19.1 europeans explore the east


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19.1 europeans explore the east

  1. 1. 19.1 EUROPEANS EXPLORE THE EAST Surya, Josh, Matthew, Hannah
  2. 2. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS  What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the Age of Exploration?  What were the motives behind European exploration in the 1400s?
  3. 3. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” New Trade Routes  During the 1400s, the desire to grow rich and spread Christianity spurred an Age if Exploration.  The desire for wealth and resources was the main reason for exploration.  During the Crusades Europeans were introduced to spices. After the Crusades they still demanded for it.  Italians and Muslims controlled the trade route to the east. Europeans couldn’t get the resources from the trade at a reasonable price so they devised a plan to find a direct route to Asia.
  4. 4. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” Spread of Christianity  Christians wanted to fight the Muslims and convert their religion to Christianity.  Christians believed that it was a sacred duty  Bartolomeu Dias  Portuguese Explorer “To serve God and His Majesty, to give light to those who were in darkness and to grow rich as all men desire to do.”
  5. 5. FOR “GOD, GLORY AND GOLD” Technology Makes Exploration Possible  Caravel (A long ship that had triangular sails that helped to sail effectively against the wind. It was sturdy)  Astrolabe (A brass circle with adjusted rims marked off with degrees. Used to calculate latitude)  Magnetic Compass
  6. 6. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY The Portuguese Explore Africa  Prince Henry  Son of Portugal’s King, he was the most enthusiastic supporter of exploration. He started a Navigation School.  Henry’s ships established a series of trading posts along the west coast of Africa.  From there they plotted their next move, a sea route to Asia.
  7. 7. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia  The Portuguese believed that they have to sail around the tip of Africa to reach Asia.  In 1488 Portuguese captain Bartolomeu Dias ventured far down the coast of Africa until the tip.  Due to a storm and low food supplies, they return home.  Vasco da Gama  In 1498 he reached the port Calicut in the south western coast of India.
  8. 8. PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia (Continued)  The Portuguese sailors returned home with spices.  This voyage provided a direct sea route to India.
  9. 9. SPAIN ALSO MAKES CLAIMS  The Spanish envied the Portuguese. The Spanish monarchs also desired a direct sea route to Asia.  In 1492, Christopher Columbus voyaged to the west hoping to find eastern Asia. Instead, he reached an island in the Caribbean. His mistake opened the way for European colonization in the Americas.  The Portuguese thought Spain had reached Asia and also believed that Spain had claimed the land that Portuguese reached first.  Because of the tension, Pope Alexander VI stepped in to keep peace between the two nations.
  10. 10. SPAIN ALSO MAKES CLAIMS  He devised The Line of Demarcation in which all lands west of the line would be Spain’s and all east would be Portugal’s.  The line was moved to include Brazil for the Portuguese.  In 1494, Spain and Portugal signed The Treaty of Tordesillas. In which they agreed to honor the line.
  11. 11. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Portugal’s Trading Empire  Portugal established control over the spice trade thanks to cannons in their ships and a fort at Hormuz.  The Portuguese conquered cities all the way to the East Indies and broke the trade pattern between Italy and the Muslims, lowering spice prices.
  12. 12. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Other Nations Challenge the Portuguese  After the Dutch (Netherlands) declared their independence from Spain, they became a leading sea power.  They eroded Portuguese control over Asian trade with the help of the English.  Dutch East India Company  A company founded by the Dutch in the 17th century and directed Asian trade
  13. 13. TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Dutch Trading Outposts  Headquarters in Asia.  Conquered Spice Islands from Portugal and controlled Indian Ocean Trade.  Outposts in Asia and Cape of Africa. British and French Trades  English East India Company established outposts in India and a successful Indian cloth trade.  The French East India Company failed.
  14. 14. THE END