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Prepared by: san juan , marichu m..
The project method is an educational enterprise in which
children solve a practical problem over a period of several
days or weeks. It may involve building a rocket, designing a
playground, or publishing a class newspaper. The projects
may be suggested by the teacher, but they are planned and
executed as far as possible by the students themselves,
individually or in groups. Project work focuses on applying,
not imparting, specific knowledge or skills, and on
improving student involvement and motivation in order to
foster independent thinking, self-confidence, and social
According to traditional
historiography, the project idea
is a genuine product of the
education movement. The idea
was thought to have originally
been introduced in 1908 as a
new method of teaching
agriculture, but educator
William H. Kilpatrick
elaborated the concept and
popularized it worldwide in his
famous article, "The Project
five phases in the history of the project method can be
1590–1765: At the academies of architecture in Rome and
Paris, advanced students work on a given problem, such as
designing a monument, fountain, or palace.
1765–1880: The project becomes a regular teaching method;
newly established schools of engineering in France, Germany,
and Switzerland adopt the idea. In 1865, the project is
introduced by William B. Rogers at the Massachusetts Institute
of Technology into the United States.
1880–1918: Calvin M. Woodward adapts the project concept to
schoolwork. At his Manual Training School students actually
produce the projects they designed. Gradually the idea
spreads from manual training (Charles R. Richards) to
vocational education (David. S. Snedden, Rufus W. Stimson)
and general science (John F. Woodhull).
1918–1965: Kilpatrick conceives the project broadly as "whole-hearted
purposeful activity proceeding in a social
environment." After being criticized by Boyd H. Bode, John
Dewey, and other leading American Progressive educators,
Kilpatrick's approach loses its attraction in the United States,
yet receives general approval in Europe, India, and the Soviet
The 1970s: Kilpatrick's project method, now taken as the only
adequate method of teaching in a democratic society, is
rediscovered in Germany, the Netherlands, and other
European countries. Under the influence of British primary
school education, U.S. educators attempt to redefine the
project, viewing it as an important supplement to the
traditional teacher-oriented, subject-centered curriculum.
Main principles of project method
The principle of purpose. Knowledge of purpose is a great
stimulus and motivates the child realize his goal.
The principle of activity. Children are active by nature.
The principle of experience. Experience is the best teacher.
The principle of social experience. The child is a social being
and we have to prepare him for social life.
The principle of freedom. The desire for an activity must be
spontaneous and not force by the teacher.
The principle of utility. Knowledge will be worth while only
when it is useful and practical.
W.H.Kilpatrick Four Types of Project
The producer type. Project calling for
production of some physical materials.
Consumer type. Project in which pupils are
not getting the experience and are enjoying
engaged in consumer type.
Problem type. Project in which solution to a
problem is to be found out.
Drill type. An activity once performed is
repeated to acquire greater skill.
Criteria for selecting project
Selected topic should have educational value
and it should be worthwhile.
It should not take over time.
It should be challenging in nature.
Cost and availability of material should be
kept in mind.
It should be selected according to the will of
It arouses and maintains interest of student.
It keeps the student on freedom of thoughts, and
action while doing the work.
It provides more creative constructive thinking of
It helps to know the individual differences.
It helps the students to think scientifically and
logically before starting the project.
It provides the growth of individual through
It helps student to evaluate and judge his
Group project develops team spirit and
Misconception of term project.
Wrong selection of topic.
Over consumption of time.
Costly and non availability of suitable things.
Changes of subject matter over tapping.
Essentials of a good project
6. Rich in experience
Merits of project methods
1. Based on the laws of learning
2. Related with life.
3. Correlates all the subjects.
4. Trains for the democratic way of life.
5. Gives training citizenship.
6. Upholds the dignity of labor .
7. stresses problem solving.
8. A source of happiness for the back word.
9. Provides freedom.
10. Solves the problems of indiscipline.