NG BB 40 Solution Selection

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NG BB 40 Solution Selection

  1. 1. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Module 40 Solution Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  2. 2. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUOCPI Roadmap – Improve 8-STEP PROCESS 6. See 1.Validate 2. Identify 3. Set 4. Determine 5. Develop 7. Confirm 8. Standardize Counter- the Performance Improvement Root Counter- Results Successful Measures Problem Gaps Targets Cause Measures & Process Processes Through Define Measure Analyze Improve Control TOOLS ACTIVITIES •Brainstorming • Develop Potential Solutions •Replenishment Pull/Kanban • Develop Evaluation Criteria •Stocking Strategy • Select Best Solutions •Process Flow Improvement • Develop Future State Process Map(s) •Process Balancing • Develop Pilot Plan •Standard Work • Pilot Solution •Quick Change Over • Develop Full Scale Action/ •Design of Experiments (DOE) Implementation Plan •Solution Selection Matrix • Complete Improve Gate •‘To-Be’ Process Mapping •Poka-Yoke •6S Visual Mgt •RIE Note: Activities and tools vary by project. Lists provided here are not necessarily all-inclusive. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  3. 3. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Learning Objectives  Know some of the principles of creative idea generation  Apply the idea generation brainstorming tools  Use tools to select and prioritize improvement ideas Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 3
  4. 4. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Sources of Solutions Best Practices Ideas from Other Root Causes Projects Generate Project Goals Improvement Brainstorming Ideas “Discoveries” Performance During Analysis Benchmark Targets Ideas Focus on one root cause at a time. Start with the root causes determined to have the biggest contribution to the problem statement. Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 4
  5. 5. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Solution Generation – Strength in Numbers  Both the strengths and the number of potential solutions generated have a huge impact on the strength of the final improvement solution selected  It is best to exhaust all of the ideas that the team can produce  Often, the best potential solutions emerge toward the end of intense creativity efforts when everybody has many details fresh in mind related to the problem at hand  The synthesis portion involves taking best characteristics from all the potential solutions to generate stronger solutions - the more potential solutions available to explore, the more opportunities for uncovering ideas for improvements  The selection portion involves deciding which solution improvements to implement Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 5
  6. 6. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Generating Solutions  You need to generate as many potential solutions as possible for each root cause  Later in the process, you will narrow down, build on and combine these ideas into single solutions - at that point, the team will have two options:  Select the best solution for each function and then integrate them into one overall solution  Integrate different combinations of solutions into different overall solutions and select the best overall solution  But now you need to generate as many ideas as possible Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 6
  7. 7. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Principles for Generating Solutions  Generating potential solutions is a very creative process  Creativity methods and tools offer enormous value  Potential solutions are often best generated by individuals  Refining and synthesizing potential solutions is usually best performed in groups Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 7
  8. 8. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Building on Creative Ideas Far-Fetched Kernel of Threshold of Good Idea – Perfect Idea Something Acceptability Could Implement Idea Useful Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 8
  9. 9. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Examples of Building on Creative Ideas Expand Lie to Customization Customers Capability Far-Fetched Kernel of Threshold of Good Idea – Perfect Idea Something Acceptability Could Implement Idea Useful Stop Educate Answering Customers So We the Phone Get Fewer Calls Far-Fetched Kernel of Threshold of Good Idea – Perfect Idea Something Acceptability Could Implement Idea Useful 9 Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  10. 10. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Idea Generation UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  11. 11. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Brainstorming – Used in Analyze Phase  Brainstorming is a structured method of generating unconstrained ideas/solutions and gaining engagement/involvement in the improvement process  It produces many ideas/solutions in a short time  It facilitates the creative thinking process  It separates idea generation from the organizing/assessment of the ideas Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 11
  12. 12. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Rules for Effective Brainstorming DO  Allow individuals to complete their thoughts  Build on existing ideas  Be brief when stating an idea  Organize, categorize, and evaluate only after the session  Strive for quantity Don’t  Criticize ideas (allow “idea assassins”)  Make judgments as ideas are being offered  Paraphrase an individual’s idea when scribing  Dominate the session Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 12
  13. 13. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creative Thinking - Twenty Questions What? Where? When? Who? How? What Where is it When is it Who does How is it Current happens? done? done? it? done? Method Why do it? Why do it Why do it Why them? Why do it Reason there? then? this way? Can we do Can we do Can we do Can Can we do Better something it it some somebody it some Way else? somewhere other time? else do it? other way? else? What Where When Who should How should New Ideas should we should it be should it be do it? it be done? do? done? done? Useful to “tear apart” an existing process or service and challenge all current assumptions prior to developing the next generation Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 13
  14. 14. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Creative Thinking - Six Thinking Hats Another tool that may help the team reach a good decision on the best concept is the Six Thinking Hats Technique. White  White – Just the Blue  Blue – Process – Facts – Facts, data, Monitors use of the “Just the verifiable information Process other hats Facts”  Red – Emotional – Red Green  Green – Creative – How do people feel, Idea generation, how will people feel Emotional Creative out of the box Black  Black – Cautious – What can go wrong, Yellow  Yellow – Optimist – Cautious risk identification What are the Optimist opportunities Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 14
  15. 15. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO How To Use The Six Thinking Hats  Method 1 – Everyone has a different hat (variants)  A thinker puts on or takes off one of the hats  A facilitator asks a thinker to put on or take off one of the hats  All thinkers put on one hat for a period of time  Each thinker is assigned a different hat to wear for a period of time  All thinkers wear hats they do not “normally” wear  Method 2  Everyone (except facilitator) wears the same hat  Facilitator (blue hat) indicates when to change hats and what hat to wear Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 15
  16. 16. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Challenge Assumptions  Everyone brings assumptions to the problem-solving table. Such assumptions can reflect what we know or, as is often the case, what we think we know  Challenging conventional assumptions about your problem can help you turn obstacles into opportunities  Work to escape the self-imposed constraints that traditional assumptions often create Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 16
  17. 17. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Random Word  This technique helps teams approach problems from different perspectives rather than through patterned ways of thinking  Pick a word, any word, and use what comes to mind to see if it applies to your problem  For example, what comes to mind when you think of the word “Satellite” as it relates to an Accounts Receivables problem? (e.g., e-Payment)  When that word is exhausted, pick another word Accounts Receivable (First Word: Satellite) 1 2 3 4 5 1 Skeleton Room Treadmill Oven Filter 2 Valley Fruit Library Purse Molecule 3 Maze Water Air Earth Money 4 Tunnel Altar Diamond Army Computer 5 Amoeba Anvil Bait Balloon Bible 6 Algebra Alphabet Child Lamp Leg 7 Menu Prison Monster Muscle Nest 8 Pepper Pill Satellite Pod Ring 9 Rainbow Rudder Safe Sauce Saloon 10 Ice Index Key Ladder Landslide Lever Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 17
  18. 18. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Random Personality  Similar to Random Word, this technique also helps teams approach problems from different perspectives rather than through patterned ways of thinking  Pick a well known personality, real or imaginary, and use what comes to mind to see if it applies to your problem  For example, “How would Mickey Mouse approach this?” – “have fun,” “control crowds,” etc.  When that personality is exhausted, pick another personality General Patton Genghis Kahn Mickey Mouse Fay Ray Madonna The Beatles Bill Gates Jack Welch Our General Sgt. Smith Spiderman Superman Batman Harry Potter Frodo JFK Pres. Bush Winston Churchill Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 18
  19. 19. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO National Guard Black Belt Training Solution Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  20. 20. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Selection Flow Chart Possible Solutions Screen Out “Show Stoppers” Acceptable Solutions Narrow List Only if brainstorming generated many different solutions. Likely Solutions Nominal Group Benefit/Effort Pugh Matrix Technique Matrix Prioritized List Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 20
  21. 21. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Screen Out Show Stoppers  Eliminate low payoff solutions  Screen against must criteria  Violate a law or regulation  Conflict with Organization policy, values, or strategy  Conflict with customer requirements  Require investments well beyond the scope of the project  Not be practical or feasible  Be too risky Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 21
  22. 22. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Use Nominal Group Techniques  Need a clarified list of items to choose from  Give each person a number of cards/slips of paper equal to the number of choices they will have (5-10)  Choose the “best” items, one per slip  One at a time, choose best item, item to eliminate, best item, etc. and give them a score, best item has most points  Record votes, number and total score to serve as a basis for discussion Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 22
  23. 23. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Solution Selection Matrix (PICK Chart)  A payoff matrix looks at the relationship of benefit and effort to reduce the number of solutions to address. High IMPLEMENT CONSIDER Eliminate all high effort/low payoffBenefit solutions from further consideration POTENTIAL KILL Low Low High Effort Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 23
  24. 24. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO The Benefit/Effort Matrix Benefit Effort  Amount of contribution  Amount of resources to the issue being used to get benefit addressed  Money spent – capital  Financial benefits expenditures are more effort than non-capital  “Moves the Y”  Time/effort needed High Benefit  Breadth of coordination Low needed Low High Effort  Regulation/policy issues Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 24
  25. 25. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Process for Pugh Matrix 1. Create a list of criteria (usually before idea generation) 2. Weight the list of criteria (usually before idea generation) 3. Record a list of solutions 4. Initial screening of solutions 5. Compare the list of solutions to the weighted criteria – score each 6. Total scores for each solution – discuss results Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 25
  26. 26. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Pugh Matrix Example nt erme Solutions cas t H pow M AC base cess Fore m ing yee E Data o ov ed id Pr cast t lo h rt We ig Hybr Impr For e Emp Sma Criteria Clearly defined roles and responsibilities 10 H H H H Business Base Forecast drives staffing forecast. 15 H H All Em ployees are addressed 13 H H Order satisfied by need date 4 M M M H Identifies the right person (skill m atch) 15 M M H H Sim ple process 8 L H M L Real tim e status of orders 1 M M M H Provides exception visibility 2 M M M H Real need dates on orders 10 M M M H Measurable, trackable process 9 H H H H Rapid identification of need to hire 10 M L L H Efficient m ovem ent of people betw een team s 13 L M H H Score 318 388 508 252 926 Blank = 0, L = 1, M = 3, H = 9 Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 26
  27. 27. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Exercise: Generate & Prioritize Solutions  In small teams  For the GGA Budget Simulation, use one of the idea generation techniques:  Round-robin brainstorming  Brainstorming with Random word/personality  Twenty Questions  Six Thinking Hats  Challenging Assumptions  Use one of the idea selection techniques:  Payoff Matrix (PICK Chart) 30 Minutes  Nominal Group Technique  Pugh Matrix Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 27
  28. 28. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Solution Selection Matrix Template Per Commercial Terms Time to Issue Invoice Root Causes (Xs)? - Example - Level of Effort Presentation Overall Impact Rating Complete Accuracy Risk Rating Root Cause Significance Rating ? 10 10 10 10 10 10 Potential Improvements ? Impact Rating Offshore Costs 7 1 5 8 1 10 320 8 Commercial Terms 8 4 2 5 10 7 360 7 Quantity of Source Data 8 5 7 7 1 10 380 6 Reconciliation 10 10 10 1 10 10 510 6 Quality of Source Data 7 7 7 7 7 7 420 7 Training 8 7 10 5 8 10 480 6 Client (eg RCTI) 6 2 2 10 8 8 360 5 Job Setup 10 4 10 6 10 10 500 5 Payroll Close Date 8 10 1 1 1 8 290 8 Pre-Billing 10 8 6 8 2 10 440 5 Client Reporting Requirements 7 9 4 10 10 10 500 4 Delivery Method 9 1 1 5 5 7 280 9 Job Completion 7 10 1 7 5 10 400 3 Job Manager Requirements 9 7 5 4 8 9 420 2 * Solutions ranked > 450 have been selected to be implemented Required DeliverableUNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  29. 29. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Implementation Plan Template PROJECT NAME DIVISION GREEN BELT DATE PROJECT SPONSOR SERVICE AREA / FUNCTION / SERVICE BLACK BELT Responsible Implementation Control Action Target/ Actual Solution Improvement Action Individual/ Issues/Barriers Risk Mitigation Current Status/ Comments Number Number Complete Date Solution Owner 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Required DeliverableUNCLASSIFIED / FOUO
  30. 30. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO Takeaways Now you should be able to  Describe some of principles of creative idea generation  Use Brainstorming to generate ideas  Use Nominal Group Technique, Benefit/Effort Matrix, and Pugh Matrix to prioritize a list of ideas Solution Generation and Selection UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO 30
  31. 31. UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO What other comments or questions do you have? UNCLASSIFIED / FOUO

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