department.
Ensure anti-sabotage check (interior check of cabin by airlines security
Offload baggage and cargo.
Clean cabin of the aircraft.
Load outgoing baggage.
Tally with boarding gate’s employee about exact load.
Get the load and trim signed by the captain.
The following rules apply to all operations on the RAMP:
Always be aware of your surroundings.
Always wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE).
Do not operate any unserviceable vehicles.
Keep the RAMP area clear of FOD (Foreign Object Debris).
Those who have Airside Driving Permit (ADP), they only operate
Avoid the intake and exhaust areas of aircraft engines.
No vehicles should be parked or driven within 15 meters of a
RAMP equipments must be positioned prior to the arrival of the
aircraft behind the restraint line with the parking brakes on.
Before arrival of the aircraft the arrival staff must check action on the following
Review all inbound messages.
Check ETA and display the same on the FIDS (Flight Information Display
Check out aircraft registration and parking Bay.
Check for any special handling message –VIP/CIP/WCHR/UM.
(Where VIP –Very Important Person, CIP-Commercial Important Person,
WCHR-Wheel Chair Till RAMP, UM-Unaccompanied Minor).
Ensure that wheel chair and loaders are available for arrival.
Arrange for RAMP to RAMP transfer in case MCT (Minimum Connection
Meet the aircraft and escort passenger to arrival hall.
Collect all traffic documents from IFM (Inflight Manager).
Display indicators at the arrival conveyor belt (Carousel). In case of unserviceability of indicators appropriate action must be taken.
Fig: - Carousel Belt
Keep a check on delivery of priority baggage.
Prepare PIR/DPR (Property Irregularity Report/Damage Property Report).
Property Irregularity Report (PIR)
A Property Irregularity Report (PIR) is record of any mishandling of a
guests baggage on arrival. This form must be filled in detail and clearly so that the
case can be followed up any stuff on duty (SOD). The staff preparing the PIR must
sign this form as well as passenger signature. Without this the form can not be
process claims with the insurance company.
World Tracer is a SITA / IATA service provided for the tracking of lost or
delayed baggage. It has been in operation for many years and used by many
airlines, such as Qantas, Lufthansa and Emirates. The system also allows for the
rapid determination of mishandled baggage.
Whenever a baggage is found without an owner, presumably because it has been
loaded onboard a different flight than the passenger it belongs to, it can be
registered as an on-hand baggage. It is then matched automatically matched with
different missing-baggage files (called AHL's) all over the world. Whenever an onhand gets a likely match, the station whom has registered the missing-baggage gets
an alert. The fields that are being matched are the baggage's routing, tag number,
passenger’s surname, what kind of baggage it is, and content. When a handling
agent finds an on-hand that matches one of their AHL's he/she can request the onhand, which sends a message to whichever station registered the on-hand baggage,
telling them to send it to the requesting station.
The format of the tracking number is AAABBNNNNN, where AAA is the Airport
code, BB is the airline code, and NNNNN is a 5 digit tracking number. For
Cargo can be defined as any property which is carried by an aircraft other
than mail,company cargo, engineering equipments and unaccompanied or
CONSIDER ED AS VULNERABLE IN AVIATION:
Vast area so surveillance is minimum.
Huge number of manpower involved.
Mostly cargo terminal is situated outside of the airport area.
Sometimes consignment is large to check it property.
TYPES OF CARGO:
Articles of perishable nature, which are
liable to perish due to change in climate,
temperature, altitude or any other
normal exposure inherent to carriage of
cargo by air, length of time etc.
VALUABLE /PRECIOUS CARGO(VAL):
Precious or valuable(VAL) cargo
consist of very high value
shipments such as currencies,
billion, jewelry etc.
This are the shipments, which are
vulnerable to theft or pilferage
like: cameras, paintings, antiques,
watches or parts of watches,
computer and its parts, mobile
phones, pagers, other expensive
Only animals, which are appear to
be in good health and condition,
should be accepted for carriage by
air. The cages/Boxes having the
examined to ensure that they do
not contain anything which is
dangerous to the safety of the
As per the cargo technology human
remains are the dead body of human
being. The required identification
and document as enumerated below
certificate, police clearance and
identity of relatives.
All cargo which
cleared is called as bonded cargo.
All cargo which are used for
exporting is called as bonded
INBOUND BONDED CARGO:
If the bonded cargo is coming
from an international sector and
connected to domestic flight as an
airside transfer from international
warehouse to the domestic side,
then the cargo will be accepted
after checking the documents.
There may be a requirement of
transporting stores of the company
from one place to other in aircraft.
These, moved as company stores
must be subjected to security
checks applicable to company
mails. This could either be in the
form of x-rays or physical checks.
AOG SPARES CARGO:
AOG refers to Aircraft on
Ground, which implies that the
aircraft has been grounded due to
some technical snag. There would
be a requirement of transporting
aircraft spares as replacement
urgently to the affected station
where the aircraft has been
I extend my heartfelt gratitude to our faculties “SKY LARK AVIATION
TRAINING SCHOOL” for their guidance, timely support and
encouragement in completing this project.
I am grateful to my parents for their support in this work.
I am thankful to my team members and friends for their untiring help
throughout this work.
The images & text seen here in figures are derived from a figure by
Google, Google images, YouTube, and Wikipedia. Thanks, to all.