Virginia henderson's theory of nursing


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Virginia Henderson was born in Kansas City, Missouri in 1897, the fifth of eight children in her family. During the World War 1, Henderson developed an interest in nursing. So in 1918 she entered the Army school of Nursing in Washington D.C. Henderson graduated in 1921 and accepted a position as a staff nurse with the Henry Street Visiting Nurse Service in New York. After 2 years, in 1923, she started teaching nursing at the Norfolk Protestant Hospital in Virginia. She has enjoyed a long career as an author and researcher. She is known as, “The Nightingale of Modern Nursing” & “The 20th century Florence Nightingale."

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Virginia henderson's theory of nursing

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  3. 3. EVOLUTION OF THEORY Virginia Henderson was the nurse-theorist who devoted her career to defining nursing practice. She believed that an occupation that affects human life must outline its functions particularly if it is to be regarded as profession. Her ideas about definition of nursing were influenced by her nursing education and practice by her students and colleagues at Columbia University School of Nursing, and by distinguished nursing leaders of her time. Two events are the basis for her development of definition of nursing and these are: • First, she participated in the revision of a nursing text book. During revision of the “Textbooks of the principles and practice of nursing” written with Bertha Harmer (1922) Henderson realized the need to be clear about the functions of the nurse. • Second, she was concerned that the many states had no provision for nursing licensure to ensure safe and competent care for the consumers. 3
  4. 4. She examined the earlier statements of the nursing functions by American Nurses Association and viewed these statements as non specific and unsatisfactory definition of nursing practice. In 1966, Henderson’s first definition of nursing was published in Bertha harmer’s revised nursing text book. It reads as “the unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual (sick or well) in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.” 4
  5. 5. CONCEPTS USED BY HENDERSON Henderson called her definition of nursing as concept. Henderson viewed human being, health, environment and nursing as follow: Human being: The patient as an individual who requires assistance to achieve health and independence or peaceful death. The mind and the body are inseparable. The patient and his family are viewed as a unit. Health: She views health in terms of patient’s ability to perform unaided the 14 components of nursing care. She says it is “the quality of the health rather than life itself, that margins of mental physical vigor that allows a person to work most effectively to reach his highest potential of satisfaction in life.” Contd…… 5
  6. 6. Environment: She used Webster dictionary, which defines environment as “the aggregate of all the external conditions and influences affecting the life and development of an organism.” Nursing: In1966, Henderson ultimate statements in the definition of nursing were published of her ideas it reads as follows: “The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual (sick or well) in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this, in such a way as to help him gain independence as rapidly as possible.” 6
  7. 7. CHARACTERISTICS OF HENDERSON’S THEORY • There is interrelation of concepts. • Concepts of fundamental human needs are borrowed from other discipline e.g. Maslow’s theory. • Her definition and components are logical and the 14 components are a guide for the individual and nurse in reaching the chosen goal. • Relatively simple yet generalizable. • Applicable to the health of individuals of all ages. 7
  8. 8. Contd….. • Can be the bases for hypotheses that can be tested. • Assist in increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline. • Her ideas of nursing practice are well accepted. • Can be utilized by practitioners to guide and improve their practice. 8
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  12. 12. 12 Play or participate in various forms of recreation. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
  13. 13. MATAPARADIGM OF HENDERSON’S THEORY INDIVIDUAL:  Have basic needs that are component of health.  Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a peaceful death.  Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.  Considers the biological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual components.  The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with biopsychosocial needs. 13
  14. 14. Environment:  Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living.  All external conditions and influences that affect life and development.  Individuals in relation to families.  Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and family.  Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient can perform the 14 activities unaided. 14
  15. 15. Health:  Definition based on individual’s ability to function independently as outlined in the 14 components.  Nurses need to stress promotion of health and prevention and cure of disease.  Good health is a challenge -affected by age, cultural background, physical, and intellectual capacities, and emotional balance Is the individual’s ability to meet these needs independently. 15
  16. 16. Nursing:  Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength, will and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs.  Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of independence.  Nurse serves to make patient “complete” “whole", or "independent."  The nurse is expected to carry out physician’s therapeutic plan. Individualized care is the result of the nurse’s creativity in planning for care.  “Nurse should have knowledge to practice individualized and human care and should be a scientific problem solver.”  In the Nature of Nursing Nurse role is,” to get inside the patient’s skin and supplement his strength will or knowledge according to his needs.” 16
  17. 17. HENDERSON’S THEORY AND NURSING PROCESS  Nursing assessment: Assess needs of human being based in the 14 components of basic nursing care.  Nursing Diagnosis: Identify individual’s ability to meet own needs with or without assistance, taking into consideration strength, will or knowledge.  Nursing Plan: Document how the nurse can assist the individual, sick or well. 17
  18. 18.  Nursing Implementation Assist the sick or well individual in to performance of activities in meeting human needs to maintain health, recover from illness, or to aid in peaceful death. Implementation based on the physiological principles, age, cultural background, emotional balance, and physical and intellectual capacities.Carry out treatment prescribed by the physician. 18
  19. 19. Nursing Evaluation Use the acceptable definition of nursing and appropriate laws related to the practice of nursing. The quality of care is drastically affected by the preparation and native ability of the nursing personnel rather that the amount of hours of care.Successful outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with which or degree to which the patient performs independently the activities of daily living. 19
  20. 20. THEORETICAL ASSERTIONS The Nurse-Patient Relationship: Henderson stated that there are three levels compromising the nurse-patient relationship: The nurse as a substitute for the patient. The nurse as a helper to the patient. The nurse as a partner with the patient. 20
  21. 21. The Nurse-Physician Relationship Henderson asserted that nurses function independently from physicians. Though the nurse and the patient, as partners, formulate the plan of care, it must be implemented in such a way that will promote the physician’s prescribed therapeutic plan. She also insisted that nurses do not follow doctor’s orders; rather they follow in a philosophy which allows physicians to give orders to patients or other healthcare team members. 21
  22. 22. The Nurse as a Member of the Healthcare Team: For a team to work together in harmony, every member must work interdependently. The nurse, as a member of the healthcare team, works and contributes in carrying out the total program of care. However, working interdependently, as Henderson indicated, does not include taking other member’s roles and responsibilities. 22
  23. 23. APPLICATIONS Practice: • The nurse can help the patient move to an independent state by  Assessment- assess the patients for 14 fundamental needs and determine what are lacking.  Planning- plan to meet the needs fit to the doctors prescribed plan.  Implementation- uses the 14 basic needs in answering the factors contribute to the illness. Assist the sick or well individual to maintain health or recover from illness.  Evaluation phase- decides whether goals are met or not. • Provide a rationale for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of clients. • Help build a common nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health professionals. 23
  24. 24. Education Development of 3 phases of curriculum development that students should progress in their learning. The focus in all three phases remains the same these are: • Assisting the patient when he needs strength, will or knowledge in performing his daily activities or in carrying out prescribed therapy with the ultimate goal of independence. • Develop a habit of inquiry; take courses in biological, physical, and social sciences and in the humanities; study with students in other fields, observe effective care, and give effective care in a variety of settings. • Involve students in the complete study of the patient and all his needs. 24
  25. 25. Research • Research questions arise from each of the 14 components of basic nursing care. • Henderson concluded no profession, occupation or industry in this age can evaluate adequately or improve it practice without research. • Offer a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas. • She emphasized the importance of research in evaluating and improving the nurses’ practice. 25
  27. 27. STRENGTHS  The concept of nursing formulated by Henderson in her definition of nursing and the 14 components of basic nursing is uncomplicated and self-explanatory. Therefore, it can be used without difficulty as a guide for nursing practice by most nurses.  Henderson’s work is relatively simple yet generalizable with some limitations.  Her work can be applied to the health of individuals of all ages.  Each of the 14 activities can be the basis for research. 27
  28. 28. WEAKNESS A major shortcoming in her work is the lack of a conceptual linkage between physiological and other human characteristics. No concept of the holistic nature of human being. Lacks inter-relate of factors and the influence of nursing care. 28
  29. 29. BIBLIOGRAPHY • Basavanthappa BT. Nursing theories. 1st ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher; 2007.p. 61-65. • Basavanthappa BT. Fundamentals of nursing. 2nd ed. New Delhi: Jaypee Brothers Medical Publisher; 2007.p. 52. • Kozier and erb’s. Fundamental of nursing. 8th ed. New Delhi: Pearson; 2009. p. 43-44. • Sr. Nancy. Principles and practice of nursing. 6th ed. Indore: N.R. Brothers; 2007.p. 602-603. • • • • need-theory.php 29
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