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Nastavne strategije za uspjesno ucenje
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Project Method

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Project Method

  1. 1. PROJECT METHOD OF TEACHING Prepared by: san juan , marichu m..
  2. 2. Definition  The project method is an educational enterprise in which children solve a practical problem over a period of several days or weeks. It may involve building a rocket, designing a playground, or publishing a class newspaper. The projects may be suggested by the teacher, but they are planned and executed as far as possible by the students themselves, individually or in groups. Project work focuses on applying, not imparting, specific knowledge or skills, and on improving student involvement and motivation in order to foster independent thinking, self-confidence, and social responsibility.
  3. 3.  According to traditional historiography, the project idea is a genuine product of the American Progressive education movement. The idea was thought to have originally been introduced in 1908 as a new method of teaching agriculture, but educator William H. Kilpatrick elaborated the concept and popularized it worldwide in his famous article, "The Project Method" (1918).
  4. 4. five phases in the history of the project method can be differentiated:  1590–1765: At the academies of architecture in Rome and Paris, advanced students work on a given problem, such as designing a monument, fountain, or palace.  1765–1880: The project becomes a regular teaching method; newly established schools of engineering in France, Germany, and Switzerland adopt the idea. In 1865, the project is introduced by William B. Rogers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology into the United States.  1880–1918: Calvin M. Woodward adapts the project concept to schoolwork. At his Manual Training School students actually produce the projects they designed. Gradually the idea spreads from manual training (Charles R. Richards) to vocational education (David. S. Snedden, Rufus W. Stimson) and general science (John F. Woodhull).
  5. 5.  1918–1965: Kilpatrick conceives the project broadly as "whole-hearted purposeful activity proceeding in a social environment." After being criticized by Boyd H. Bode, John Dewey, and other leading American Progressive educators, Kilpatrick's approach loses its attraction in the United States, yet receives general approval in Europe, India, and the Soviet Union.  The 1970s: Kilpatrick's project method, now taken as the only adequate method of teaching in a democratic society, is rediscovered in Germany, the Netherlands, and other European countries. Under the influence of British primary school education, U.S. educators attempt to redefine the project, viewing it as an important supplement to the traditional teacher-oriented, subject-centered curriculum.
  6. 6. Main principles of project method  The principle of purpose. Knowledge of purpose is a great stimulus and motivates the child realize his goal.  The principle of activity. Children are active by nature.  The principle of experience. Experience is the best teacher.  The principle of social experience. The child is a social being and we have to prepare him for social life.  The principle of freedom. The desire for an activity must be spontaneous and not force by the teacher.  The principle of utility. Knowledge will be worth while only when it is useful and practical.
  7. 7. W.H.Kilpatrick Four Types of Project  The producer type. Project calling for production of some physical materials.  Consumer type. Project in which pupils are not getting the experience and are enjoying engaged in consumer type.  Problem type. Project in which solution to a problem is to be found out.  Drill type. An activity once performed is repeated to acquire greater skill.
  8. 8. Criteria for selecting project  Selected topic should have educational value and it should be worthwhile.  It should not take over time.  It should be challenging in nature.  Cost and availability of material should be kept in mind.  It should be selected according to the will of the student.
  9. 9. Steps purchasing planning executing judging reporting
  10. 10. Purchasing and Planning
  11. 11. Executing
  12. 12. Judging and Reporting
  13. 13. Advantages  It arouses and maintains interest of student.  It keeps the student on freedom of thoughts, and action while doing the work.  It provides more creative constructive thinking of the students.  It helps to know the individual differences.  It helps the students to think scientifically and logically before starting the project.  It provides the growth of individual through activity.
  14. 14. Advantages  It helps student to evaluate and judge his finish work.  Group project develops team spirit and cooperation.
  15. 15. Disadvantages  Misconception of term project.  Wrong selection of topic.  Over consumption of time.  Costly and non availability of suitable things.  Changes of subject matter over tapping.
  16. 16. Essentials of a good project 1. Timely 2. Usefulness 3. Interesting 4. Challenging 5. Economical 6. Rich in experience 7. Cooperatives
  17. 17. Merits of project methods 1. Based on the laws of learning 2. Related with life. 3. Correlates all the subjects. 4. Trains for the democratic way of life. 5. Gives training citizenship. 6. Upholds the dignity of labor . 7. stresses problem solving. 8. A source of happiness for the back word. 9. Provides freedom. 10. Solves the problems of indiscipline.
  18. 18. Thank You 
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