Chapter 14Leadership and ManagementBehavior in MultinationalCompanies                    Copyright© 2007 Thomson Learning ...
Learning Objectives••   Know the characteristics of global business leadership      Know the characteristics of global bus...
Learning Objectives•• Develop sensitivity to national cultural differences in    Develop sensitivity to national cultural ...
Learning Objectives•• Understand how the national culture affects a leader’s   Understand how the national culture affects...
Leadership•• Leadership: process of influencing group members to   Leadership: process of influencing group members to   a...
Global Leadership: The New          Breed•• One who has the skills and abilities to interact with and   One who has the sk...
Global Leadership:       Characteristics-- Knowledgeable about cultural and institutional   Knowledgeable about cultural a...
Global Leadership: The New          Breed•• Emotional intelligence: refers to the ability of the global    Emotional intel...
Three Classic Models:         A Vocabulary of Leadership•• Three basic models of leadership   Three basic models of leader...
Leadership Traits•• Are leaders born or made?    Are leaders born or made?•• Great-person theory: idea that leaders are bo...
Traits of Successful U.S.          Leaders•• Higher intelligence and self-confidence    Higher intelligence and self-confi...
Leadership Behaviors: U.S.          Perspectives on Leadership          Behaviors•• Two major types of leadership behavior...
Leader Decision Making          Styles•• Autocratic leadership: leaders make all major    Autocratic leadership: leaders m...
Exhibit 15.1: Likert’s Four Styles ofManagement                  Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights...
Japanese Perspectives on        Leader Behaviors•• Performance-maintenance (PM) theory:   Performance-maintenance (PM) the...
Performance-Maintenance          Theory•• Performance function (P): similar to task-centered    Performance function (P): ...
Performance-Maintenance          Theory•• Maintenance function (M): similar to person-centered    Maintenance function (M)...
Indian Perspectives on Leader          Behaviors•• Nurturant-task-oriented leadership (NT) theory:    Nurturant-task-orien...
Afro-Centric Perspectives on          Leader Behaviors•• Afro-centric model of leadership: emphasizes person-   Afro-centr...
Contingency Theory•• Assumption that different styles and different leaders    Assumption that different styles and differ...
Fiedler’s Theory of Leadership•• Proposed that managers tend to be either task- or   Proposed that managers tend to be eit...
Fiedler’s Theory of Leadership•• Effective leadership occurs when the leadership styles    Effective leadership occurs whe...
Exhibit 15.2: Predictions of LeaderEffectiveness under DifferentConditions                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/T...
Path-Goal Theory•• Four leadership styles that a manager might choose   Four leadership styles that a manager might choose...
Exhibit 15.3: A Simplified Model ofPath-Goal Theory                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rig...
Path-Goal Theory: Key         Suggestions•• When subordinates have high achievement needs—   When subordinates have high a...
Traits, Behaviors, and          Contingencies•• No consistent leadership trait or behavior that works    No consistent lea...
National Context as a          Contingency for Leadership          Behaviors•• Successful leadership in multinational comp...
National Context as a          Contingency for Leadership          Behaviors•• Two steps to adjust a leadership to a multi...
Exhibit 15.4: National-ContextContingency Model of Leadership                Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learnin...
The National-Context          Contingency Model of          Leadership•• Outlines of how leadership behaviors, traits, and...
Leadership Traits and          behaviors in the National          Context•• GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational   ...
Exhibit 15.5: Culture ContingentLeadership Traits and Behaviors                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Lear...
Exhibit 15.6 Culture Free Positively andNegatively Regarded Leadership Traitsand Behaviors from 60 countries              ...
Exhibit 15.7: GLOBE’s Study Clustersand Countries Included in Each Cluster                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/T...
Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles                 Copyright© 2007 South-West...
Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles                 Copyright© 2007 South-West...
Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles                 Copyright© 2007 South-West...
Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles                 Copyright© 2007 South-West...
Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles                 Copyright© 2007 South-West...
GLOBE findings••   Leadership styles vary by countries.      Leadership styles vary by countries.••   Team-oriented leader...
National Context and            Preferred Leader-Influence            Tactics•• Influence tactics: tactical behaviors lead...
Exhibit 15.9: Preferred LeaderInfluence Tactics in Four Countries                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Le...
National Context and         Subordinates’ Expectations•• Subordinates’ expectations: expectations regarding   Subordinate...
Exhibit 15.10: Subordinates’Expectations under Three Levels ofPower Distance                Copyright© 2007 South-Western/...
National Context and          Subordinates’ Expectation•• Strong masculinity norms   Strong masculinity norms    -- Lead t...
Preference for “Specific” Leader InThirteen Countries                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All r...
Contemporary Leadership          Perspectives: Multinational          Implications•• Two basic forms of leadership   Two b...
Transformational Leadership•• Managers go beyond transactional leadership by   Managers go beyond transactional leadership...
Transformational Leaders•• Succeed because subordinates respond to them with    Succeed because subordinates respond to th...
Exhibit 15.11: GLOBE Study andCharismatic Leadership                Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rig...
Attributions and Leadership•• Emphasis on what leaders believe causes   Emphasis on what leaders believe causes   subordin...
Attributions and Leadership•• Once leader makes attribution, leader responds to   Once leader makes attribution, leader re...
Global Women Leaders:           The Future?•• Women global leadership: spread of traits or qualities    Women global leade...
Global Women Leaders•• Women leaders have skills to develop deep    Women leaders have skills to develop deep   relationsh...
Getting the Results: Should          You Do What Works at Home?•• Cannot assume that successful home leadership    Cannot ...
Exhibit 15.12: Leadership Behavior andJob Performance of U.S. Managers inthe U.S. and in Hong Kong                Copyrigh...
The Cultural Context and            Suggested Leadership Styles••   High power distance – behave more autocratically     H...
Exhibit 15.13: National Culture andRecommended Leadership Styles                 Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Lea...
Conclusion•• All multinational managers should strive to become    All multinational managers should strive to become   gl...
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Chapter 14

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Chapter 14

  1. 1. Chapter 14Leadership and ManagementBehavior in MultinationalCompanies Copyright© 2007 Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  2. 2. Learning Objectives•• Know the characteristics of global business leadership Know the characteristics of global business leadership•• Understand traditional North American models of Understand traditional North American models of leadership leadership•• Understand the Japanese performance-maintenance Understand the Japanese performance-maintenance model, the Indian nurturant-task-oriented model, and model, the Indian nurturant-task-oriented model, and Afro-centric model of leadership Afro-centric model of leadership•• Be able to apply the cultural-contingency model of Be able to apply the cultural-contingency model of leadership leadership Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  3. 3. Learning Objectives•• Develop sensitivity to national cultural differences in Develop sensitivity to national cultural differences in preferred leadership traits and behaviors preferred leadership traits and behaviors•• Understand how national culture affects the choice of Understand how national culture affects the choice of leader influence tactics leader influence tactics•• Understand how national culture influences Understand how national culture influences subordinates’ expectations subordinates’ expectations•• Understand the role of transformational leadership in Understand the role of transformational leadership in multinational settings multinational settings Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  4. 4. Learning Objectives•• Understand how the national culture affects a leader’s Understand how the national culture affects a leader’s attributions attributions•• Understand the role of women global leaders for Understand the role of women global leaders for multinationals multinationals•• Develop the ability to diagnose cultural situations and Develop the ability to diagnose cultural situations and suggest appropriate leadership style to fit the situation suggest appropriate leadership style to fit the situation Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  5. 5. Leadership•• Leadership: process of influencing group members to Leadership: process of influencing group members to achieve organizational goals achieve organizational goals•• Excellent leaders Excellent leaders -- Motivate their employees to achieve more than Motivate their employees to achieve more than minimal requirements minimal requirements•• What makes a great leader? What makes a great leader? -- Many formal theories of leadership exist Many formal theories of leadership exist -- Most people have their own beliefs Most people have their own beliefs Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  6. 6. Global Leadership: The New Breed•• One who has the skills and abilities to interact with and One who has the skills and abilities to interact with and manage people from diverse cultural backgrounds manage people from diverse cultural backgrounds•• Characteristics of a global leader Characteristics of a global leader -- Cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan -- Skilled at intercultural communication Skilled at intercultural communication -- Culturally sensitive Culturally sensitive -- Capable of rapid acculturation Capable of rapid acculturation Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  7. 7. Global Leadership: Characteristics-- Knowledgeable about cultural and institutional Knowledgeable about cultural and institutional influences on management influences on management-- Facilitator of subordinates’ intercultural performance Facilitator of subordinates’ intercultural performance-- A user of cultural synergy A user of cultural synergy-- A promoter and user of the growing world culture A promoter and user of the growing world culture-- A commitment to continuous improvement in self- A commitment to continuous improvement in self- awareness and renewal awareness and renewal Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  8. 8. Global Leadership: The New Breed•• Emotional intelligence: refers to the ability of the global Emotional intelligence: refers to the ability of the global leader to accurately perceive his or her emotions and leader to accurately perceive his or her emotions and to use those emotions to solve problems and to relate to use those emotions to solve problems and to relate to others to others Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  9. 9. Three Classic Models: A Vocabulary of Leadership•• Three basic models of leadership Three basic models of leadership -- Leadership traits Leadership traits -- Leadership behavior Leadership behavior -- Contingency leadership Contingency leadership Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  10. 10. Leadership Traits•• Are leaders born or made? Are leaders born or made?•• Great-person theory: idea that leaders are born with Great-person theory: idea that leaders are born with unique characteristics that make them quite different unique characteristics that make them quite different from ordinary people from ordinary people•• Contemporary views of leadership traits do not assume Contemporary views of leadership traits do not assume that leaders are born that leaders are born Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  11. 11. Traits of Successful U.S. Leaders•• Higher intelligence and self-confidence Higher intelligence and self-confidence•• More initiative More initiative•• More assertiveness and persistence More assertiveness and persistence•• Greater desire for responsibility and the opportunity to Greater desire for responsibility and the opportunity to influence others influence others•• A greater awareness of the needs of others A greater awareness of the needs of others Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  12. 12. Leadership Behaviors: U.S. Perspectives on Leadership Behaviors•• Two major types of leadership behaviors Two major types of leadership behaviors -- Task-centered leader: focus on completing tasks by Task-centered leader: focus on completing tasks by initiating structure initiating structure •• Gives subordinates specific standards, Gives subordinates specific standards, schedules, and tasks schedules, and tasks -- Person-centered leader: focus on meeting the social Person-centered leader: focus on meeting the social and emotional needs of employees and emotional needs of employees Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  13. 13. Leader Decision Making Styles•• Autocratic leadership: leaders make all major Autocratic leadership: leaders make all major decisions themselves decisions themselves•• Democratic leadership: leader includes subordinates in Democratic leadership: leader includes subordinates in decision making decision making•• Consultative or participative leadership: leader’s style Consultative or participative leadership: leader’s style falls midway between autocratic and democratic styles falls midway between autocratic and democratic styles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  14. 14. Exhibit 15.1: Likert’s Four Styles ofManagement Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  15. 15. Japanese Perspectives on Leader Behaviors•• Performance-maintenance (PM) theory: Performance-maintenance (PM) theory: balancing task- and person-centered leader balancing task- and person-centered leader behaviors behaviors Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  16. 16. Performance-Maintenance Theory•• Performance function (P): similar to task-centered Performance function (P): similar to task-centered leadership leadership -- Two components of performance function Two components of performance function •• Planning component: the leader works for or with Planning component: the leader works for or with subordinates to develop work procedures subordinates to develop work procedures •• Pressure component: the leader then pressures Pressure component: the leader then pressures employees to put forth more effort and to do good employees to put forth more effort and to do good work work Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  17. 17. Performance-Maintenance Theory•• Maintenance function (M): similar to person-centered Maintenance function (M): similar to person-centered -- Presents behaviors that promote group stability and Presents behaviors that promote group stability and social interaction social interaction•• Difference between the Japanese PM approach and Difference between the Japanese PM approach and the U.S. perspective the U.S. perspective -- Japanese PM leader focuses on influencing groups Japanese PM leader focuses on influencing groups -- U.S. approach focuses on influencing individuals U.S. approach focuses on influencing individuals Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  18. 18. Indian Perspectives on Leader Behaviors•• Nurturant-task-oriented leadership (NT) theory: Nurturant-task-oriented leadership (NT) theory: combines elements of task behaviors, arguing that the combines elements of task behaviors, arguing that the preferred leader in India is both person-centered and preferred leader in India is both person-centered and task-centered task-centered Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  19. 19. Afro-Centric Perspectives on Leader Behaviors•• Afro-centric model of leadership: emphasizes person- Afro-centric model of leadership: emphasizes person- centered leadership, and is based on the concept of centered leadership, and is based on the concept of Ubuntu Ubuntu -- Ubantu: an African philosophy based on collectivism Ubantu: an African philosophy based on collectivism and group-centeredness in contrast to individualism and group-centeredness in contrast to individualism Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  20. 20. Contingency Theory•• Assumption that different styles and different leaders Assumption that different styles and different leaders are more appropriate for different situations are more appropriate for different situations•• Two North American contingency theories of Two North American contingency theories of leadership leadership -- Fiedler’s theory of leadership Fiedler’s theory of leadership -- Path-goal theory Path-goal theory Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  21. 21. Fiedler’s Theory of Leadership•• Proposed that managers tend to be either task- or Proposed that managers tend to be either task- or person-centered leaders person-centered leaders -- Three successful contingencies of the work situation Three successful contingencies of the work situation -- Leader and subordinates relationships Leader and subordinates relationships -- Clearly defined subordinates’ tasks Clearly defined subordinates’ tasks -- Power of the leader Power of the leader Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  22. 22. Fiedler’s Theory of Leadership•• Effective leadership occurs when the leadership styles Effective leadership occurs when the leadership styles match the situation match the situation•• Theory suggests that task-centered leadership works Theory suggests that task-centered leadership works best when situation is favorable or not favorable for best when situation is favorable or not favorable for leader leader -- If favorable, subordinates are positive about their If favorable, subordinates are positive about their work—need to be told what to do work—need to be told what to do -- In unfavorable situations, job requirements are In unfavorable situations, job requirements are unclear, leader need to focus on getting things done unclear, leader need to focus on getting things done Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  23. 23. Exhibit 15.2: Predictions of LeaderEffectiveness under DifferentConditions Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  24. 24. Path-Goal Theory•• Four leadership styles that a manager might choose Four leadership styles that a manager might choose depending on the situation depending on the situation -- Directive Directive -- Supportive Supportive -- Participative Participative -- Achievement-oriented Achievement-oriented Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  25. 25. Exhibit 15.3: A Simplified Model ofPath-Goal Theory Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  26. 26. Path-Goal Theory: Key Suggestions•• When subordinates have high achievement needs— When subordinates have high achievement needs— adopt the achievement-oriented style adopt the achievement-oriented style•• Subordinates with high social needs—adopt the Subordinates with high social needs—adopt the supportive leadership style supportive leadership style•• When job is unstructured—adopt a directive style or an When job is unstructured—adopt a directive style or an achievement-oriented style achievement-oriented style Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  27. 27. Traits, Behaviors, and Contingencies•• No consistent leadership trait or behavior that works No consistent leadership trait or behavior that works best best•• A successful leader must diagnose the situation and A successful leader must diagnose the situation and pick the behaviors and/or develop the leadership traits pick the behaviors and/or develop the leadership traits that fits best. that fits best. Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  28. 28. National Context as a Contingency for Leadership Behaviors•• Successful leadership in multinational companies Successful leadership in multinational companies requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to requires that managers adjust their leadership styles to fit different situations. fit different situations. Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  29. 29. National Context as a Contingency for Leadership Behaviors•• Two steps to adjust a leadership to a multination Two steps to adjust a leadership to a multination -- Step 1: understanding what local managers do to Step 1: understanding what local managers do to lead successfully in their own country lead successfully in their own country -- Step 2: using this knowledge to modify one’s Step 2: using this knowledge to modify one’s leadership style leadership style•• National-context contingency model of leadership: National-context contingency model of leadership: shows how culture and related social institutions affect shows how culture and related social institutions affect leadership practices leadership practices Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  30. 30. Exhibit 15.4: National-ContextContingency Model of Leadership Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  31. 31. The National-Context Contingency Model of Leadership•• Outlines of how leadership behaviors, traits, and Outlines of how leadership behaviors, traits, and contingencies are affected by the national context: contingencies are affected by the national context: -- Leader behaviors and traits Leader behaviors and traits -- Subordinates’ characteristics Subordinates’ characteristics -- Work setting Work setting Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  32. 32. Leadership Traits and behaviors in the National Context•• GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational GLOBE (Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness) Behavior Effectiveness) -- The very latest research on cross-national The very latest research on cross-national differences in leadership differences in leadership -- Study contains insights regarding crucial leadership Study contains insights regarding crucial leadership styles to navigate successfully through a maze of styles to navigate successfully through a maze of cultural settings cultural settings Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  33. 33. Exhibit 15.5: Culture ContingentLeadership Traits and Behaviors Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  34. 34. Exhibit 15.6 Culture Free Positively andNegatively Regarded Leadership Traitsand Behaviors from 60 countries Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  35. 35. Exhibit 15.7: GLOBE’s Study Clustersand Countries Included in Each Cluster Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  36. 36. Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  37. 37. Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  38. 38. Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  39. 39. Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  40. 40. Exhibit 15.8: Culturally ContingentBeliefs Regarding Effective LeadershipStyles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  41. 41. GLOBE findings•• Leadership styles vary by countries. Leadership styles vary by countries.•• Team-oriented leaders are preferred in Latin European Team-oriented leaders are preferred in Latin European and Southern Asian countries. and Southern Asian countries.•• Anglo and Germanic cultures prefer participative Anglo and Germanic cultures prefer participative leaders. leaders.•• South Asian cultures prefer humane leader. South Asian cultures prefer humane leader.•• All countries agree that autonomous leaders and self- All countries agree that autonomous leaders and self- protective leaders universally impeded leadership. protective leaders universally impeded leadership. Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  42. 42. National Context and Preferred Leader-Influence Tactics•• Influence tactics: tactical behaviors leaders use to influence Influence tactics: tactical behaviors leaders use to influence subordinates subordinates --U.S managers favor seven influence tactics U.S managers favor seven influence tactics •• Assertiveness Assertiveness •• Friendliness Friendliness •• Reasoning Reasoning •• Bargaining Bargaining •• Sanctioning Sanctioning •• Appeals to a higher authority Appeals to a higher authority •• Coalitions Coalitions Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  43. 43. Exhibit 15.9: Preferred LeaderInfluence Tactics in Four Countries Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  44. 44. National Context and Subordinates’ Expectations•• Subordinates’ expectations: expectations regarding Subordinates’ expectations: expectations regarding what leaders “should” do and what they may or may what leaders “should” do and what they may or may not do not do•• High power-distance – autocratic leadership High power-distance – autocratic leadership -- E.g., many of the Latin and Asian countries E.g., many of the Latin and Asian countries•• Low power-distance – leader be more like them Low power-distance – leader be more like them -- E.g., Sweden and Norway E.g., Sweden and Norway Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  45. 45. Exhibit 15.10: Subordinates’Expectations under Three Levels ofPower Distance Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  46. 46. National Context and Subordinates’ Expectation•• Strong masculinity norms Strong masculinity norms -- Lead to the acceptance of more authoritarian Lead to the acceptance of more authoritarian leadership leadership•• Strong uncertainty-avoidance norms Strong uncertainty-avoidance norms -- Subordinates to expect the leader to provide more Subordinates to expect the leader to provide more detail in directions detail in directions Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  47. 47. Preference for “Specific” Leader InThirteen Countries Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  48. 48. Contemporary Leadership Perspectives: Multinational Implications•• Two basic forms of leadership Two basic forms of leadership -- Transactional leadership: managers use rewards or Transactional leadership: managers use rewards or punishments to influence their subordinates punishments to influence their subordinates -- Most ordinary leaders use transactional leadership Most ordinary leaders use transactional leadership Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  49. 49. Transformational Leadership•• Managers go beyond transactional leadership by Managers go beyond transactional leadership by -- Articulating a vision Articulating a vision -- Breaking from the status quo Breaking from the status quo -- Providing goals and a plan Providing goals and a plan -- Giving meaning or a purpose to goals Giving meaning or a purpose to goals -- Taking risks Taking risks -- Being motivated to lead Being motivated to lead -- Building a power base Building a power base -- Demonstrating high ethical and moral standards Demonstrating high ethical and moral standards Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  50. 50. Transformational Leaders•• Succeed because subordinates respond to them with Succeed because subordinates respond to them with high levels of performance, devotion and willingness to high levels of performance, devotion and willingness to sacrifice sacrifice•• Same leadership traits may not lead to Same leadership traits may not lead to transformational leadership in all countries transformational leadership in all countries Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  51. 51. Exhibit 15.11: GLOBE Study andCharismatic Leadership Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  52. 52. Attributions and Leadership•• Emphasis on what leaders believe causes Emphasis on what leaders believe causes subordinates’ behaviors subordinates’ behaviors•• Two key distinctions in attributions Two key distinctions in attributions -- External attribution: factors outside the person and External attribution: factors outside the person and beyond the person’s control (e.g., natural disasters, beyond the person’s control (e.g., natural disasters, illness, faulty equipment, etc.) illness, faulty equipment, etc.) -- Internal attribution: characteristics of the person Internal attribution: characteristics of the person (e.g., personality, motivation, low ability, etc.) (e.g., personality, motivation, low ability, etc.) Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  53. 53. Attributions and Leadership•• Once leader makes attribution, leader responds to Once leader makes attribution, leader responds to subordinate based on that assumption subordinate based on that assumption•• Fundamental attribution error: assumption by Fundamental attribution error: assumption by managers that people behave in certain ways because managers that people behave in certain ways because of internal motivations, rather than outside factors of internal motivations, rather than outside factors•• Successful leaders make the correct attributions. Successful leaders make the correct attributions. Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  54. 54. Global Women Leaders: The Future?•• Women global leadership: spread of traits or qualities Women global leadership: spread of traits or qualities that are associated with women to the process of that are associated with women to the process of leading organizations worldwide leading organizations worldwide -- “orientation toward more participative, interactional, “orientation toward more participative, interactional, and relational styles of leading” and relational styles of leading” Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  55. 55. Global Women Leaders•• Women leaders have skills to develop deep Women leaders have skills to develop deep relationship to understand markets relationship to understand markets•• More likely to provide unity to accommodate needs of More likely to provide unity to accommodate needs of various stakeholders various stakeholders•• Better ability to understand diversity at global levels Better ability to understand diversity at global levels Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  56. 56. Getting the Results: Should You Do What Works at Home?•• Cannot assume that successful home leadership Cannot assume that successful home leadership styles or traits will result in equally successful styles or traits will result in equally successful leadership in a foreign country leadership in a foreign country•• It is nevertheless difficult to adapt. It is nevertheless difficult to adapt. Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  57. 57. Exhibit 15.12: Leadership Behavior andJob Performance of U.S. Managers inthe U.S. and in Hong Kong Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  58. 58. The Cultural Context and Suggested Leadership Styles•• High power distance – behave more autocratically High power distance – behave more autocratically•• High uncertainty cultures – remove ambiguity from High uncertainty cultures – remove ambiguity from work setting work setting Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  59. 59. Exhibit 15.13: National Culture andRecommended Leadership Styles Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved
  60. 60. Conclusion•• All multinational managers should strive to become All multinational managers should strive to become global leaders global leaders•• Chapter provides important information on the nature Chapter provides important information on the nature of leadership and understanding of leadership in the of leadership and understanding of leadership in the international setting international setting•• Chapter reviews classic leadership theories and Chapter reviews classic leadership theories and applies them to the international settings applies them to the international settings Copyright© 2007 South-Western/Thomson Learning All rights reserved

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