Motivations for Exploration Spices! Used for: Preserving food Flavoring meat Medicine Perfume Moluccas Island chain called the “spice islands”
Portugal SailsEast Prince Henry the Navigator Founded school for sailors, cartographers, and scientists Never actually sailed on any voyages Wanted to explore Africa- why? Explored western coast of Africa Bartholomeu Diaz rounds the tip of Africa (Cape of Good Hope) in 1488.
Portugal Reaches India Vasco da Gama Following same route as Diaz Rounded Cape of Good Hope Crossed Indian Ocean to India Portugal gained control of many trade ports in the Indian Ocean
Columbus sails West Italian Navigator Wanted to find a route to the East Indies by going West Portugal refused to sponsor his voyage Spain agreed Who ruled Spain? What was going on in Spain?
Voyage of Columbus Leaves Spain in 1492 with 3 ships Reached the Caribbean after 2 months Thought he was in India- called the natives “Indians” Took 3 more voyages Still thought he was in Asia
Dividing the Globe Arguments over land exploration rights Treaty of Tordesillas Line of Demarcation ○ Spain had lands to the west ○ Portugal had lands to the east
Magellan Searching for direct route to the spice islands Discovered Straight of Magellan His ship was first to circumnavigate the globe
The SlaveTrade Europeans bought slaves to work on their large plantations in the Americas Relied on African leaders to capture the slaves and bring them to the coast Received weapons, tobacco, rum, etc in exchange Read box on p. 267
African Leaders Resist Affonso I Ruler of Kongo Forced to convert to Christianity Tried to convince the Portuguese to end the slave trade Some African leaders banned slave traders from passing through their kingdoms
New African States Arise Many African states benefitted from the slave trade Asante Kingdom ○ Traded gold and slaves for guns Oyo Empire ○ Gained $$ from slave trade and built a large army to defeat surrounding tribes
European PresenceExpands Dutch immigrants in South Africa Est. Cape Town Dutch farmers called Boers Killed or enslaved the local Africans French and British explorers conquered much of North Africa