Project method is one of the modern method of teaching in which, the students point of view is given importance in designing the curricula and content of studies. This method is based on the philosophy of Pragmatism and the principle of ‘Learning by doing’. In this strategy pupils perform constructive activities in natural condition. A project is a list of real life that has been imparted into the school. It demands work from the pupils.
M.Sc. (N) 1st Year
Project method is one of the modern method of teaching
in which, the students point of view is given importance
in designing the curricula and content of studies. This
method is based on the philosophy of Pragmatism and
the principle of ‘Learning by doing’. In this strategy
pupils perform constructive activities in natural condition.
A project is a list of real life that has been imparted into
the school. It demands work from the pupils.
• According to W.H. Kilpatrick, “A project is a wholehearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social
• According to Ballord, “A project is a bit of real life
that has been imparted into school.”
• According to Thomas & Long, “It is a voluntary
undertaking which involves constructive effort or
thought and eventuates into objective results”.
the walls of the
It is carried out
in a natural
solution of practical
It is focused on
the student as it
enlists his/her active
involvement in the
It encourages the
enquiry as it
gathered from the
It promotes a
It enhances the
facilitative role rather
than the role of an
It allows the students a
great degree of freedom
to choose from among
the options given to
them; hence it provides
a psychological boost.
It encourages the spirit
of research in the
TYPES OF PROJECT
Individual and Social projects:
In individual project every students
problem in their own according
interest, capacity, attitude and needs.
Group projects the problem is solved by the
group of pupil in the class. Here the social,
citizenship qualities and synergism are
Simple and Complex project
In the simple projects
completing only one
work at a time. It gives
the deep information
about the project in a
students get deeper
knowledge about the
In the complex project the students are carried out more
than one work at a time. They are focuses on the work in
various subject and angles. Here the students get the
knowledge about the work in various activities and
According to Kilpatrick there are four types of projects:
1. Constructive project: Practical or physical tasks such as
construction of article, making a model, digging the well and playing
drama are done in this type of projects.
2. Aesthetic project:
Appreciation powers of
developed in this type of
of poems and so on.
3. Problematic project:
In this type of project develops the problem solving capacity of
the students through their experiences. It is based on the
4. Drill project:
It is for the mastery of the skill and knowledge of the students.
It increases the work efficacy and capacity of the students.
STEPS OF A PROJECT METHOD
1. Creating Situation:
In the first step teacher creates the proper situation to
the students in the class. He puts up the knowledge
about the project method procedure, steps, and uses to
A project should arise out of a need felt by students
and it should never be forced on them. It should be
purposeful and significant.
2. Selection of the problem:
The teacher helps the students to select the
problem and guide them. Students are having freedom
to choose the topic or problem based on their interest
Before choosing the topic the principles should
be taken in to an account. Such as school tasks are to
be as real and as purposeful and they are of such a
nature that the student is genuinely eager to carry them
out in order to achieve a desirable and clearly realized
Teacher should only tempt the students for a
particular project by providing a situation but the
proposal for the project should finally come from
The teacher discuss with the students about the problem in
various angles and points.
After the free expression of the students’ opinion about
the problem, the teacher writes down the whole programme of
action stepwise on the blackboard.
In the process of planning teacher has to act only as a
guide and should give suggestions at times but actual planning
be left to the students.
The students are stating their work in this step. They are collecting
the relevant information and materials at first. The teacher should give the
time and right to the students according to their own speed, interest and
During this step the teacher should carefully supervise the pupils in
manipulative skills to prevent waste of materials and to guard accidents.
Teacher should constantly check up the relation between the chalked out
plans and the developing project.
Evaluation of the project should be
done both by the pupils and the
teachers. Here the students evaluating their
task. They determine whether the objects are
achieved or not. After that they criticize and
express their feeling about the task freely. The
evaluation of the project has to be done in the
light of plans, difficulties in the execution and
6. Reporting and Recording:
It is the last step of the project method in which
each and every step of the work are reported. The
reported things are recorded in a certain order in a
It should include the proposal, plan and its
discussion, duties allotted to different students and
how far they were carried out by them. It should
also include the details of places visited and
surveyed guidance for future and all other possible
The book formatted report is submitted to the
teacher at the end.
ROLE OF THE TEACHER:
• In project method of teaching the role of a teacher is
that of a guide, friend and philosopher.
• The teacher is not a dictator or a commander but a
friend, guide and a working partner.
• He encourages his students to work collectively, and
• He also helps his students to avoid mistakes.
• He makes it a point that each member of the group
contributed something to the completion of the
• If the students face failure during execution of some steps of
the project the teacher should not execute any portion of the
project but should suggest them some better methods of
techniques that may be used by them next time for the success
of the project.
• He should help the students in developing the character and
personality by allowing them to accept the responsibilities
and discharge them efficiently.
• He should provide democratic atmosphere in the class so that
the pupils can express themselves fully without any fear of the
• He should be alert and active all the time to see that the
project is running in its right lines.
• He should have a thorough knowledge of individual
children so as to allot them work accordingly.
• He should have initiative, tact and zest for learning.
• Teacher should always remain alert and active
during execution step and see that the project goes to
• During execution of the project teacher should
maintain a democratic atmosphere.
• Teacher must be well – read and well-informed so
that he can help the students to the successful
completion of the project.
MERITS OF PROJECT METHOD:
As students get proper
freedom to execute the
project in accordance with
abilities, because of which
they get their psychological
b. This method is not only
subject centered, but due
provided to the students
provided with various
opportunities by which
they can satisfy their
interests and desires.
d. Habit of critical thinking gets developed among the students through this
e. With this method, students get the ample chances in which they can develop
coordination among their body and mind.
f. Through this method, teacher can lead a well balanced development of the
g. Through this method, science teaching can be done with considerable
success, as science is a practical subject and this method is also scientific and
practical in nature.
This method helps in
promoting social interaction
and co-operation among the
students, as they have to
work in a group and have to
interact with various persons
for gathering information.
h. As students gain knowledge
directly through their own
efforts, thus, they acquire
retained by them since a long
period of time.
Mostly the projects are undertaken in classroom as classroom
assignments, because of which load of home work from the
students get reduced to considerable extent.
j. It helps to widen the mental horizon of pupils.
k. It sets up a challenge to solve a problem and this stimulates
constructive and creative thinking.
DEMERITS OF PROJECT METHOD
a. This method takes a lot
of time to plan and
execute a single project.
b. It is not possible to
design different projects
for different topics and it
is also not possible to
cover all the topics or
content in a single project.
c. For proper execution of a
project, large number of
financial resources are
d. Such method can only be prove successful if the teacher is highly
knowledgeable, alert and exceptionally gifted.
e. Systematic and adequate learning is not provided by this method,
as it is a method of incidental learning. Through this method,
students learn only what is required by them in relation to the
completion of the projects.
f. Generally, it is found that teachers do not possess much
information regarding the manner in which this method should be
used as a result of which they hesitate from using this method, as a
result of which, its utility remains more or less limited to negligible
g. Sometimes the projects may be too ambitious and beyond
student’s capacity to accomplish.