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AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE BASIC FOR LOAD CONTROL

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AIRCRAFT WEIGHT AND BALANCE BASIC FOR LOAD CONTROL

  1. 1. Be Smarter
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Compliance with the weight and balance limits of any aircraft is critical to flight safety. Operating above the maximum weight limitation compromises the structural integrity of an aircraft and adversely affects its performance.  Operation with the center of gravity (CG) outside the approved limits results in control difficulty.
  3. 3. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS  Training and qualification records  The Load Control process must have an audit trail for each departure.  Weight and balance records must be retained  The operating airline will identify specific loading positions  The operating airline will specify requirements for presenting load information  Weight determination of load and clearance measuring systems must be calibrated and/or checked at intervals determined by the operating carrier or state.
  4. 4. Overview  Aircraft Familiarization  Forces  Weight  Fuel  Principle Of Balance  Load Control And Distribution
  5. 5. Aircraft Familiarization  Airbus A320 is narrow bodied aircraft consists of short- to medium- range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus
  6. 6. Service Points A Electrical power receptacle F Toilet servicing panel B Aircraft grounding G Potable water fill and drain panel ( aft ) C Potable water drain panel ( forward ) H Fuelling connector D Conditioned air connector I Fueling panel E Air starter connector J Potable water drain/overflow panel ( centre ) K Yellow ground service panel
  7. 7. Aircraft Weight and Balance
  8. 8. Four Forces Affect Things That Fly  Weight is the force of gravity. It acts in a downward direction—toward the center of the Earth.  Lift is the force that acts at a right angle to the direction of motion through the air. Lift is created by differences in air pressure.  Thrust is the force that propels a flying machine in the direction of motion. Engines produce thrust.  Drag is the force that acts opposite to the direction of motion. Drag is caused by friction and differences in air pressure.
  9. 9. Flight Control Yaw – Make the aircraft turn Pitch – Make the aircraft descend or climb Roll - Aircraft rolls to left or right
  10. 10. Aircraft Weight Maximum Zero Fuel Weight Maximum Taxi Weight Maximum Take Off Weight Maximum Landing Weight Maximum Weight Restrictions Allowable Payload Payload Actual Zero Fuel Weight Dry Operating Weight Basic Weight Manufacture Weight
  11. 11. Weight  Manufacture Empty Weight Weight of the structure and equipment  Basic Weight The weight aircraft without assenger,baggage and unsable fuel  Dry Operating Weight Basic weight with crew pantry water and crew baggage  Maximum Taxi Weight Zero Fuel Weight with Block Fuel  Maximum Zero Fuel Weight The maximum weight before usable fuel  Maximum Weight Restriction Due weather runway conditions and Airport landing fares  Maximum Take Off Weight Maximum weight which is allowed to take off  Maximum Landing Weight Authorised for normal landing  Actual Zero Fuel Weight Dry operating weight and final payload and to ensure not exceed than MZFW  Payload Includes passengers baggage cargo mail Co mail  Allowable Payload ( Under load ) Payload that aircraft able to carry with weight And balance limitation
  12. 12. FUEL Ramp Fuel Fuel Loading (Standard & Non-Standard)
  13. 13. Fuel  Block Fuel/Ramp Fuel All fuel uploaded onto aircraft.  Taxi Fuel The amount fuel an aircrfat burn to runway for take off.  Take Off Fuel The actual required after taxing to take off.  Trip Fuel/Landing Fuel The actual required from take off to landing
  14. 14. Fuel  Contingency Fuel  Fuel is carried to account for additional en-route  Fuel consumption caused by wind, routing changes  Alternate Fuel  Missed approach at the destination airport  Climb to en-route altitude, cruise and descent at alternate aerodrome  Approach at alternate airport  Landing at the alternate aerodrome  When two alternates are required by the Authority, alternate fuel must be sufficient to proceed to the alternate which requires the greater amount of fuel.
  15. 15. Fuel  Ballast Fuel Fuel is carried to maintain the aircraft within limits Not to be burned during the flight The fuel is separated from usable fuel  Fuel Loading ( Standard & Non Standard) Standard Fuel – Tanks filled according by manufacturers standards Non Standard Fuel – Tanks not filled according by manufactures standards due unserviceable fuel boost pumps, trapped fuel
  16. 16. PRINCIPLE OF BALANCE General Principles Of Balance is Centre of Gravity and Point of Life  Example
  17. 17. Principle Of Balance Principl e Of Balance Centre Of Gravity ( CG ) Datum Mean Aerodynamic Chord ( MAC ) Station Moment Arm (Moment Arm)
  18. 18. Centre Of Gravity ( CG )  the point over which the aircraft would balance. It position is calculated after supporting the aircraft on at least two sets of weighing scales or load cells and noting the weight shown on each set of scales or load cells. The center of gravity affects the stability of the aircraft. To ensure the aircraft is safe to fly, the center of gravity must fall within specified limits established by the aircraft manufacturer.
  19. 19. Arm And Datum Arm ( Moment Arm )  the horizontal distance from the reference datum to the center of gravity (CG) of an item.  the algebraic sign is plus (+) if measured aft of the datum or to the right side of the center line when considering a lateral calculation  The algebraic sign is minus (-) if measured forward of the datum or the left side of the center line when considering a lateral calculation Datum  The horizontal reference datum is an imaginary vertical plane or point  Location of the reference datum is established by the manufacturer and is defined in the aircraft flight manual  All moment arm and the location of CG are measured from this point
  20. 20. Moment  is the moment of force, or torque, that results from an object’s weight acting through an arc that is entered on the zero point of the reference datum distance  Moment is also referred to as the tendency of an object to rotate or pivot about a point (the zero point of the datum)  The weight of the aircraft multiplied by the distance between the datum and the cg ( Weight x Arm )
  21. 21. Mean Aerodynamic Chord ( MAC )  The distance between the leading and trailing edge of the wing, measured parallel to the normal airflow over the wing, is known as the chord  the leading edge and trailing edge are parallel, the chord of the wing is constant along the wing’s length  Most commercial transport airplanes have wings that are both tapered and swept with the result that the width of the wing changes along its entire length.  The width of the wing is greatest where it meets the fuselage at the wing root and progressively decreases toward the tip. As a consequence, the chord also changes along the span of the wing. The average length of the chord is known as the mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)
  22. 22. Station  location in the airplane that is identified by a number designating its distance in inches from the datum. The datum is identified as station zero  Divided by there category for station principle :  Station Lines – station lines from the nose to the tail of aircraft and divide in inches per station  Index – means to both reduce figures manipulated by the user and represent the weight and the location of each items  MAC- the distance between the leading and trailing edge of the wing, measured parallel to the normal airflow over the wing. Transported to station lines of the Centre Gravity
  23. 23. MAC Safe Range For Stab Settings  The safe Range of MAC the stabilizer can be used to trim aircraft within manufacturers limits  No flight can be dispatched when the CG beyond the SAFE Range  Safe Range Example
  24. 24. Balance Stability And Centre OF Gravity
  25. 25. Load Control and Distribution
  26. 26. Load Control And Distribution Load control Compart ments Aircraft Locations Aircraft Structure Load Limitations Loading Restraint Systems Dangerous Goods/ Special item Load Planning Loading Instruction Report Load & Trim Sheet
  27. 27. Load Control  To perform aircraft weight and balance within limits  Review existing operational and procedure  Actual load of the aircraft must reflect on the load sheet  Load Planning  Calculation  To checking and finalized Load Sheet and other documents  To issue Loading Instruction Report
  28. 28. LOAD AND TRIM SHEET  To ensure load and trim compliance dates from the days when all load and trim sheets were completed manually or computerized on specific forms designed for use with each aircraft type  The center of gravity affect the stability of the aircraft.  To ensure the aircraft is safe to fly
  29. 29. Load And Trim Sheet  Manual Load sheets involve a pro forma calculation of Maximum Zero Fuel Weight (MZW), Maximum Take Off Weight (MTOW) and Maximum Landing Weight (MLW)  whilst the centre of gravity is located by marking the requisite aircraft operating weight (vertical scale) on a ‘drop line’ located on a centre of gravity ‘index’ scale which forms the horizontal  If the position so found is within the areas shown as the permitted safe flight envelope
  30. 30. Balance And Chart
  31. 31. Load Sheet Computerized  Computerized is printed based on system  Offers the advantage of a more precise CG determination since it allows to compute the influence of each seat row and each cargo position instead of mean horizontal arms for wide zones as it is done on a paper load and trim sheets.  The disadvantage is that the crew usually gets only numbers and no visual information where they are compared to the operational limits
  32. 32. Load Sheet Computerized
  33. 33. Loading Instruction Report  Responsibility for overseeing aircraft loading, specifies the loading requirement correctly  instructions have been carried out as requested  Offloading and loading information  Checking and finalization of the loading document  Flight Identifier and signature  Carriers requirement  Restraint of conditions  Manually and Computerized LIR
  34. 34. Manual
  35. 35. Cargo Compartments  Located in the lower fuselage below the passengers cabin  Divided into one forward hold (compartment 1) and three aft holds (compartment 3, 4 and 5 = bulk)  The access doors to the cargo compartments are electrically operated from control panels adjacent to each door. The door may be operated manually in case of power failure with a door hand crank  A semi-automatic cargo loading system is installed in the FWD (CMPT 1) and AFT compartment (CMPT 3/4 )  A control panel, installed on the compartment door controls the electrical POWER DRIVE UNITS (PDU) and the door sill latches
  36. 36. Cargo Compartments
  37. 37. Bulk Loading  Divider and door net in each compartment must be closed  Must be restrained, which can be achieved by filling the cargo hold or net or by tie-down
  38. 38. Aircraft Locations Maindeck Lower deck
  39. 39. Structural Loading Limitation Linear (Running) Cumulativ e Combined Point Contact Dimensions
  40. 40. Aircraft Structural loading limitation Dimensions
  41. 41. Aircraft Structural loading limitation Linear ( Running) Load Limitations Area Load Limitation Limitations is the maximum load acceptable on given the of the fuselage. The maximum load acceptable on bulk compartment floor
  42. 42. Aircraft Structural loading limitation Point Load Limitations Cumulative Load Limitations  Resistance to puncture by a heavy load resting on a very small surface of the floor of a bulk compartment. Combined Load Limitation  Represents the total load resting on the same fuselage with frames and floor beams  Cumulative limitation for the whole load located forward or aft of the wings box  In practice this limitations determined the maximum allowed load weight in the forward and aft
  43. 43. Aircraft Structural loading limitation Is narrow bodied aircraft All load on aircraft must be secured and net must to tie down Does not carry unit load devices Loading Restraint
  44. 44. CARGO  All articles, goods, materials, merchandise, or wares carried onboard an aircraft, ship, train, or truck, and for which an air waybill or bill of lading, or other receipt is issued by the carrier  It includes dangerous goods and special loads.  Aircraft for the carriage of cargo only, rather than the combination of passengers and cargo  aircraft carry in cargo compartment and bulk on the lower deck
  45. 45. Dangerous Good And Special Items  A load which owing to its nature or value requires special attention and treatment during the process of acceptance storage transportation loading and loading  Live Animals  Perishable Goods  Heavy and Big items  Valuable Items  Dangerous Good
  46. 46. Dangerous Good Nine classes of Dangerous goods include materials that are radioactive, flammable, explosive, corrosive, oxidizing, asphyxiating, biohazardous, toxic, pathogenic, or allergenic
  47. 47. Notification Of Captain ( NOTOC )  A NOTOC is to be issued whenever dangerous goods (DGs) or other special load items are to be carried on DG & Safety aircraft
  48. 48. Baggage Handling System Type of conveyor system installed in airports that transports checked luggage from ticket counters to areas where the bags can be loaded onto airplanes.  BHS also transports checked baggage coming from airplanes to baggage claims or to an area where the bag can be loaded onto another airplane
  49. 49. AIR MAIL  Air mail or Mail is exclusively handled by the Cargo Department.  Air mail must not be manifested on the Cargo Manifest, as separate documents.  Air mail can be loaded in bulk hold.
  50. 50. Load Departure Message  Operational load messages  All flight documents has to be stored at the departure station a minimum of three months  Operational load messages must be dispatched, no later than 15 minutes after take-off using standard IATA format Ldm Format D7236/27.9M-XXV.Y180.KUL -KUL.110/20/3/1.T5200.1/1500.3/3000.4/500.5/200 .PAX.133.DHC/0.B/250/5200.C0.M0.E.0
  51. 51. Thank You Take off are optional but Landing are mandatory

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