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Pro bono presentation prepared by RovingAssistant.Com (www.rovingassistant.com) for an MBA student from a notable university in Jamaica. Prepared in the month of October 2013.

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  • These processes are reciprocal, transactional, transformational, cooperative, and adaptive. ■ Leadership is a reciprocal process, involving the leader, the followers, and the group situation. The leader does not just influence the group members; rather, the leader–follower relationship is mutual. An interactional view assumes that leadership cannot be understood independently of followership—the skills and qualities displayed by nonleaders (Hollander, 2006; Messick, 2005; see Focus 9.1.■ Leadership is a transactional process, in which leaders and followers work together, exchanging their time, energies, and skills to increase their joint rewards (Avolio, 2004).■ Leadership is a transformational process, for leaders heighten group members’ motivation, confidence, and satisfaction by uniting members and changing their beliefs, values, and needs (Burns, 2003).■ Leadership is a cooperative process of legitimate influence rather than sheer power. The right to lead is, in most instances, voluntarily conferred on the leader by some or all members of the group, with the expectation that the leader is motivated by the group’s collective needs rather than his or her own interests (Avolio & Locke, 2002).■ Leadership is an adaptive, goal-seeking process, for it organizes and motivates group members’ attempts to attain personal and group goals (Parks, 2005).
  • Task leadership focuses on the group’s work and its goals. To facilitate the achievement of group goals, the leader initiates structure, sets standards and objectives, identifies roles and positions members in those roles, develops standard operating procedures, defines responsibilities, establishes communication networks, gives evaluative feedback, plans activities, coordinates activities, proposes solutions, monitors compliance with procedures, and stresses the need for efficiency and productivity (Lord, 1977; Yukl, 2006).Relationship leadership focuses on the interpersonal relations within the group. To increase socioemotional satisfaction and teamwork in the group, the leader boosts morale, gives support and encouragement, reduces interpersonal conflict, helps members to release negative tensions, establishes rapport, and shows concern and consideration for the group and its members (Lord, 1977; Yukl, 2006).
  • Lord’s implicit leadership theory suggests that individuals who act in ways that match the group members’ leader prototypes are likely to emerge as leaders.Hogg’s social identity theory predicts that leaders will closely match the group members’ shared prototype of a member. Eagly and her colleagues’ social role theory maintains that stereotypes of sex roles and leadership roles can create negative expectations for women leaders. Terror management theory, like Freud, suggests that individuals may have a deep-seated need for leaders, particularly in times of crisis, when mortality is salient. Evolutionary theory suggests that leadership is an evolutionary adaptation that improves the fitness of both leaders and followers.
  • This trait approach, which in its strongest form assumed that some people were natural-born leaders, faded in popularity as researchers reported a series of failures to find any consistent impact of personality on leadership behavior across a wide variety of situations. After conducting hundreds of studies, researchers began to wonder if personality made much of a difference when trying to predict who would emerge as a leader and who would not (Mann, 1959; Stogdill, 1948).
  • Assertiveness The relationship between assertiveness and leadership emergence is curvilinear; individuals who are either low in assertiveness or very high in assertiveness are less likely to be identified as leaders (Ames & Flynn, 2007). AuthenticityIndividuals who are more aware of their personality qualities, including their values and beliefs, and are less biased when processing self-relevant information, are more likely to be accepted as leaders (Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahragang, 2005). Big Five personality factorsThose who emerge as leaders tend to be more extraverted, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open to experience, although these tendencies are stronger in laboratory studies of leaderless groups (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002). Birth order Those born first in their families and only children are hypothesized to be more driven to seek leadership and control in social settings. Middle-born children tend to accept follower roles in groups, and later-borns are thought be rebellious and creative (Grose, 2003). Character strengthsThose seeking leadership positions in a military organization had elevated scores on a number of indicators of strength of character, including honesty, hope, bravery, industry, and teamwork (Matthews et al., 2006). Dominance Individuals with dominant personalities—they describe themselves as high in the desire to control their environment and influence other people, and are likely to express their opinions in a forceful way—are more likely to act as leaders in small-group situations (Smith & Foti, 1998). Gender identity Masculine individuals are more likely to emerge as leaders than are feminine individuals (Lord, De Vader, & Alliger, 1986). NarcissismIndividuals who take on leadership roles in turbulent situations, such as groups facing a threat or ones in which status is determined by intense competition among rivals within the group, tend to be narcissistic: arrogant, self-absorbed, hostile, and very self-confident (Rosenthal & Pittinsky, 2006). Self-efficacy for leadershipConfidence in one’s ability to lead is associated with increases in willingness to accept a leadership role and success in that role (Hoyt & Blascovich, 2007). Self-monitoringHigh self-monitors are more likely to emerge as the leader of a group than are low selfmonitors, since they are more concerned with status-enhancement and are more likely to adapt their actions to fit the demands of the situation (Bedeian & Day, 2004). Social motivationIndividuals who are both success-oriented and affiliation-oriented, as assessed by projective measures, are more active in group problem-solving settings and are more likely to be elected to positions of leadership in such groups (Sorrentino & Field, 1986).
  • AGENTIC1) Social cognition theory perspective that views people as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating, not just as reactive organisms shaped by environmental forces or driven by inner impulses1.2) The capacity for human beings to make choices in the world2. See "human agency“.
  • Contingency Theory - Fred Fiedler’s conceptual analysis of leadership which posits that a leader’s success is determined by his or her leadership style and the favorability of the group situation; more generally, any analysis of leadership that suggests that the effectiveness of leaders depends on the interaction of their personal characteristics and the group situation. What factors determine control? Fiedler highlighted leader–member relations, task structure, and position power.Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale (LPC) - An indirect measure, developed by Fred Fiedler, of the tendency to lead by stressing the task (low LPC) or relationships (high LPC).Fiedler’s contingency model assumes that leaders have a preferred “style” of leading: Some tend to be relationship-oriented leaders, and others are task-oriented leaders. These style theories argue that effective leaders balance these two basic ingredients in the groups they lead (see Northouse, 2007, for a review)Leadership Grid - A theory of management and leadership, proposed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, assuming that people vary in their concern for results and their concern for people, and that individuals who are high on both dimensions (9,9) are the best leaders.Leader–member Exchange Theory (LMX) - A dyadic, relational approach to leadership assuming that leaders develop exchange relationships with each of their subordinates, and that the quality of these leader–member exchange (LMX) relationships influences subordinates’ responsibility, decision influence, access to resources, and performance.Transactional Leadership - A traditional form of leadership that involves contributing time, effort, and other resources in the pursuit of collaborative goals in exchange for desired outcomes.Transformational Leadership - An inspiring method of leading others that involves elevating one’s followers’ motivation, confidence, and satisfaction, by uniting them in the pursuit of shared, challenging goals and changing their beliefs, values, and needs.
  • The Leadership Grid (formerly, the Managerial Grid). This model distinguishes between five basic leadership styles, and recommends the 9,9 style above all others. The Leadership Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton hypothesized that leadership style depends on how one answers two basic questions: (1) How important is the production of results by the group? (2) How important are the feelings of group members?To some leaders, the key goal is achieving results. For others, positive feelings in the group are so important that they emphasize teamwork and personal satisfaction. Others may feel that both these goals are important (Blake & McCanse, 1991; Blake & Mouton, 1964, 1982, 1985).
  • Even such questionable qualities as risk-taking, cunning, elitism, micromanagement, and willfulness were viewed as positive qualities in some cultures, suggesting that some aspects of leadership are dependent on local norms.
  • Leadership

    1. 1. Leadership UTECH MBA PROGRAMME Group One
    2. 2. RovingAssistant.Com
    3. 3. What is Leadership? • The process of an individual guiding other in their pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting and motivating their efforts. • This process can be characterized as reciprocal, transactional, transformational, cooperative and adaptive. RovingAssistant.Com
    4. 4. Leadership is not… • a static characteristic of an individual or a group, but a complex of interpersonal processes whereby cooperating individuals are permitted to influence and motivate others to promote the attainment of group and individual goals. These processes are reciprocal, transactional, transformational, cooperative, and adaptive. RovingAssistant.Com
    5. 5. Leadership is… • a reciprocal process • a transactional process • a transformational process • a cooperative process • an adaptive, goal-seeking process RovingAssistant.Com
    6. 6. Leadership Myths • Is Leadership Power? Leadership is neither power over group members nor resisted by them. • Are Leaders Born or Made? Leadership is not an inborn trait. • Do Leaders Make a Difference? The leader alone does not determine the group’s outcomes. • Do Followers Resist Leaders? Most people prefer to be led rather than be leaderless. • Do All Groups Have Leaders? Not all group have leaders but as groups increase in size and complexity, most select a leader. RovingAssistant.Com
    7. 7. The Follower • Robert Kelley’s theory of followership suggests that followers vary along two dimensions: ▫ Active/Passive ▫ Independent/Dependent • He identified five types of followers: ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ ▫ Conformist (yes people) Passive (sheep) Pragmatic (rank-and-file members) Alienated (not committed) Exemplary (stars) RovingAssistant.Com
    8. 8. Robert Kelley’s Theory of Followership RovingAssistant.Com
    9. 9. What Do Leaders Do? • The Task-Relationship Model is a descriptive model of leadership which maintains that most leadership behaviors can be classified in two basic clusters, performance maintenance or relationship maintenance. • Different situations require different skills of leaders, but researchers have identified these two dimensions of leadership in study after study of what leaders actually do when they are in groups. RovingAssistant.Com
    10. 10. Task-Relationship Leadership Model Task Leadership Relationship Leadership • focuses on the group’s work and its goals. promoting task completion; regulating behavior, monitoring communication, and reducing goal ambiguity • focuses on the interpersonal relations within the group. maintaining and enhancing positive interpersonal relations in the group; friendliness, mutual trust, openness, recognizing performance The Ohio State University Leadership Studies RovingAssistant.Com
    11. 11. Leadership Theories • Implicit Leadership Theory Implicit leadership theory (ILT) by Robert Lord • Social Identity Theory by Michael Hogg • Social Role Theory by Alice Eagly • Terror Management Theory by several theorists including Sigmund Freud • Evolutionary Theory by several theorists RovingAssistant.Com
    12. 12. Leadership Substitutes • maintains that substitutes for leadership sometimes ―negate the leader’s ability to either improve or impair subordinate satisfaction and performance‖ (Kerr & Jermier, 1978, p. 377). RovingAssistant.Com
    13. 13. Who Will Lead? (1/3) • The individual who emerges as the group’s leader is often the one who is the most conscientious, experienced, socially intelligent, flexible, and capable. But not always, for some groups let themselves be led by people who are outgoing, talkative, older and male. RovingAssistant.Com
    14. 14. Who Will Lead? (2/3) • Early leadership researchers once believed that leaders possessed certain personality traits that set them apart from others. • A Sampling of Personality Characteristics That Are Reliably Associated with Leadership Emergence are noted on the next slide. RovingAssistant.Com
    15. 15. Leadership Traits • • • • • • • • • • • Assertiveness Authenticity Big Five personality factors Birth order Character strengths Dominance Gender identity Narcissism Self-efficacy for leadership Self-monitoring Social motivation RovingAssistant.Com
    16. 16. Who Will Lead? (3/3) • Sex Differences in Leadership Behavior ▫ Leadership has two sides—the task side and the relationship side—and humans come in two varieties— man and woman. ▫ Despite changes in the role of men and women in contemporary society, when men and women gather in groups, the men tend to be agentic—task oriented, active, decision focused, independent, goal oriented— whereas women are more communal— helpful to others, warm in relation to others, understanding, aware of others’ feelings (Abele, 2003). RovingAssistant.Com
    17. 17. The Look of Leader (1/2) • Leadership Emergence - The process by which an individual becomes formally or informally, perceptually or behaviorally, and implicitly or explicitly recognized as the leader of a formerly leaderless group. • Diversity - Leadership is not limited to any particular cultural, ethnic, or racial group. RovingAssistant.Com
    18. 18. The Look of Leader (2/2) • Great Leader Theory - A view of leadership, attributed to historian Thomas Carlyle, which states that successful leaders possess certain characteristics that mark them for greatness, and that such great leaders shape the course of history. • Physical Appearances - Leaders tend to differ physically from their subordinates. RovingAssistant.Com
    19. 19. Famous Leaders Harry S. Truman assumed the position of Vice President and eighty two (82) days after he learned of the death of President Roosevelt. It was President Truman who made the final decision to use the atomic bombs on Japan to speed up the end of the World War II. His use of the bomb was not only a way to stop what could have been a bloody fight on the mainland but also to send a message to the Soviet Union that the U.S. was not afraid to use the bomb if necessary. Truman was president during the beginnings of the Cold War and also during the Korean War. Leadership Conception ―A leader is a man who has the ability to get other people to do what they don’t want to do, and like it.‖ RovingAssistant.Com
    20. 20. Famous Leaders Baroness Margaret Thatcher was an extraordinary woman and a natural born leader, without hesitation to deliver a vision of a stronger, determined Britain. She succeeded, for she changed our British political landscape globally and will always remain as one of the most iconic British Prime Ministers of all times. Rest in peace. Leadership Conception ―If you want something said, ask a man; if you want something done, ask a woman.‖ RovingAssistant.Com
    21. 21. Famous Leaders Ho Chi Minh was a revolutionary leader and politician that helped create the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. He was born Nguyen Sinh Cung in the village of Hoang Tru, Vietnam, on May 19, 1890. Leadership Conception ―To use people is like using wood. A skilled worker can make use of all kinds of wood, whether it is big or small, straight or curved.‖ RovingAssistant.Com
    22. 22. Famous Leaders Theodore Roosevelt served as the 26th President of the United States. young Roosevelt quickly made a name for himself as he worked to move the Republican Party to more progressive reforms and a stronger foreign policy. Roosevelt was also known for his expansion of his executive power, believing that his office had the responsibility for doing whatever necessary to promote public good, as long as it fell within the parameters of the law. Leadership Conception ―The best executive is the one who has the sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and self-restraint enough to keep from meddling with them while they do it.‖ RovingAssistant.Com
    23. 23. Leader Effectiveness (1/2) • Why do some leaders succeed and others fail? These theories attempt to explain. • Contingency Theory • Style Theories ▫ Leadership Grid • Leader–Member Exchange Theory • Participation Theories (autocratic/democratic/laissez-faire/shared) • Transformational/Transactional Leadership RovingAssistant.Com
    24. 24. RovingAssistant.Com
    25. 25. Leader Effectiveness (2/2) • Leadership is not recognized as a positive force in all countries and cultures, but nearly all societies consider transformational leaders who maintain high moral standards to be superior to less virtuous authorities. • The GLOBE researchers also discovered that certain specific traits were highly valued in some cultures but seen as harmful to leadership in others (Dorfman, Hanges, & Brodbeck, 2004). RovingAssistant.Com
    26. 26. Conclusion • In conclusion, the future promises many changes in the nature and application of leadership principles. • The future may see increased numbers of women rising to positions of leadership in groups and organizations. As noted earlier, male and female leaders differ to a degree in their basic approaches to leadership, but the sexes are equivalent when it comes to providing members with task-orientation and relational support (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani, 1995). RovingAssistant.Com
    27. 27. THE END RovingAssistant.Com