The Search for Spices


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Presentation on motivations for European Exploration as well as so of the main ideas for Portugal and Spain's involvement.

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The Search for Spices

  1. 1. S E C T I O N 1 4 . 1 THE SEARCH FOR SPICES
  2. 2. MOTIVATIONS Why did Europeans desire a direct route to “the Indies”? 1. To eliminate Muslim and Italian merchants who boost the prices and increase their profits. 2. The Spirit of the Crusades inspired others to bring Christianity to the rest of the world.
  3. 3. TECHNOLOGIES What new technologies made sea exploration possible? 1. Cartographers • Map-makers used tools based on the position of the stars to help them calculate location and draw charts accordingly.
  4. 4. TECHNOLOGIES What new technologies made sea exploration possible? 2. Astrolabe • Tool used to determine latitude based on one’s relative position to the north star. • Developed by Ancient Greeks but perfected by Arabs
  5. 5. TECHNOLOGIES What new technologies made sea exploration possible? 3. Caravel New type of boat, larger with a combination of sails • Square sail for catching more wind to increase speed • Triangle lateen sail to help steer a ship in a direction other than the direction of the wind • Deeper keel to maintain stability balancing the force of the wind in the sails • Rudders allowed the ship to be steered despite the direction of the wind
  6. 6. CARAVEL Square Sails Triangle Lateen Sails Deep Keel Rudder
  7. 7. EXPLORERS - PORTUGAL 1. Prince Henry “the Navigator” • inspired by stories of wealth, he was motivated to develop sea routes to distant lands • He opened a school for navigators
  8. 8. EXPLORERS - PORTUGAL 2. Bartholomeu Dias • 1488 rounded the Cape of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa • Returned after his crew protested traveling farther
  9. 9. EXPLORERS - PORTUGAL 3. Vasco da Gama • 1497 led a voyage of 4 ships around the Cape of Good Hope to Calicut in India • He returned with goods that sold for a 3000% profit
  10. 10. EXPLORERS - PORTUGAL hegemony: influence or authority over others • Portuguese sailors seized key ports around the Indian Ocean to create a vast trading empire
  11. 11. EXPLORERS - SPAIN 1. Christopher Columbus • after seeking backing from several nations, Spain finally backed him. • Columbus believed that he could reach the Spice Islands by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. • in 1492 he accidentally reached the “New World” thus opening it for exploitation by Europe
  12. 12. EXPLORERS - SPAIN 2. Vasco Núñez de Balboa • 1513 reached the Pacific Ocean crossing Panama by land • he named it the Pacific Ocean
  13. 13. EXPLORERS - SPAIN 3. Ferdinand Magellan • 1520 undertook a voyage to circumnavigated the globe, though his boats made it, he did not • Only 18 survived to reach Spain
  14. 14. MAIN IDEA #1: EUROPEAN MERCHANTS AND MONARCHS SOUGHT NEW SOURCES OF WEALTH. • The writings of Marco Polo inspired curiosity in the Chinese culture and prosperity.
  15. 15. MAIN IDEA #1: EUROPEAN MERCHANTS AND MONARCHS SOUGHT NEW SOURCES OF WEALTH. • Mansa Musa’s hajj brought attention to West Africa sparking an interest in the rumors of gold.
  16. 16. MAIN IDEA #1: EUROPEAN MERCHANTS AND MONARCHS SOUGHT NEW SOURCES OF WEALTH. • A direct route to “the Indies” would eliminate the price mark-up by the Italian merchants and Muslim traders. • Ever since the Crusades, European interest in Asian trade had been growing. • The fall of feudalism saw a rebound in population as well as increased size and wealth of a new middle that demanded more Asian luxuries (such as porcelain, silk and spices).
  17. 17. MAIN IDEA #2: EUROPEAN NATIONS BELIEVED THAT THEY HAD A SACRED DUTY TO CONVERT NON- CHRISTIANS THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. • Spain, on the heels of the Reconquista (Spanish Crusade), set out to bring God to the world. • Competing denominations of Christianity felt the need to sway people around the world to their individual religion as competition in Europe “heated-up.” • The Catholic Reformation gave Catholics a mandate from the pope to convert and teach people around the world.
  18. 18. MAIN IDEA #3: THE LINE OF DEMARCATION OPENS THE WORLD FOR EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION BY THE EUROPEANS. • The Church acknowledges the world to be open to any Christian who claims it by marking a line on the map. • Since the pope decided the world is to be open to colonization by Europeans, Christians saw it as a mandate to convert the world.
  19. 19. MAIN IDEA #4: TRADE AND EXPLORATION LEADS TO WARFARE AND CONQUEST. • Beginning with the Portuguese, Europeans set out to not only trade with Asia, but to dominate and control it by attacking trade ports. • Europeans forced Native Americans to work their settlements as a form of slavery.
  20. 20. MAIN IDEA #4: TRADE AND EXPLORATION LEADS TO WARFARE AND CONQUEST. • West Africa will be decimated by the slave trade. • A sense of superiority, stemmed by what Europeans believed to be the Word of God, led explorers to dominate the world in God’s name resulting in slavery and conflict.