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Airport handling procedure

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Airport handling procedure

  1. 1. 0 SKYLARK AVIATION TRAINING SCHOOL (SATS) JADAVPUR BRANCH AIRPORT HANDLING PROCEDURE Submitted By:- Abdur Rahim Khan Roll No- SATS-02-006 Batch No-2 Course- Skylark Advance Program 2013-2014
  2. 2. 1 INTRODUCTION This section of the assignment gives us information regarding to history of aviation and different governing body like IATA, ICAO, MOCA, DGCA, BCAS etc. and their function. And also get information about Airport Handling Procedure (AHP. Its include Reservation Counter, Check-in Counter, BMA, Boarding gate/SHA, RAMP, Arrival and Cargo Section.
  3. 3. 2 INDEX CONTENT: 1. Aviation History 2. Governing Body 3. Airport Handling Procedure 3.1 Reservation 3.2 Check-in Counter 3.3 BMA 3.4 BG/SHA 3.5 RAMP 3.6 Arrival 3.7 Cargo 4. Acknowledgement PAGES: 3-5 6-9 10-24 10-11 12-14 14-15 15 16-19 19-21 22-24 25
  4. 4. 3 AVIATION HISTORY The history of aviation has extended over more than two thousand years from the earliest attempts in kites and gliders to powered, heavier-than-air, supersonic, and hypersonic flight. The first form of man-made flying objects were kites. The earliest known record of kite flying is from around 200 BC in China, when a general flew a kite over enemy territory to calculate the length of tunnel required to enter the region. Yuan Huangtou, a Chinese prince, survived by tying himself to the kite. Leonardo da Vinci's 15th-century dream of flight found expression in several designs, but he did not attempt to demonstrate his ideas by actually constructing them. With the efforts to analyze the atmosphere from the 17th to 19th centuries, gases such as hydrogen were discovered which in turn led to the invention of hydrogen balloons. Various theories in mechanics by physicists during the same period of time, notably fluid dynamics and Newton's laws of motion, led to the foundation of modern aerodynamics. Tethered balloons filled with hot air were used in the first half of the 19th century and saw considerable action in several mid-century wars, most notably the American Civil War, where balloons provided observation during the Battle of Petersburg. Fig:-Glider Fig:- Tethered balloons Experiments with gliders provided the groundwork for heavier-than-air craft, and by the early 20th-century advances in engine technology and aerodynamics made controlled, powered flight possible for the first time.
  5. 5. 4 The Wright Brothers Following a step by step method, discovering aerodynamics forces then controlling the flight, the brothers built and tested a series of kite and glider designs from 1900 to 1902 before attempting to build a powered design. The gliders worked, but not as well as the Wrights had expected based on the experiments and writings of their 19th-century predecessors. Their first glider, launched in 1900, had only about half the lift they anticipated. Their second glider, built the following year, performed even more poorly. Rather than giving up, the Wrights constructed their own wind tunnel and created a number of sophisticated devices to measure lift and drag on the 200 wing designs they tested. As a result, the Wrights corrected earlier mistakes in calculations regarding drag and lift.’ Their testing and calculating produced a third glider with a higher aspect ratio and true three-axis control. They flew it successfully hundreds of times in 1902, and it performed far better than the previous models. By using a rigorous system of experimentation, involving wind-tunnel testing of airfoils and flight testing of fullsize prototypes, the Wrights not only built a working aircraft, the Wright Flyer, but also helped advance the science of aeronautical engineering. The Wright Flyer: the first sustained fkight with a powered, controlled aircraft.
  6. 6. 5 The Wrights appear to be the first to make serious studied attempts to simultaneously solve the power and control problems. Both problems proved difficult, but they never lost interest. They solved the control problem by inventing wing warping for roll control, combined with simultaneous yaw control with a steerable rear rudder. Almost as an afterthought, they designed and built a low-powered internal combustion engine. They also designed and carved wooden propellers that were more efficient than any before, enabling them to gain adequate performance from their low engine power. Although wing-warping as a means of lateral control was used only briefly during the early history of aviation, the principle of combining lateral control in combination with a rudder was a key advance in aircraft control. While many aviation pioneers appeared to leave safety largely to chance, the Wrights' design was greatly influenced by the need to teach themselves to fly without unreasonable risk to life and limb, by surviving crashes. This emphasis, as well as low engine power, was the reason for low flying speed and for taking off in a head wind. Performance (rather than safety) was also the reason for the rear-heavy design, because the canard could not be highly loaded; anhedral wings were less affected by crosswinds and were consistent with the low yaw stability. The first flight by Orville Wright, of 120 feet (37 m) in 12 seconds, was recorded in a famous photograph. In the fourth flight of the same day, Wilbur Wright flew 852 feet (260 m) in 59 seconds. The flights were witnessed by three coastal lifesaving crewmen, a local businessman, and a boy from the village, making these the first public flights and the first well-documented ones.
  7. 7. 6 INTERNATIONAL AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION (IATA) The International Air Transport Association is the trade association for the world’s airlines. It represents some 240 airlines or more than 80% of total air traffic. IATA is formed in 19th April 1945 at the Havana of Cuba. IATA supports airline activity and helps formulate industry policy and standards. It is headquartered in Montreal, Canada with Executive Offices in Geneva, Switzerland. The Director General (DG) & CEO is Mr. Tony Tyler. THE FUNCTION OF IATA:  IATA assigns three-letter & two-letter codes to airport & airlines, respectively, which are commonly used worldwide.  Travel Agent accreditation is available for travel professionals. Full accreditation allows agents to sell tickets on behalf of all IATA member airlines. Cargo Agent accreditation is a similar program. IATA /IATAN (International Association of Travel Agents Network) ID card is globally recognized industry credential for travel professionals.  IATA also runs the Billing and Settlement Plan, which is a $300 billion-plus financial system that looks after airline money. And it provides a number of business intelligence publications and services.  Simplifying the Business was launched in 2004. This initiative has introduced a number of crucial concepts to passenger travel, including the electronic ticket[14] and the bar coded boarding pass. Many other innovations are being established as part of the Fast Travel initiative, including a range of self-service baggage options.  IATA regulates the shipping of dangerous goods and publishes the IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations manual(DGR).  In 2003, the IATA Operational Safety Audit (AOSA) was launched with the aim to serve as a standard and worldwide recognized certificate of airlines’ operational management.
  8. 8. 7 INTERNATIONAL CIVIL AVIATION ORGANIZATION (ICAO) The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) is aspecialized agency of the United Nations. It codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. Its headquarters are located in the Quartier International of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ICAO is formed on 4th April 1947 but India is a member of ICAO in 1st March 1947. The head of the ICAO is Mr. Raymond Benjamin. The ICAO Council adopts standards and recommended practices concerning air navigation, its infrastructure, flight inspection, prevention of unlawful interference, and facilitation of border-crossing procedures for international civil aviation. Additionally it also defines the protocols for air accident investigation followed by transport safety authorities in countries signatory to the Convention on International Civil Aviation in respective countries. MINISTRY OF CIVIL AVIATION (INDIA) The Ministry of Civil Aviation of the Government of India is the nodal Ministry responsible for the formulation of national policies and programs for development and regulation of Civil Aviation and for devising and implementing schemes for the orderly growth and expansion of civil air transport. Its functions also extend to overseeing airport facilities, air traffic services and carriage of passengers and goods by air. The Ministry also administers implementation of the 1934 Aircraft Act and is administratively responsible for the Commission of Railways Safety.
  9. 9. 8 The ministry is under the charge of Ajit Singh. The Secretary is the head of the Ministry and is assisted by one Additional Secretary & Financial Adviser, three Joint Secretaries, seven officers of the level of Director / Deputy Secretary / Financial Controller and ten officers of the level of Under Secretary. It is located at Rajiv Gandhi Bhavan, Safdarjung Airport, New Delhi. The minister has under its preview the organization such bas  Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS).  Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA). BUREAU OF CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY (BCAS) The Bureau of Civil Aviation Security (BCAS)was initially set up as a cell in the Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) in January 1978 on the recommendation of Pande Committee constituted in the wake of hijacking of the Indian Airlines flight on 10th September, 1976. The roll of the cell was to co-ordinate, monitor, inspect and train personnel in Civil Aviation Security matters. The BCAS was recognized into an independent department on 1st April, 1987 under the MOCA as a sequel to the Kanishka Tragedy in June 1985. The main responsibility of BCAS are lay down standards and measures in respect of security of civil flight at International and domestic airports in India. The BCAS conducting surprise/Dummy checks to test professional sufficiency and alertness of security staff. And also mock exercise to test efficiency of contingency plan and operational preparedness of the various agencies
  10. 10. 9 DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF CIVIL AVIATION (DGCA). The Directorate General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) is the Indian governmental regulatory body in the field of civil aviation under the Ministry of Civil Aviation primarily dealing with safety issues. It is responsible for regulation of air transport services to/from/within India and for enforcement of civil air regulations, air safety and airworthiness standards. It also co-ordinates all regulatory functions with International Civil Aviation Organization. The headquarters are located in New Delhi with regional offices in the various parts of India. The Director General is Mr. Arun Mishra. DGCA has fourteen Regional Airworthiness Offices (RAO) at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Cochin, Bhopal, Lucknow, Patna, Bhubaneswar, Kanpur, Guwahati and Patiala. It has also five Regional Air Safety offices located at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Hyderabad. It has a Regional Research and Development Office located at Bangalore and a Gliding Centre at Pune
  11. 11. 10 AIRPORT HANDLING PROCEDURE (AHP) It includes several operation like        Reservation counter Check –in counter Baggage Make Up Area (BMA) Boarding gate Region of aircraft movement and parking(RAMP) Arrival Cargo Fig: - Over view of Airport RESERVATION COUNTER: Reservation counter means a counter, where from a passenger can purchase his/her ticket for travel. Generally we can see reservation counter in airports.
  12. 12. 11 Fig: - Airlines E-Ticket FUNCTION S/RESPONSIBILITIES:         Reservation Cancellation Rescheduling/Rebooking SSR(Special Service request) booking Meal request Changing sector Help desk Refund(depending on point of purchase)
  13. 13. 12 CHECK –IN COUNTER Airport check-in uses service counters found at commercial airports handling commercial air travel. The check-in is normally handled by an airline itself or a handling agent working on behalf of an airline. Passengers usually hand over any baggage that they do not wish or are not allowed to carry on to the aircraft's cabin and receive a boarding pass before they can proceed to board their aircraft. Check-in is usually the first procedure for a passenger when arriving at an airport, as airline regulations require passengers to check in by certain times prior to the departure of a flight. This duration spans from 15 minutes to 4 hours depending on the destination and airline. During this process, the passenger has the ability to ask for special accommodations such as seating preferences, inquire about flight or destination information, make changes to reservations, accumulate frequent flyer program miles, or pay for upgrades. The airline check-in's main function, however, is to accept luggage that is to go in the aircraft's cargo hold and issue boarding passes FUNCTIONS OF CHECK –IN COUNTER: When passenger presents himself/herself at the check-in counter the following checks must be done. Along with that always wish passengers with a pleasant or warm smile and wish the time of the day followed by:  Check for the security sticker and condition of the baggage. Make sure baggage has been screened and does not contain any dangerous goods articles.
  14. 14. 13  Request for ticket if not already presented. Check ticket detailsvalidity of ticket, sector of travel etc.  Check photo id card of the passenger without any mistake.  Ask for seat preference.  Provide assistance according to passenger status( be more active for SSR passengers).  Weigh baggage and ask about the fragile item.  Charge for excess baggage( only then passenger baggage weight is more than FBA(Free Baggage Allowance)).  Issue Boarding Pass and Baggage Tag.
  15. 15. 14  Confirm passenger about sector, seat number and baggage.  Inform passenger about flight status, gate numbers. BAGGAGE MAKE UP AREA Baggage Make Up Area (BMA) is the adjacent place of terminal building where the check-in /registered baggage are segregated as per flight detail, reconciled by the employee, and consolidated in trolleys and dispatched to the RAMP(Region of Aircraft Movement and Parking) The staff/employee is allocated in the BMA should be vigilant at all time as it is here that a lot of pilferage takes place. Fig: Airport Baggage Handling
  16. 16. 15 FUNCTIONS OF BMA:  Arrange trolleys according to the flights load.  Check security sticker of the baggage and segregated as per the destination.  Check the types of baggage(i.e. hardcase, soft baggage, fragile baggage etc.) and then align.  Reconcile baggage and load in trolley.  Dispatch baggage to aircraft for loading.  Inform RAMP staff about trolley count, baggage count and baggage weight. BOARDING GATE/SECURITY HOLD AREA: Boarding gate is the place wherefrom passengers move to board the aircraft. FUNCTIONS OF BG/SHA:  Ensure all passengers’ hand baggage tags are stamped.  Take details of all SSR passengers before boarding.  Inform AAI (Airport Authority of India) about boarding of the particular flight.  Make announcement from the PA Booth (Passenger Addressing Booth).  Reconcile passenger boarding passes.  Assist senior citizen passengers, first time traveler, UM (Unaccompanied Minor), mother with infant.  Inform RAMP about missing passenger (if in case).  Pass TOB (Total on Board) to RAMP.  Close door within restricted time.
  17. 17. 16 REGION OF AIRCRAFT MOVEMENT AND PARKING (RAMP) There is growing realization in the aviation industry that encouraging prompt reporting of issue actually reduces the number of accidents and incidents. An environment of “open reporting” is a key element in fostering “just culture” for the systematic reporting, collection, analysis and dissemination of safety information that will be solely to prevent accidents. Implementation of just culture begins with commitment and action not just by supervisors, managers on the RAMP, they by senior managers as well. Encouraging RAMP personnel to promptly and fully report incidents and accidents is a key element in just culture. RAMP personnel must be trained to view safety as a much more important priority than meeting schedules, and they should be encouraged to report immediately to their supervisor the slightest scratch or dent in an aircraft any collision between ground equipments and aircraft. So RAMP is the most sensitive area to work. For that staffs need to be more cautious while working.
  18. 18. 17 FUNCTIONS ON RAMP:  Take all details like ETA (Estimated Time of Arrival), bay no., incoming load, baggage weight and count, transfer baggage, SSR passengers details etc.  Report on the RAMP beforehand for checking GSE (Ground Support Equipment).  Announce touchdown.  Pass c/on (chocks on) to all department.  Aligned stepladder.  Evacuate passengers.  Ensure anti-sabotage check (interior check of cabin by airlines security staff).  Offload baggage and cargo.  Clean cabin of the aircraft.  Load catering.  Refueling.  Start embarkation.  Load outgoing baggage.  Tally with boarding gate’s employee about exact load.  Get the load and trim signed by the captain.  Release aircraft.
  19. 19. 18 RAMP SAFETY: The following rules apply to all operations on the RAMP:       Always be aware of your surroundings. Always wear Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). No smoking. Do not operate any unserviceable vehicles. Keep the RAMP area clear of FOD (Foreign Object Debris). Those who have Airside Driving Permit (ADP), they only operate vehicles.  Avoid the intake and exhaust areas of aircraft engines.  No vehicles should be parked or driven within 15 meters of a moving aircraft.  RAMP equipments must be positioned prior to the arrival of the aircraft behind the restraint line with the parking brakes on.
  20. 20. 19 ARRIVAL
  21. 21. 20 FUNCTIONS: Before arrival of the aircraft the arrival staff must check action on the following items:  Review all inbound messages.  Check ETA and display the same on the FIDS (Flight Information Display System).  Check out aircraft registration and parking Bay.  Check for any special handling message –VIP/CIP/WCHR/UM. (Where VIP –Very Important Person, CIP-Commercial Important Person, WCHR-Wheel Chair Till RAMP, UM-Unaccompanied Minor).  Ensure that wheel chair and loaders are available for arrival.  Arrange for RAMP to RAMP transfer in case MCT (Minimum Connection Time).  Meet the aircraft and escort passenger to arrival hall.  Collect all traffic documents from IFM (Inflight Manager).  Display indicators at the arrival conveyor belt (Carousel). In case of unserviceability of indicators appropriate action must be taken. Fig: - Carousel Belt  Keep a check on delivery of priority baggage.  Prepare PIR/DPR (Property Irregularity Report/Damage Property Report).
  22. 22. 21 Property Irregularity Report (PIR) A Property Irregularity Report (PIR) is record of any mishandling of a guests baggage on arrival. This form must be filled in detail and clearly so that the case can be followed up any stuff on duty (SOD). The staff preparing the PIR must sign this form as well as passenger signature. Without this the form can not be process claims with the insurance company. World Tracer is a SITA / IATA service provided for the tracking of lost or delayed baggage. It has been in operation for many years and used by many airlines, such as Qantas, Lufthansa and Emirates. The system also allows for the rapid determination of mishandled baggage. Whenever a baggage is found without an owner, presumably because it has been loaded onboard a different flight than the passenger it belongs to, it can be registered as an on-hand baggage. It is then matched automatically matched with different missing-baggage files (called AHL's) all over the world. Whenever an onhand gets a likely match, the station whom has registered the missing-baggage gets an alert. The fields that are being matched are the baggage's routing, tag number, passenger’s surname, what kind of baggage it is, and content. When a handling agent finds an on-hand that matches one of their AHL's he/she can request the onhand, which sends a message to whichever station registered the on-hand baggage, telling them to send it to the requesting station. The format of the tracking number is AAABBNNNNN, where AAA is the Airport code, BB is the airline code, and NNNNN is a 5 digit tracking number. For example SINEK19666.
  23. 23. 22 CARGO Cargo can be defined as any property which is carried by an aircraft other than mail,company cargo, engineering equipments and unaccompanied or mishandle baggage. CONSIDER ED AS VULNERABLE IN AVIATION:     Vast area so surveillance is minimum. Huge number of manpower involved. Mostly cargo terminal is situated outside of the airport area. Sometimes consignment is large to check it property. TYPES OF CARGO:  PERISHABLE CARGO: Articles of perishable nature, which are liable to perish due to change in climate, temperature, altitude or any other normal exposure inherent to carriage of cargo by air, length of time etc. Example: news papers, sea food,flowers, medicine.  VALUABLE /PRECIOUS CARGO(VAL): Precious or valuable(VAL) cargo consist of very high value shipments such as currencies, billion, jewelry etc.
  24. 24. 23  VULNERABLE CARGO(VUN): This are the shipments, which are vulnerable to theft or pilferage like: cameras, paintings, antiques, watches or parts of watches, electronic goods such as computer and its parts, mobile phones, pagers, other expensive electronic goods.  LIVE ANIMALS(AVI): Only animals, which are appear to be in good health and condition, should be accepted for carriage by air. The cages/Boxes having the livestock/animals should be examined to ensure that they do not contain anything which is dangerous to the safety of the aircraft.  HUMAN REMAINS(HUM): As per the cargo technology human remains are the dead body of human being. The required identification and document as enumerated below death certificate, embalming certificate, police clearance and identity of relatives.
  25. 25. 24  BONDED CARGO: All cargo which are custom cleared is called as bonded cargo. All cargo which are used for exporting is called as bonded cargo.  INBOUND BONDED CARGO: If the bonded cargo is coming from an international sector and connected to domestic flight as an airside transfer from international warehouse to the domestic side, then the cargo will be accepted after checking the documents.  COMPANY CARGO: There may be a requirement of transporting stores of the company from one place to other in aircraft. These, moved as company stores must be subjected to security checks applicable to company mails. This could either be in the form of x-rays or physical checks.  AOG SPARES CARGO: AOG refers to Aircraft on Ground, which implies that the aircraft has been grounded due to some technical snag. There would be a requirement of transporting aircraft spares as replacement urgently to the affected station where the aircraft has been grounded.
  26. 26. 25 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I extend my heartfelt gratitude to our faculties “SKY LARK AVIATION TRAINING SCHOOL” for their guidance, timely support and encouragement in completing this project. I am grateful to my parents for their support in this work. I am thankful to my team members and friends for their untiring help throughout this work. The images & text seen here in figures are derived from a figure by Google, Google images, YouTube, and Wikipedia. Thanks, to all.
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