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Quick set-up and change-over
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
• This presentation is made by Oskar
Olofsson, WCM Consulting AB
• Make changes in the backg...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
What is SMED?
• SMED: Single Minute Exchange of Dies
• Meaning: No set-up should last for mo...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
History
American car production
after World War II :
– Set-up times were longer
than 24 hour...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
History
• Toyota wanted to compete but
they could not afford all the
machinery required
• Th...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Milestones
• 1960s SMED starts to develop
• 1970 Dr. Shingeo Shingo cut the
set-up time for ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Production without SMED
Long set-up times
-> Low flexibility
-> Big lot sizes
-> Inventory p...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Production with SMED
Quick change-over
-> High flexibility
-> Smaller lots
-> Less inventory
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
What is so bad about
inventory?
• Interest costs
• Storage space
• Damage in handling
• Tran...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Why SMED?
• Better delivery performance
• Higher throughput
• Reduced inventory
• Greater fl...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The steps in SMED
• Step 1: Analysis
• Separate external* work from internal**
work
• Transf...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Let's look at the pitstop
The driver has to stop exactly on marks painted on the
pit lane so...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Pitstop: Prepare for Fuel
The car is lifted up onto its jacks as the mechanics
remove the wh...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Pitstop: Change Wheels
New wheels are attached and the mechanics raise
their arms to show th...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Pitstop: Nearly Finished
The car is lowered to the ground as the last of the
fuel is pumped ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Pitstop: Finish Fueling up
The fuel hose is detached and the car is
ready to go.
http://news...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
End of the Pitstop
The driver is waved away
by the mechanic in front
of the car.
http://news...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Think break
• Take some time to list your suggestions:
• What is needed to switch tires and
...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Think break
• Standardized work
• Orderliness
• Specialized tools
• Duplicated equipment
• P...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Definition of set-up time
• Set-up time = total time from completing
the last item of produc...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Definition of set-up time
• Set-up time = total time from completing
the last product "A" to...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The size of SMED
Operation
Machine
1 Area &
many
machines
Factory
Corporation
These training...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The five phases in SMED
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Define the project
Establish the ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
How to start
a SMED project
• Appoint a cross-functional team
– Operators
– Technicans
– Eng...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
How to start
a SMED project
• Select a good project
– A ”Bottleneck” gives the fastest
pay-b...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
How to start
a SMED project
• Start recording set-up times
for your chosen project
• Set a t...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 1
Define the project
– Define the task to be improved
– Who will belong to the proj...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The steps in SMED
Step 1
Step 2
Define the project
Establish the baseline
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Establish the baseline
• Current practices will be
studied in two ways
First study: Video to...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
First study Video analysis
• The video is used to map the
set-up work
• Contains all operati...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
How to record the video
• Let a machine operator hold the camera – it
is not a time-and-moti...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Analysis
• Identify all operations
• Determine the times for all operations
• Classify into ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Analysis
• Identify all operations
• Determine the times for all operations
• Classify into ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Classification
Four different categories will be used :
1. Change internal steps into extern...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
What is waste?
• All activities that do not really help
the set-up work and that can be
elim...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Types of waste in SMED
• External waste
– Activities done while production is still running
...
Example: Video Analysis
Activity Time
Go to storage room 3,5
Select tools, gauges, parts, etc. 20,0
Look for wrench 2,0
Ch...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Categorization - example
Activity Min
Go to storage room 3,5
Select tools, gauges, parts, et...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Categorization - example
Clean up the machine base 2,5
Measure the center and position 13,5
...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Categorization
Before - After
Before
Activity
Go to storage room 3,5
Select tools, gauges, p...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Categorization
Before - After
Before
Clean up the machine base 2,5
Measure the center and po...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 2
Video analysis
Use the video to analyze the
various stages during set-up
work
Rec...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Establish the baseline
• Today’s work will be studied
in two ways
1. First study: Video to a...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Identify all
disturbances
• As change-overs become more
mechanized, the risk grows that
diff...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The steps in SMED
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Define the project
Establish the baseline
Separate ex...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Separate external setup
from internal work
• Ensure that all set-up work
classified as exter...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Check-list
• The checklist ensures that all
external setup work has been done
before the cha...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Sample checklist
Check list line C Comment
Preparation
Examine tools and utilities
Transport...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Set-up trolley
• Sometimes it is useful to collect
everything needed for the set-
up work on...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Function checks
All parts and tools must be in
perfect condition. This is
ensured before the...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Make external work easy
• Create effective work and
storage areas for the external
work
• Ch...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Improved transports
• Transports shall be adjusted to
minimize the internal set-up time
• It...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 3
Classification
1. Use the analysis of operations
and time from work-shop 1
• Clas...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 4
Checklist
• Write a checklist of everything
that needs to be completed
before a c...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The steps in SMED
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Define the project
Establish the baseline
Sepa...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Convert internal setup
time to external
Even if we have already
separated external set-up fr...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
What is the reason for the
internal set-up?
• What is the actual purpose of the
various inte...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Technical means to convert
Internal to External tasks
• How to move operations from ”interna...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
The steps in SMED
Step 1
Step 2
Step 3
Step 4
Step 5
Define the project
Establish the baseli...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Eliminate waste
• “Muda” is Japanese for useless or
wasteful
• Examples: Searching, being fo...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Reduce manual work
• Avoid manual tools
• Use only electric or
pneumatic powered hand
tools
...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Working in parallel
• More people should do the work
in parallel if it shortens the set-
up ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Example:
Spaghetti chart before analysis
Cutting
Press
Raw-material
handling
Control
panel
1...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Example:
Spaghetti chart after improvement
Cutting
Press
Raw material
handling
Control
panel...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Waste from rebuilding
• All internal setup time to
remove parts from the tool "A"
to positio...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Our enemy: the bolt
• Memory rule for bolts:
– The first turn loosens, the last turn
tighten...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Quick-release
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Bracket
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
U-shaped washer
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Fixed wing nut
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Triangular Screw:
the Deleted threads
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Clamps
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Slip fit
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Standardization
• Standardization of tools
reduces the time to re-build
• Standardize only t...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Example
Before standardizing
Die A Die B
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Example
After standardizing #1
Separation pad to standardize tool height
Eliminate all waste
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Separation pad to standardize mounting height
Example
After standardizing #2
Eliminate all w...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Fixtures
External step #1
• With two identical fixtures to a machine, one
detail is processe...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Fixtures
External step #2
• While still making product “A”,
the jig for making product “B”
h...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Fixtures
External step #3
• Now the jig for product “B” has
been swapped into the machine
• ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Fixtures
External step #4
• Product “B” is being produced
• The jig for product “A” is being...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Adjustment losses
• Often half of the set-up time is spent on
adjustments to achieve the rig...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Guidelines to eliminate
adjustment losses
• Avoid the possibility that the position
could be...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
SMED and Label Machines
or Paper Wrapping
• Paper is a "living material”
as it is affected b...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Eliminate adjustment
losses
Produkt A
i produktion
Product ”A”
in production
Set-up Trial Ru...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Eliminate adjustment
losses
Produkt A
i produktion
Product ”A”
in production
Set-up Produkt ...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 5
What can go wrong?
• Individual work!
• Sit quietly and think for 10 minutes: “Wh...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 6
Standardized work
• Write new work procedures for
the change-over task
• Be as pr...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
How SMED relates to other
Lean Manufacturing methods
• Effective set-up work requires
– Abil...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Autonomation ”Jidoka”
• Transmission of human "intelligence" to machines
• Automatic monitor...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Standardized Work
• Documentation and use of best knowledge
• Suitable for tasks that are re...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 7
Make work external if possible
• Discuss and agree on the plan
• How can we:
– Fr...
World-Class-Manufacturing.com
Workshop 8
Create an Action Plan
• Create an action plan for all
actions from Workshops 1
th...
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SMED - Quick Change Over

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This presentation is made by Oskar Olofsson, WCM Consulting AB

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SMED - Quick Change Over

  1. 1. Quick set-up and change-over World-Class-Manufacturing.com
  2. 2. World-Class-Manufacturing.com • This presentation is made by Oskar Olofsson, WCM Consulting AB • Make changes in the background template if you want to change the appearance • Download the presentation together with train-the-trainer guide and workshop templates at http://wcm.nu
  3. 3. World-Class-Manufacturing.com What is SMED? • SMED: Single Minute Exchange of Dies • Meaning: No set-up should last for more than nine minutes • Achieve SMED by “working smarter”, not by increased investment or automation • SMED is a systematic approach that reduces disturbances and problem • SMED needs teamwork and creativity
  4. 4. World-Class-Manufacturing.com History American car production after World War II : – Set-up times were longer than 24 hours – Therefore, one machine for each individual detail – Gigantic manufacturing plants were needed
  5. 5. World-Class-Manufacturing.com History • Toyota wanted to compete but they could not afford all the machinery required • They needed to find more cost effective solutions • One important approach was to reduce set-up time • Today, SMED is an important part of Lean Manufacturing
  6. 6. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Milestones • 1960s SMED starts to develop • 1970 Dr. Shingeo Shingo cut the set-up time for a 3000-ton sheet metal stamping press from 4 hours to three minutes • 1983 Dr. Shingo wrote ”A Revolution in Manufacturing: the SMED System”
  7. 7. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Production without SMED Long set-up times -> Low flexibility -> Big lot sizes -> Inventory piles up
  8. 8. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Production with SMED Quick change-over -> High flexibility -> Smaller lots -> Less inventory
  9. 9. World-Class-Manufacturing.com What is so bad about inventory? • Interest costs • Storage space • Damage in handling • Transportation • Handling costs • Outdated products • Insurance costs Total cost 25% to 35% of the total value per year!
  10. 10. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Why SMED? • Better delivery performance • Higher throughput • Reduced inventory • Greater flexibility • Enables using the Kanban system • Easier work • Less hassle • More orderly and organized
  11. 11. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The steps in SMED • Step 1: Analysis • Separate external* work from internal** work • Transform internal work to external work • Eliminate all waste activity • * ”External” = away from the machine, not during set-up • ** ”Internal” = at the machine during set-up
  12. 12. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Let's look at the pitstop The driver has to stop exactly on marks painted on the pit lane so the mechanics lose no time repositioning themselves. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  13. 13. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Pitstop: Prepare for Fuel The car is lifted up onto its jacks as the mechanics remove the wheels and the fuel hose is attached. Fuel cannot flow until the hose is locked into place. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  14. 14. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Pitstop: Change Wheels New wheels are attached and the mechanics raise their arms to show they have finished. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  15. 15. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Pitstop: Nearly Finished The car is lowered to the ground as the last of the fuel is pumped in. The driver is shown a board telling him to engage first gear. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  16. 16. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Pitstop: Finish Fueling up The fuel hose is detached and the car is ready to go. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  17. 17. World-Class-Manufacturing.com End of the Pitstop The driver is waved away by the mechanic in front of the car. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport2/shared/spl/hi/motorsport/03/formula_one/pitstop/html/pitstop1.stm
  18. 18. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Think break • Take some time to list your suggestions: • What is needed to switch tires and refuel in seven seconds?
  19. 19. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Think break • Standardized work • Orderliness • Specialized tools • Duplicated equipment • Parallel work • Quick mounting • A lot of practice! • No adjustments during the job • Checklists, everything in place • Instructions • Modify the design (a race car’s wheel uses just one bolt) • Functions checked in advance • 100% right materials in place • Team work • No unnecessary movements These are just some examples!
  20. 20. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Definition of set-up time • Set-up time = total time from completing the last item of product "A" to completing the first item of product "B”, with the necessary quality and at the right speed Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in production Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” in production Set-up time Clean-up after ”A” & prepare... Test run, quality control , adjustments & cleanup Set-up Before SMED
  21. 21. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Definition of set-up time • Set-up time = total time from completing the last product "A" to completing the first product "B" with the right quality and at the right speed Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in production Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” in production Set-up Set-up time External set- up After SMED
  22. 22. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The size of SMED Operation Machine 1 Area & many machines Factory Corporation These training materials deal with one set-up operation on one machine. Keep the same team for all the set-up operations for that same machine. Bring in new SMED team members who are experts on each machine. Retain some strategists; train some new ones. Several SMED teams work in parallel. Will you need an overall coordinator? Definitely need to coordinate across factories for investment (spending) and expertise. Small Scale Large Scale
  23. 23. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The five phases in SMED Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Define the project Establish the baseline Separate external work from internal Transform internal work to external work Eliminate all waste
  24. 24. World-Class-Manufacturing.com How to start a SMED project • Appoint a cross-functional team – Operators – Technicans – Engineers – Managers • Appoint a team leader Define the project
  25. 25. World-Class-Manufacturing.com How to start a SMED project • Select a good project – A ”Bottleneck” gives the fastest pay-back – Choose one with a long setup time – Try find something neither too simple nor too complex Define the project
  26. 26. World-Class-Manufacturing.com How to start a SMED project • Start recording set-up times for your chosen project • Set a target – Agree on how to follow up and how to visualize • Set a time-frame – Maximum two months! Workshop 1 Define the project
  27. 27. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 1 Define the project – Define the task to be improved – Who will belong to the project team? – What resources do we have? – What is today’s performances? (Average set-up time and best time) – What is a good target for us? (Average time and best time) – How to follow up? – How to visualize our success? Define the project Workshop 1
  28. 28. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The steps in SMED Step 1 Step 2 Define the project Establish the baseline
  29. 29. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Establish the baseline • Current practices will be studied in two ways First study: Video to analyze the current situation Purpose: to set the base-line Second study: Identify all disturbances Purpose: to reduce all the risks of any problems Establish the baseline
  30. 30. World-Class-Manufacturing.com First study Video analysis • The video is used to map the set-up work • Contains all operational steps of the set-up work and the time for these • The video will form a starting point that no one can question • You can review it as many times as needed Establish the baseline
  31. 31. World-Class-Manufacturing.com How to record the video • Let a machine operator hold the camera – it is not a time-and-motion study… • Focus on the manual labor: hand, eye, body movements • Inform everybody about the purpose of the video recording • Test ahead of time, to ensure there is enough light and that the video position offers full coverage of the work • Make sure there is enough video and batteries • Use the time and date function • Remind everyone: we want to record a normal set-up • Record from the last product "A" to the first product "B" of the right quality Establish the baseline
  32. 32. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Analysis • Identify all operations • Determine the times for all operations • Classify into internal, external or waste Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in Production Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” in ProductionInternal and external operations Set-up time Establish the baseline
  33. 33. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Analysis • Identify all operations • Determine the times for all operations • Classify into internal, external or waste Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in Production Produkt A i produktion Product B in Production External operations Internal operations External operations Set-up Time Establish the baseline
  34. 34. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Classification Four different categories will be used : 1. Change internal steps into external steps The part of the set-up work that can be performed while the machine is still producing product ”A” 2. Simplify internal steps The work that cannot be eliminated or made external, but could be improved by improved tools, parallel work, easy attachments, guide pins, standardization, etc. 3. Accept the core internal steps: no change 4. Eliminate waste activities All activities that do not really help the set-up work and that can be eliminated (searching, waiting, adjusting, etc ...) Establish the baseline
  35. 35. World-Class-Manufacturing.com What is waste? • All activities that do not really help the set-up work and that can be eliminated (searching, waiting, adjusting, etc ...) are waste • Reasons for waste activities – Bad planning – Bad work condition – Bad orderliness – Misunderstanding, confusion or unclear instructions – No standards – Standards are not followed – Etc… Establish the baseline
  36. 36. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Types of waste in SMED • External waste – Activities done while production is still running – EG: Retrieve and transport tools, jigs, fixtures, instructions, etc. (These should have been close to hand). • Internal waste – Activities that must occur while production is down – EG: Fasteners that should be re-engineered with a quick clamp • Rebuild waste – Internal waste because pieces have to be rebuilt – EG: Move an assembly from old to new fixture; each fixture should have its own duplicate assembly • Adjustment waste – Time and material wasted to resume production – Should be right the first time Establish the baseline
  37. 37. Example: Video Analysis Activity Time Go to storage room 3,5 Select tools, gauges, parts, etc. 20,0 Look for wrench 2,0 Check tools, gauges, parts, etc. 8,0 Wait for forklift 10,0 Transport tools etc. to machine 3,5 Detach air hose 0,2 Unscrew six screws 6,0 Remove old die 1,5 Place old die on forklift 1,0 Transport old die to storage rack 3,5 Select the next die 2,5 Inspect the die 1,0 Transport new die to machine 3,5 Clean up the machine base 2,5 Measure the center and position 13,5 Move the new die over machine 1,0 Read the blueprint for instruction 6,2 Discuss technical details 5,0 Activity Time Look for the nuts 3,0 Adjust die and clamping heights 10,5 Attach the new die 8,0 Mount the parts 5,0 Attach the air hose 0,3 Trial run 8,0 Inspect the product 8,0 Adjust the setting 15,0 Keep records or update log 0,5 Return tools, gauges, etc. 3,5 SUM 153,0 • Time in minutes and tenths
  38. 38. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Categorization - example Activity Min Go to storage room 3,5 Select tools, gauges, parts, etc. 20,0 Look for wrench 2,0 Check tools, gauges, parts, etc. 8,0 Wait for forklift 10,0 Transport tools etc. to machine 3,5 Detach air hose 0,2 Unscrew six screws 6,0 Remove old die 1,5 Place old die on forklift 1,0 Transport old die to storage rack 3,5 Select the next die 2,5 Inspect the die 1,0 Transport new die to machine 3,5 Make external - simplify Waste - eliminate Waste - eliminate Make external Waste - eliminate Make external - simplify Internal - no change Waste - eliminate Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Make external - simplify Waste - eliminate Make external Make external - simplify
  39. 39. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Categorization - example Clean up the machine base 2,5 Measure the center and position 13,5 Move the new die over machine 1,0 Read the blueprint for instruction 6,2 Discuss technical details 5,0 Look for the nuts 3,0 Adjust die and clamping heights 10,5 Attach the new die 8,0 Mount the parts 5,0 Attach the air hose 0,3 Trial run 8,0 Inspect the product 5,0 Adjust the setting 15,0 Keep records or update log 0,5 Return tools, gauges, etc. 3,5 SUM 153,0 Internal - no change Waste Internal - no change Make external - simplify Waste Waste Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Internal - no change Waste Make external - simplify Waste Make external Make external - simplify
  40. 40. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Categorization Before - After Before Activity Go to storage room 3,5 Select tools, gauges, parts, etc. 20,0 Look for wrench 2,0 Check tools, gauges, parts, etc. 8,0 Wait for forklift 10,0 Transport tools etc. to machine 3,5 Detach air hose 0,2 Unscrew six screws 6,0 Remove old die 1,5 Place old die on forklift 1,0 Transport old die to storage rack 3,5 Select the next die 2,5 Inspect the die 1,0 Transport new die to machine 3,5 Make external - simplify Waste - eliminate Waste - eliminate Make external Waste - eliminate Make external - simplify Internal - no change Waste - eliminate Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Make external - simplify Waste - eliminate Make external Make external - simplify After After Internal External 1,0 8,0 1,0 0,2 1,2 0,5 1,0 1,0 1,0
  41. 41. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Categorization Before - After Before Clean up the machine base 2,5 Measure the center and position 13,5 Move the new die over machine 1,0 Read the blueprint for instruction 6,2 Discuss technical details 5,0 Look for the nuts 3,0 Adjust die and clamping heights 10,5 Attach the new die 8,0 Mount the parts 5,0 Attach the air hose 0,3 Trial run 8,0 Inspect the product 5,0 Adjust the setting 15,0 Keep records or update log 0,5 Return tools, gauges, etc. 3,5 SUM 153,0 Internal - no change Waste Internal - no change Make external - simplify Waste Waste Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Internal - simplify Internal - no change Waste Make external - simplify Waste Make external Make external - simplify After After Internal External 2,5 1,0 5,0 0,5 2,0 1,5 0,3 0,5 0,5 1,0 9,7 20,0
  42. 42. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 2 Video analysis Use the video to analyze the various stages during set-up work Record the minutes of changeover time per operation Do not classify the types of waste yet! (Save that for workshop 3). Simply identify all operations and record the times. Establish the baseline Workshop 2
  43. 43. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Establish the baseline • Today’s work will be studied in two ways 1. First study: Video to analyse the current situation Purpose: to set the base-line 2. Second Study: Identify all disturbances* Purpose: to reduce all risks for problems * ”Disturbance” : Any disruption, error, problem, glitch, snafu, bug, interruption...that disturbs the set-up task Establish the baseline
  44. 44. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Identify all disturbances • As change-overs become more mechanized, the risk grows that different types of disturbances will extend the set-up time • By identifying all types of disturbances, a list of all common disorders is created • The root cause of each type of disturbance is determined • A corrective measure is proposed Establish the baseline
  45. 45. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The steps in SMED Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Define the project Establish the baseline Separate external work from internal
  46. 46. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Separate external setup from internal work • Ensure that all set-up work classified as external is actually done during production time (before or after the setup stage) • Our tools are checklists, functional checks and improved transport Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in production Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” In productionInternal set-up Set-up time External set-up Separate external work from internal
  47. 47. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Check-list • The checklist ensures that all external setup work has been done before the change-over – Like a pilot's checklist before take-off • The checklist contains – What tools are needed and in what dimensions – Fixtures and jigs – Settings, dimensions and measurements – Programming, speeds, temperatures, etc. – Instructions and process maps – Human resources – What training is required – Lifting – Etc ... Separate external work from internal
  48. 48. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Sample checklist Check list line C Comment Preparation Examine tools and utilities Transport tools to the machine Transport new die to the machine Inspect the new die After work (when production is running) Quality control Return the die to the storage site Record results Return tools etc. Check list line C Comment Change-over to product Delta Tools and utilities Pneumatic Screwdriver Dim 18 Wrench Dim 6 Forklift Dies and parts Gripper Typ 74 Die AS0034 Cloth for cleaning Work Instruction Rigging Press Line C Trained personnel (two required) Bob, Anne, Liam, Chang
  49. 49. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Set-up trolley • Sometimes it is useful to collect everything needed for the set- up work on a special ”set-up trolley” • It may include tools, instructions, etc ... • You can paint the outline for all tools to be used so that you do not forget anything Separate external work from internal
  50. 50. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Function checks All parts and tools must be in perfect condition. This is ensured before the change- over Repairs must be carried out without losing production time! Functional checks are entered in the checklist Separate external work from internal
  51. 51. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Make external work easy • Create effective work and storage areas for the external work • Changes in the layout may be necessary • The external work must be easier than the internal. (People tend to do work ”internally” even though it wastes time. Find ways to make the external task easier, cleaner, safer, quicker... anything better than the ”internal” process). Separate external work from internal
  52. 52. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Improved transports • Transports shall be adjusted to minimize the internal set-up time • It is not the number of lifts that must be minimized but set-up time! • Create special storage places, trucks or sliding table so that even heavy pieces can be brought in quickly • Add new routines to the checklist Separate external work from internal
  53. 53. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 3 Classification 1. Use the analysis of operations and time from work-shop 1 • Classify each element • Eliminate waste • Transform Internal tasks into External tasks • Simplify Internal tasks • Internal - no change 2. Prioritize the remedial actions A - Can be done immediately B - A little bit longer time is needed C - Major investment is needed Separate external work from internal Workshop 3
  54. 54. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 4 Checklist • Write a checklist of everything that needs to be completed before a change-over • Aids: set-up time classification and disturbance identification from workshops 2 and 3 • The checklist will include functional checks, elements that must not be forgotten, staffing, special tools, etc. Separate external work from internal Workshop 4
  55. 55. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The steps in SMED Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Define the project Establish the baseline Separate external work from internal Transform internal work to external work
  56. 56. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Convert internal setup time to external Even if we have already separated external set-up from internal we will do a final check before we move on. Is it possible to convert some of the remaining internal operations into external? Transform internal work to external work
  57. 57. World-Class-Manufacturing.com What is the reason for the internal set-up? • What is the actual purpose of the various internal operations? – Can they be converted, downsized, or eliminated? – Have you been using an unnecessarily complicated procedure? – Have conditions changed since the design phase? – Is the equipment now a bottleneck? – Are stock costs more important now than before? – Is the delivery accuracy more important today than before? Transform internal work to external work
  58. 58. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Technical means to convert Internal to External tasks • How to move operations from ”internal” to ”external” – Add duplicate equipment – Fix problems – Reprogram for new articles – Create the right conditions for production in advance (eg set up the pressure or temperature) – Remove the need to dismantle equipment – Create or upload programs in advance – Perform measurements in advance • What is the actual purpose of each internal operation? – Use the ”5 Why” technique – Do not give up until the root cause is found! Transform internal work to external work
  59. 59. World-Class-Manufacturing.com The steps in SMED Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Define the project Establish the baseline Separate external work from internal Transform internal work to external work Eliminate all waste
  60. 60. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Eliminate waste • “Muda” is Japanese for useless or wasteful • Examples: Searching, being forced to stretch or bend, waiting, sweating, running, wondering what to do, lifting, etc. ... • Muda includes: poor planning, poor work environment, poor orderliness, misunderstanding, no standards, standards are not followed, etc. ... Eliminate all waste
  61. 61. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Reduce manual work • Avoid manual tools • Use only electric or pneumatic powered hand tools • Remember to include tools in the checklist Eliminate all waste
  62. 62. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Working in parallel • More people should do the work in parallel if it shortens the set- up time • Draw a "spaghetti diagram" with the help of video recording • Is it possible to reduce the movement and positioning time by involving more people in the change-over? Eliminate all waste
  63. 63. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Example: Spaghetti chart before analysis Cutting Press Raw-material handling Control panel 1 8 7 6 5 4 32 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 19 17 18 20 21 22 16 Before: 1 Operator in 22 positions Eliminate all waste
  64. 64. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Example: Spaghetti chart after improvement Cutting Press Raw material handling Control panel 1 2 8 9 6 5 4 7 3 11 10 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 After: 2 Operators in 11 + 7 positions. This saves 11 movements by the first operator. This changes a single series of motions by 1 operator into parallel activity by 2 people. Eliminate all waste
  65. 65. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Waste from rebuilding • All internal setup time to remove parts from the tool "A" to position the tool "B" • Nuts and bolts, fastening devices, measurement devices, etc ... • Double the equipment to avoid these wasted steps: save time and money by investing in the second set of parts that do not need to be removed and installed time and again Eliminate all waste
  66. 66. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Our enemy: the bolt • Memory rule for bolts: – The first turn loosens, the last turn tightens – Everything in between is waste! • Search for other solutions • Any remaining bolts and nuts shall be of standard dimensions • In total, no more than three tools should be needed Eliminate all waste
  67. 67. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Quick-release Eliminate all waste
  68. 68. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Bracket Eliminate all waste
  69. 69. World-Class-Manufacturing.com U-shaped washer Eliminate all waste
  70. 70. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Fixed wing nut Eliminate all waste
  71. 71. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Triangular Screw: the Deleted threads Eliminate all waste
  72. 72. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Clamps Eliminate all waste
  73. 73. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Slip fit Eliminate all waste
  74. 74. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Standardization • Standardization of tools reduces the time to re-build • Standardize only the essential functions and fixings • Find cost-effective solutions • It is often too expensive to standardize the tool’s outer form! Eliminate all waste
  75. 75. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Example Before standardizing Die A Die B Eliminate all waste
  76. 76. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Example After standardizing #1 Separation pad to standardize tool height Eliminate all waste
  77. 77. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Separation pad to standardize mounting height Example After standardizing #2 Eliminate all waste
  78. 78. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Fixtures External step #1 • With two identical fixtures to a machine, one detail is processed in the machine while the other fixture is rigged on the side • During the internal change-over the fixture is attached in the machine • Alignment work is done externally in advance while the machine still produces Product ”A”. •Still producing ”A” on the left. •Gather the components for jig ”B” on the right Eliminate all waste
  79. 79. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Fixtures External step #2 • While still making product “A”, the jig for making product “B” has been fully assembled •Still producing ”A” on the left. •The jig for ”B” is fully assembled on the right, and is ready to go. Eliminate all waste
  80. 80. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Fixtures External step #3 • Now the jig for product “B” has been swapped into the machine • The jig for product “A” is offline and ready for the next step •We have swapped the fixtures. •The jig for ”B” is in place on the left. •The jig for ”A” is on the right. Eliminate all waste
  81. 81. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Fixtures External step #4 • Product “B” is being produced • The jig for product “A” is being disassembled for cleaning, maintenance or storage •The jig for ”A” is being disassembled on the right •Product ”B” is in production on the left Eliminate all waste
  82. 82. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Adjustment losses • Often half of the set-up time is spent on adjustments to achieve the right quality • The first product should always be correct • Create numerical values • Measure humidity and temperature if it affects the settings • The goal is not to speed up the adjustment but to completely avoid adjustments! • Positioning is OK, as from position 12 to position 7 • Avoid use of ruler and calipers, instead use ready-made, preferably fixed measures Eliminate all waste
  83. 83. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Guidelines to eliminate adjustment losses • Avoid the possibility that the position could be wrong in the first place – Use the guide pins and stop heels – Use fixtures – Use standardized tools • Eliminate measuring by eye or intuition – Folding rule or calipers are too inaccurate – Digital measuring instruments can work wonders – Use templates and fixed dimensions for the following positions – Make reference lines and center lines visible • Document all positioning in the checklist Eliminate all waste
  84. 84. World-Class-Manufacturing.com SMED and Label Machines or Paper Wrapping • Paper is a "living material” as it is affected by humidity • Standardize the storage of paper as much as possible • Use suppliers who can and do keep consistent quality Eliminate all waste
  85. 85. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Eliminate adjustment losses Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in production Set-up Trial Run Quality Control Quality Control Adjustment Adjustment Trial Run Scrap Scrap Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” in production Before Eliminate all waste
  86. 86. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Eliminate adjustment losses Produkt A i produktion Product ”A” in production Set-up Produkt A i produktion Product ”B” in production After Eliminate all waste
  87. 87. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 5 What can go wrong? • Individual work! • Sit quietly and think for 10 minutes: “What can go wrong we do a set-up?” • Key words for your creativity: (technology, collaboration, practice, orderliness, planning, quality, etc ...) • Write down every problem on a post-it note. One note per problem so that they can be sorted • Write complete sentences so that everybody can understand afterwards Eliminate all waste Workshop 5
  88. 88. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 6 Standardized work • Write new work procedures for the change-over task • Be as precise as possible • Draw a spaghetti diagram for this new set of work procedures Eliminate all waste Workshop 6
  89. 89. World-Class-Manufacturing.com How SMED relates to other Lean Manufacturing methods • Effective set-up work requires – Ability to leave the machine to prepare for the next change-over − Input and output automatic and large enough − A machine stops itself and alerts you of problems (Jidoka) − Reliable operation – Standardized work instructions that are used and constantly improved – Team work so that work in parallel will be possible – Systematic and ongoing improvement
  90. 90. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Autonomation ”Jidoka” • Transmission of human "intelligence" to machines • Automatic monitoring of production • Release people into more useful work, such as preparing for next set-up • Stops and signals when problems arise To small To big A simple examle
  91. 91. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Standardized Work • Documentation and use of best knowledge • Suitable for tasks that are repeated • Provides opportunity to learn and get better • The personnel performing the work shall develop and continuously improve the standardized work – ”How” must be very clearly defined – Regular meetings ~ once per week is recommeded • The set-up work is a good example of the use of standardized work
  92. 92. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 7 Make work external if possible • Discuss and agree on the plan • How can we: – Free up time for the external work? – Cooperate during the change-over? – Make it possible to leave our machines while they are running? – Use and improve standardized work instructions? Workshop 7
  93. 93. World-Class-Manufacturing.com Workshop 8 Create an Action Plan • Create an action plan for all actions from Workshops 1 through 7 • Who is responsible? • When will it be done? Workshop 8

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