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Ch 13 European Explorers


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European Explorers - Triangular Trade

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Ch 13 European Explorers

  1. 1. Chapter 13 – European Explorers
  2. 3. Key Events <ul><li>Europeans risked dangerous ocean voyages to discover new sea routes.  </li></ul><ul><li>Spain and Portugal control the “New World” </li></ul><ul><li>Early European explorers sought gold in Africa, then began to trade slaves.  </li></ul>
  3. 4. Motives and Means <ul><li>1500-1800 Dynamic Energy in Europe leads to European Expansion  </li></ul><ul><li>Why would they risk so much to explore?  </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 G’s: </li></ul><ul><li>God </li></ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Glory </li></ul>
  4. 5. The Portuguese <ul><li>Southern coast of Africa along the Atlantic = “The Gold Coast” </li></ul>
  5. 6. The Portuguese = look to round Africa to return from India with Spices <ul><li>In 1488, Bartholomeu Dias rounded the tip of Africa looking for a route to India.  </li></ul><ul><li>Vasco da Gama rounded the tip of Africa and sailed on to the port of Calcutta in India in 1498.  </li></ul><ul><li>He took on a cargo of spices and returned to make a profit of several thousand percent.  </li></ul>
  6. 7. Da Gama’s Ship
  7. 9. Spanish Voyage to Americas <ul><li>As the Portuguese sailed east to reach the source of the spice trade, the Spanish sailed west to find it.  </li></ul><ul><li>Italian Christopher Columbus sails for Spain. </li></ul><ul><li>4 voyages – believes he reaches the Indies </li></ul><ul><li>Opposing viewpoints – page 410 </li></ul>
  8. 10. Video: Age of Exploration- Race for Riches
  9. 11. The Voyage
  10. 12. Voyages to the Americas (cont.) <ul><li>Both Spain and Portugal feared the other would claim some of its newly “discovered” territories.  </li></ul><ul><li>In the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas , they decided on a north-to-south line through the Atlantic Ocean and the easternmost part of South America.  </li></ul><ul><li>Portugal claimed the unexplored territories east of the line, Spain to the west. </li></ul>
  11. 13. Spanish Win the Treaty: They get the best Of the deal
  12. 14. Voyages to the Americas (cont.) <ul><li>Amerigo Vespucci - Florence  </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote letters of the New World.  </li></ul><ul><li>Led to the use of his first name Amerigo for “Americas” </li></ul>
  13. 15. Amerigo Vespucci
  14. 16. Voyages to the Americas (cont.) <ul><li>Spanish Explorers - Conquistadors  </li></ul><ul><li>Cortes, Pizarro - examples  </li></ul><ul><li>Forced labor of Native Americans led to the cruel treatment </li></ul>
  15. 17. Video: Francisco Pizzaro
  16. 18. Voyages to the Americas (cont.) <ul><li>Disease Ravages Americans  </li></ul><ul><li>Smallpox, measles, typhus  </li></ul><ul><li>Hispaniola – pop. 250,000 in 1492 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> pop. 500 in 1538 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Mexico – pop. 25 Million in 1519 </li></ul><ul><li> pop. 1 Million in 1630 </li></ul>
  17. 19. Commerce & Trade <ul><li>Mercantilism – set of principles that dominated economic thought in the 17 th century.  </li></ul><ul><li>Prosperity depends on supply of bullion – gold & silver  </li></ul><ul><li>Balance of Trade – diff between what a nation imports and exports </li></ul>
  18. 20. Slave Trade <ul><li>The Middle Passage – name for the transport of slaves from Africa to America.  </li></ul>Africans originally brought to the new world to supply labor for sugar plantations
  19. 21. Video: The Triangular Trade: Slave Trade
  20. 23. Triangular Trade
  21. 24. Triangular Trade