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<ul><li>The Norse mariner and adventurer Leif Ericson (971-ca. 1015) was the first Norseman to seek out the coast of North...
<ul><li>Marco Polo  and his two uncles visited Cathay, later called China. They lived at the court of the Emperor. When he...
<ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator </li></ul><ul><li>  Prince Henry spent his entire fortune funding many voyages of explo...
<ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><li>  King John II , Prince Henry's nephew, continued funding expeditions down the ...
<ul><li>Christopher Columbus dreamed of becoming a sailor. At age 14 he made his first voyage on an Italian ship. Columbus...
<ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li>  Vespucci made voyages to the West Indies and South America for Spain and Port...
<ul><li>  John Cabot, or Giovanni Caboto as he was really called, having been Italian by birth.  </li></ul><ul><li>After K...
<ul><li>King Manuel I of Portugal picked da Gamma to head a new expedition that would continue where Dias had stopped. On ...
<ul><li>Vasco Nùñez de Balboa   Balboa  led an expedition  across Panama looking for gold, but discovered the Pacific Ocea...
<ul><li>Juan Ponce de Leon was a Spanish explorer and soldier who was the first European to set foot in Florida. He also e...
<ul><li>Magellan proved through his explorations that the Earth is round.  He established the first route to the East that...
<ul><li>Hernando Cortez </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez was a young Spaniard who went to Cuba to find his fortune. He heard stori...
<ul><li>Giovanni da Verranzano in 1524 Verranzano explored the New World for France. He searched for a route to the Indies...
<ul><li>Francisco Pizarro </li></ul><ul><li>In 1523 Pizarro led an expedition to explore and conquer the land of a wealthy...
<ul><li>Jacques Cartier </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534 Cartier tried to find a sea passage to the East Indies through North Ame...
<ul><li>Hernando De Soto </li></ul><ul><li>  On May 30, 1539 De Soto and his men went into Florida. They marched northward...
<ul><li>Francisco Coronado Coronado commanded an expedition which left from western Mexico in 1540.  He was searching for ...
<ul><li>Sir Frances Drake </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Frances Drake was a British sea captain who traded with the Spanish. In 15...
<ul><li>Samuel de Champlain In 1608 Champlain brought a group of settlers to the area around Montreal. They built a fort a...
<ul><li>Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li>  Henry Hudson wanted to find a passage across the continent of North America. He w...
<ul><li>Father Marquette and Louis Joliet   In 1672 Father Marquette , a missionary living with the Huron Indians,  contac...
<ul><li>Robert LaSalle   Robert LaSalle finished the trip that Father Marquette and Louis Joliet had started earlier. LaSa...
Age of Exploration - Timeline The Age of Exploration, also known as the Age of Discovery, was a time for growth and was a ...
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Presentation world explorers

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The journeys of explorers before the age of exploration to the 15 century.

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Presentation world explorers

  1. 2. <ul><li>The Norse mariner and adventurer Leif Ericson (971-ca. 1015) was the first Norseman to seek out the coast of North America. He introduced Christianity into Greenland. </li></ul><ul><li>Leif Ericson was born in Iceland, the son of Eric the Red. He moved with his parents to Greenland in 986. </li></ul><ul><li>Leif's voyage was planned and his discovery, then, was not an accident, as those who give too little credence to Viking navigational skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Leif in 997 sailed for Norway, hoping to curry favor with the king, Olaf Tryggvason. </li></ul><ul><li>The next year Leif returned home bringing priests and the new faith with him. His mother was an early convert, but Eric clung stubbornly to the old ways. When the aged chieftain along with another son, Thorstein, decided to make a trip to Newfoundland, Leif refused him the use of his ship. At this point in the sages Leif gives place to other members of his family. </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>Marco Polo and his two uncles visited Cathay, later called China. They lived at the court of the Emperor. When he went back to Italy, Polo wrote a book about this travels in the Far East. After the invention of Gutenburg's Printing Press in the year 1436 this book became one of the first to be published. Men became fascinated by Polo's descriptions of the Orient. Men began searching for sea routes to China, Japan, and the East Indies. Some of these men believed that the sea to the east of China and India was the same sea that was west of Europe. One map maker named Paolo Toscanelli even drew a map showing Europe with the Indies to the west rather than the east. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>Prince Henry the Navigator </li></ul><ul><li> Prince Henry spent his entire fortune funding many voyages of exploration as well as projects in navigation, ship design, astronomy, and mapmaking. His expeditions  included the islands of the Azores, Madeira, and the Cape Verde Islands, and the African coast as far as present-day Sierra Leone. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Henry in 1418 founded his Institute at Sagres on the southwestern-most point of Portugal, Cape Saint Vincent - a place ancient geographers referred to as the western edge of the earth. The institute, best described as a fifteenth century research and development facility, included libraries, an astronomical observatory, ship-building facilities, a chapel, and housing for staff. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Bartholomeu Dias </li></ul><ul><li> King John II , Prince Henry's nephew, continued funding expeditions down the coast of Africa. King John II chose Dias to led a group close to the southern tip . A storm blew him past the southernmost tip of land. After 13 days Dias was able to turn east, but found no land. He then turned north and sighted the Mossel Bay, around the cape. On his return trip Dias saw the Cape of Good Hope for the first time in May of 1488. </li></ul><ul><li>His supposed descent from one of Prince Henry the Navigator's that was never proven </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Christopher Columbus dreamed of becoming a sailor. At age 14 he made his first voyage on an Italian ship. Columbus also read books about the world such as the one written by Marco Polo. Columbus wanted to reach the Indies by sailing west. He tried to raised the money for this expedition in Italy and Portugal, but no one would give him the ships he needed. Finally Columbus went to the king and queen of Spain. They gave him three ships; the Nina, the Pinta, and the Santa Maria, as well as a crew and the money he needed to make the trip. On October 12, 1492 Columbus reached the land. He had not found the Indies. He was really in the Atlantic Ocean. The islands he discovered were off the coast of North America; San Salvador then Cuba which Columbus called Juana. Columbus went back to Spain and showed everyone the gold and other goods he had found. Columbus sailed back to the New World three more times. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci </li></ul><ul><li> Vespucci made voyages to the West Indies and South America for Spain and Portugal. He explored the shores of South America. Some of Vespucci reports and maps were found by a German schoolteacher who was writing a geography book. This teacher called the New World America after Vespucci and his voyages. </li></ul><ul><li>Vespucci claimed to have explored these continents in 1497, and it led the mapmaker, Martin Waldseemuller, to consider Vespucci, instead of Columbus, as the man who discovered North and South America. Which they suggested naming these continents after Amerigo Vespucci to honor my expeditions. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li> John Cabot, or Giovanni Caboto as he was really called, having been Italian by birth. </li></ul><ul><li>After King John II of Portugal and King Ferdinand of Spain refused to finance the voyage , King Henry VII agreed to assist him.In 1497, King Henry VII commissioned Cabot to sail west and claim new lands for England. </li></ul><ul><li>Cabot sailed for King Henry VII of England in 1497, 5 years after Columbus. And just where do you think he landed in his little ship, &quot;The Matthew&quot;? Grates Cove, Newfoundland of course! And like any good discoverer, he left his mark to prove it. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1497 John Cabot and his men explored the shores of Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, and Labrador and gave fishing rights to the English. England claimed the whole east coast of North America because they claimed that Cabot was the first to reach the North American mainland. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>King Manuel I of Portugal picked da Gamma to head a new expedition that would continue where Dias had stopped. On November 22, 1498 da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope. In May he landed at Calicut (now Kozhikode) on the southwest coast of India. da Gama brought back many trade goods from the Indies. Although Da Gama's route was much longer than the earlier trade routes which traveled overland, sea travel was cheaper. He also did not have to worry about bandits stealing the goods. This is why other Portuguese sailors followed Da Gama's route. Soon the Portuguese became masters of the Europe to Indies trade route. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Vasco Nùñez de Balboa Balboa led an expedition across Panama looking for gold, but discovered the Pacific Ocean instead. It took 24 days for his group of 190 Spaniards and 1000 natives to cross the 45 miles of jungle. On September 29, 1513 they reached the Pacific Ocean and claimed all the land that touched the Pacific Ocean for Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1514, Balboa’s enemies in Spain, who were jealous of his successes, accused Balboa of treason. They turned the king against him. He was arrested, convicted of treason, and beheaded in January 1519. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Juan Ponce de Leon was a Spanish explorer and soldier who was the first European to set foot in Florida. He also established the oldest European settlement in Puerto Rico and discovered the Gulf Stream (a current in the Atlantic Ocean). Ponce de Leon was searching for the legendary fountain of youth and other riches. </li></ul><ul><li>Second Search for the Fountain of Youth </li></ul><ul><li>Five years after returning to Spain, Ponce de Leon sailed back on another voyage to Bimini in February of 1521 with 2 ships and 200 men. They landed on the west coast of Florida. When they went ashore, they were met by a large group of Native Americans shooting arrows at them. An arrow hit Ponce De Leon. He was taken back to the ship and brought to Cuba. He died in July of 1521 from his wounds. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Magellan proved through his explorations that the Earth is round. He established the first route to the East that involved sailing to the west. This passage went around the tip of South America. Magellan sailed for the Spanish king Charles I. </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan also named the Pacific Ocean (the name means that it is a calm, peaceful ocean). </li></ul><ul><li>Magellan sailed from Seville, Spain, with five ships, the Trinidad, San Antonio, Concepcion, Victoria, and Santiago. Three years later, only one ship (the Victoria) made it back to Seville, carrying only 18 of the original 270 crew members. Magellan was killed towards the end of the voyage, in the Philippines, during a battle with the natives. The Basque navigator Juan Sebastián de Elcano (del Cano) completed the </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Hernando Cortez </li></ul><ul><li>Cortez was a young Spaniard who went to Cuba to find his fortune. He heard stories of gold in Mexico and South America. In 1519 Cortez left Cuba to find this gold. With 300 Aztecs  to every one of Cortez's men the Spanish fought. After 3 battles the Indians gave up. They could not compete against the guns and horses. The Spaniards also wore metal armor. More than this the Indians were afraid of the &quot;god-like&quot; warriors. On November 8, 1519 Cortez reached Mexico City and was received by Montezuma, the Aztec emperor. Cortez captured Montezuma and began to rule the empire through him. The Spaniards made the Aztecs work in the mines looking for gold and silver. This gold and silver was shipped back to Spain. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Giovanni da Verranzano in 1524 Verranzano explored the New World for France. He searched for a route to the Indies through the continent. Verranzano sailed up and down the East Coast of America looking for a passage that would take him further west. He could not find one so he returned to France. </li></ul><ul><li>His journey is recorded in his personal journals. He initially sailed south along the coast of present-day South Carolina, then turned north again. Sailing along the Outer Banks North Carolina, he recorded what he observed to be a large inland sea, which he thought was the beginning of the Pacific Ocean, although it is actually the estuary of the Pamlico Sound. This mistake led mapmakers , starting with Visconte Maggiolo in 1527 and Giovanni's brother Girolamo da Verrazano in 1529, to draw North America as being almost split in two, the two parts connected by a thin land bridge on the East Coast. It would take a century for this error to be corrected of present day. </li></ul><ul><li>Verranzano was eaten by cannibals in the Caribbean </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Francisco Pizarro </li></ul><ul><li>In 1523 Pizarro led an expedition to explore and conquer the land of a wealthy Indian empire. With a ship furnished by the governor of Panama Pizarro explored the coast of Peru. He then sailed to Spain to ask for permission to conquer Peru. The permission was granted. With 200 men and 40 horses Pizarro began to conquer coastal settlements. Pizarro later captured the Inca emperor and slaughter 2,000 Indians. Pizarro accepted a large ransom for returning the emperor. After releasing him he had him executed. </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>Jacques Cartier </li></ul><ul><li>In 1534 Cartier tried to find a sea passage to the East Indies through North America. He could not find a river that would take ships west from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean. Instead he discovered the St. Lawrence River. The St. Lawrence River ended much sooner than Cartier expected. It ended on a high hill which Cartier named Mont Real or King's Mountain in honor of the King of France. Mont Real later became Montreal. Cartier named the area New France and claimed it in the name of the King of France. This discovery opened Canada for Europeans wanting to settle in North America. Cartier took colonists to Cape Rouge near Quebec. The colony was a failure. After this France lost interest in Canada. It would be more than 70 years before another Frenchman came to the mouth of the St. Lawrence River. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Hernando De Soto </li></ul><ul><li> On May 30, 1539 De Soto and his men went into Florida. They marched northward toward Georgia then turned west. His goal was to find gold. In his journey De Soto forced the Indians to give his men supplies. This led to many battles. One of the worst was near Mobile Bay. De Soto discovered the Mississippi River near present day Memphis, Tennessee in the spring of 1541. </li></ul><ul><li>De Soto landed on the western coast of Florida in May of 1539. Their party crossed many places including the Appalachian Mountains. He reached the Mississippi River in early May. They had heard the stories of the Ozark Mountains, so they headed in that direction with hopes of finding gold and silver. By March of 1542, he decided to turn back and sail down the Mississippi to the sea. </li></ul><ul><li>De Soto died near his discovery without finding the gold he sought. </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>Francisco Coronado Coronado commanded an expedition which left from western Mexico in 1540. He was searching for the Seven Golden Cities of  Cibola. Coronado rode through northern Mexico and into what is now Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas. Coronado did not find any golden cities, but discovered the Pueblo Indians. Coronado was upset at not finding the cities of gold. He sent his men off in different directions with orders to find them. His men found the Grand Canyon instead. Coronado would not give up. He marched his army east. There he found the buffalo and grassy plains, but no cities of gold. Coronado claimed all the land over which he and his men had traveled in the name of Spain. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Sir Frances Drake </li></ul><ul><li>Sir Frances Drake was a British sea captain who traded with the Spanish. In 1582 his ship was sunk in a port in Spanish America. Most of Drake's crew was killed. Drake got away and returned to England. He gathered a new crew and a powerful ship. He returned to America. Drake sailed along the coast taking what he could from Spanish treasure ships. He also attacked Spanish settlements up and down the coast. Soon the Spanish were losing more than they were taking back to Spain.  The Spanish called the British sailors pirates and Sea Dogs. The British allowed this to take place because they wanted the Spanish to be less powerful in the New World. This lead to the Spanish gathering a large fleet of ships to attack England called the Spanish Armada. In 1588 the Spanish Armada sailed for England. The British fleet was able to stop them because a storm destroyed many of the Spanish ships and pushed many others off course. This event made the New World a safe place for English colonists with the Spanish no longer a strong sea power. Sir Frances Drake is also known because he became the second captain and the first for England to sail around the world. </li></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>Samuel de Champlain In 1608 Champlain brought a group of settlers to the area around Montreal. They built a fort and a settlement. Champlain sent out traders to buy furs from the Indians. Champlain made friends with the Hurons. He brought missionaries to live with the Indians. These missionaries built churches. Champlain explored the Great Lakes and discovered Lake Champlain. Champlain was the first to systematically investigate the eastern shores of Canada and the New England coast. </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Henry Hudson </li></ul><ul><li> Henry Hudson wanted to find a passage across the continent of North America. He was unable to find the Northeast or the Northwest Passage he sought. He did however add to Europe's knowledge of the Arctic and North America. He discovered the Hudson Bay in 1610. </li></ul><ul><li>Finding no outlet to the Pacific and in the close confinement of an Arctic winter, Hudson's crew fell to quarreling, and on the homeward voyage they mutinied and set Hudson adrift in a small boat, never to be found. His discoveries formed the basis for Dutch colonization of the Hudson River and for English claims to much of Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>He died after June 22, 1611, in or near Hudson Bay </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Father Marquette and Louis Joliet In 1672 Father Marquette , a missionary living with the Huron Indians, contacted Louis Joliet. He wanted them to find a river to the Pacific Ocean. They discovered the Mississippi River. The two traveled as far as the Arkansas River then returned north. </li></ul><ul><li>On June 25, 1673, they noticed a beaten trail on the river’s edge. The trail led them to Illinois Indians -- a Peoria village about two leagues (nearly six miles) from the river and two more villages a half league farther. This describes the location of this site - now Iliniwek Village State Historic Site. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Robert LaSalle Robert LaSalle finished the trip that Father Marquette and Louis Joliet had started earlier. LaSalle sailed all the way to the mouth of the Mississippi River. Along the way he built a chain of trading posts. LaSalle claimed the entire Mississippi River in the name of  France. LaSalle received money from the King of France. His plan was to build a trading post at the mouth of the Mississippi River at the location which is now New Orleans. He got lost and build the post on a small branch of the Mississippi River farther west. Through this the French had a valuable hold on the New World. They made money from the fur trade. The French did little to settle in the New World however. They were more interested in building an empire in Europe. One reason the French were not interested in settling in the New World was because most of the French outposts were in the cold north woods. Many colonists did not want to live under these cold conditions. </li></ul>
  23. 24. Age of Exploration - Timeline The Age of Exploration, also known as the Age of Discovery, was a time for growth and was a time for people to seek answers to questions about the new work. It was a time when famous explorers such as Christopher Columbus, Vasco da Gama, Ponce de Leon and Jacques Cartier began their search for answers to these questions. For a three hundred year time period, beginning in the 1400’s, explorers took to the sea and began looking for new lands, new passageways to previously discovered lands, and for inventions that made oceanic travel easier. Here is a listing of some of the more important dates: 1430  - Infante Dom Henrique (also known as Prince Henry the Navigator) sailed to the Madeiras and Azores, and along the coast of Africa. 1469 - 1474 - Fernão Gomes - sailed along the Africa Guinea coast. 1484 - Diogo Cão - discovered the mouth of the Congo River. 1492 - 1493 Christopher Columbus ( First Voyage ) - sighted land in the Bahamas, discovered Cuba, Española, and other islands in the West Indies. 1493 - 1496 Christopher Columbus ( Second Voyage ) - sighted the island of Dominica, in the West Indies. He sailed throughout the Caribbean and uncovered many other islands. 1497 - 1497 John Cabot ( First Voyage ) - landed on Belle Island on the northern coast of Newfoundland. 1497 - 1499 Vasco de Gama - sailed by the Cape of Good Hope, and reached India.  1498 - 1500 Christopher Columbus ( Third Voyage ) - sighted Trinidad and reached the coast of South America. 1498 John Cabot ( Second Voyage ) - set sail and his four ships, and crew were lost at sea, and never heard from again. 1499 - 1500 Amerigo Vespucci - reached the coast of Brazil and explored the coast of South America. 1501 - Amerigo Vespucci - sighted and explored the coast of Brazil. 1502 - 1504 Christopher Columbus ( Fourth Voyage ) - landed and explored Martinique, Cuba, and other neighboring islands. 1513 Juan Ponce de Leon –sighted a large island, which he gave the name of Pascua Florida. 1519 - 1522 Ferdinand Magellan - discovered the Straits of Magellan and reached the Pacific Ocean. 1521 Juan Ponce de Leon - went to colonize Florida, and had seeds, and priests to convert the Indians. 1524 Giovanni da Verrazzano - landed at Cape Fear, southernmost of North Carolina's three capes. 1534 Jacques Cartier (First Voyage) - set sail and made landfall at Newfoundland 1535 - 1536 Jacques Cartier (Second Voyage) – explored the area of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, the islands in the gulf and Canada. 1536 - Hernando de Soto - he landed near Fort Myers, Florida 1541 - 1542 Jacques Cartier (Third Voyage) - set sail with the purpose of going to colonize Canada.

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