These processes are reciprocal, transactional, transformational, cooperative, and adaptive. ■ Leadership is a reciprocal process, involving the leader, the followers, and the group situation. The leader does not just influence the group members; rather, the leader–follower relationship is mutual. An interactional view assumes that leadership cannot be understood independently of followership—the skills and qualities displayed by nonleaders (Hollander, 2006; Messick, 2005; see Focus 9.1.■ Leadership is a transactional process, in which leaders and followers work together, exchanging their time, energies, and skills to increase their joint rewards (Avolio, 2004).■ Leadership is a transformational process, for leaders heighten group members’ motivation, confidence, and satisfaction by uniting members and changing their beliefs, values, and needs (Burns, 2003).■ Leadership is a cooperative process of legitimate influence rather than sheer power. The right to lead is, in most instances, voluntarily conferred on the leader by some or all members of the group, with the expectation that the leader is motivated by the group’s collective needs rather than his or her own interests (Avolio & Locke, 2002).■ Leadership is an adaptive, goal-seeking process, for it organizes and motivates group members’ attempts to attain personal and group goals (Parks, 2005).
Task leadership focuses on the group’s work and its goals. To facilitate the achievement of group goals, the leader initiates structure, sets standards and objectives, identifies roles and positions members in those roles, develops standard operating procedures, defines responsibilities, establishes communication networks, gives evaluative feedback, plans activities, coordinates activities, proposes solutions, monitors compliance with procedures, and stresses the need for efficiency and productivity (Lord, 1977; Yukl, 2006).Relationship leadership focuses on the interpersonal relations within the group. To increase socioemotional satisfaction and teamwork in the group, the leader boosts morale, gives support and encouragement, reduces interpersonal conflict, helps members to release negative tensions, establishes rapport, and shows concern and consideration for the group and its members (Lord, 1977; Yukl, 2006).
Lord’s implicit leadership theory suggests that individuals who act in ways that match the group members’ leader prototypes are likely to emerge as leaders.Hogg’s social identity theory predicts that leaders will closely match the group members’ shared prototype of a member. Eagly and her colleagues’ social role theory maintains that stereotypes of sex roles and leadership roles can create negative expectations for women leaders. Terror management theory, like Freud, suggests that individuals may have a deep-seated need for leaders, particularly in times of crisis, when mortality is salient. Evolutionary theory suggests that leadership is an evolutionary adaptation that improves the fitness of both leaders and followers.
This trait approach, which in its strongest form assumed that some people were natural-born leaders, faded in popularity as researchers reported a series of failures to find any consistent impact of personality on leadership behavior across a wide variety of situations. After conducting hundreds of studies, researchers began to wonder if personality made much of a difference when trying to predict who would emerge as a leader and who would not (Mann, 1959; Stogdill, 1948).
Assertiveness The relationship between assertiveness and leadership emergence is curvilinear; individuals who are either low in assertiveness or very high in assertiveness are less likely to be identified as leaders (Ames & Flynn, 2007). AuthenticityIndividuals who are more aware of their personality qualities, including their values and beliefs, and are less biased when processing self-relevant information, are more likely to be accepted as leaders (Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahragang, 2005). Big Five personality factorsThose who emerge as leaders tend to be more extraverted, conscientious, emotionally stable, and open to experience, although these tendencies are stronger in laboratory studies of leaderless groups (Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhardt, 2002). Birth order Those born first in their families and only children are hypothesized to be more driven to seek leadership and control in social settings. Middle-born children tend to accept follower roles in groups, and later-borns are thought be rebellious and creative (Grose, 2003). Character strengthsThose seeking leadership positions in a military organization had elevated scores on a number of indicators of strength of character, including honesty, hope, bravery, industry, and teamwork (Matthews et al., 2006). Dominance Individuals with dominant personalities—they describe themselves as high in the desire to control their environment and influence other people, and are likely to express their opinions in a forceful way—are more likely to act as leaders in small-group situations (Smith & Foti, 1998). Gender identity Masculine individuals are more likely to emerge as leaders than are feminine individuals (Lord, De Vader, & Alliger, 1986). NarcissismIndividuals who take on leadership roles in turbulent situations, such as groups facing a threat or ones in which status is determined by intense competition among rivals within the group, tend to be narcissistic: arrogant, self-absorbed, hostile, and very self-confident (Rosenthal & Pittinsky, 2006). Self-efficacy for leadershipConfidence in one’s ability to lead is associated with increases in willingness to accept a leadership role and success in that role (Hoyt & Blascovich, 2007). Self-monitoringHigh self-monitors are more likely to emerge as the leader of a group than are low selfmonitors, since they are more concerned with status-enhancement and are more likely to adapt their actions to fit the demands of the situation (Bedeian & Day, 2004). Social motivationIndividuals who are both success-oriented and affiliation-oriented, as assessed by projective measures, are more active in group problem-solving settings and are more likely to be elected to positions of leadership in such groups (Sorrentino & Field, 1986).
AGENTIC1) Social cognition theory perspective that views people as self-organizing, proactive, self-reflecting and self-regulating, not just as reactive organisms shaped by environmental forces or driven by inner impulses1.2) The capacity for human beings to make choices in the world2. See "human agency“.
Contingency Theory - Fred Fiedler’s conceptual analysis of leadership which posits that a leader’s success is determined by his or her leadership style and the favorability of the group situation; more generally, any analysis of leadership that suggests that the effectiveness of leaders depends on the interaction of their personal characteristics and the group situation. What factors determine control? Fiedler highlighted leader–member relations, task structure, and position power.Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale (LPC) - An indirect measure, developed by Fred Fiedler, of the tendency to lead by stressing the task (low LPC) or relationships (high LPC).Fiedler’s contingency model assumes that leaders have a preferred “style” of leading: Some tend to be relationship-oriented leaders, and others are task-oriented leaders. These style theories argue that effective leaders balance these two basic ingredients in the groups they lead (see Northouse, 2007, for a review)Leadership Grid - A theory of management and leadership, proposed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton, assuming that people vary in their concern for results and their concern for people, and that individuals who are high on both dimensions (9,9) are the best leaders.Leader–member Exchange Theory (LMX) - A dyadic, relational approach to leadership assuming that leaders develop exchange relationships with each of their subordinates, and that the quality of these leader–member exchange (LMX) relationships influences subordinates’ responsibility, decision influence, access to resources, and performance.Transactional Leadership - A traditional form of leadership that involves contributing time, effort, and other resources in the pursuit of collaborative goals in exchange for desired outcomes.Transformational Leadership - An inspiring method of leading others that involves elevating one’s followers’ motivation, confidence, and satisfaction, by uniting them in the pursuit of shared, challenging goals and changing their beliefs, values, and needs.
The Leadership Grid (formerly, the Managerial Grid). This model distinguishes between five basic leadership styles, and recommends the 9,9 style above all others. The Leadership Grid Robert Blake and Jane Mouton hypothesized that leadership style depends on how one answers two basic questions: (1) How important is the production of results by the group? (2) How important are the feelings of group members?To some leaders, the key goal is achieving results. For others, positive feelings in the group are so important that they emphasize teamwork and personal satisfaction. Others may feel that both these goals are important (Blake & McCanse, 1991; Blake & Mouton, 1964, 1982, 1985).
Even such questionable qualities as risk-taking, cunning, elitism, micromanagement, and willfulness were viewed as positive qualities in some cultures, suggesting that some aspects of leadership are dependent on local norms.
What is Leadership?
• The process of an individual guiding other in
their pursuits, often by organizing, directing,
coordinating, supporting and motivating their
• This process can be characterized as reciprocal,
transactional, transformational, cooperative and
Leadership is not…
• a static characteristic of an individual or a group,
but a complex of interpersonal processes
whereby cooperating individuals are permitted
to influence and motivate others to promote the
attainment of group and individual goals. These
processes are reciprocal, transactional,
transformational, cooperative, and adaptive.
• a reciprocal process
• a transactional process
• a transformational process
• a cooperative process
• an adaptive, goal-seeking process
• Is Leadership Power?
Leadership is neither power
over group members nor
resisted by them.
• Are Leaders Born or Made?
Leadership is not an inborn
• Do Leaders Make a
Difference? The leader alone
does not determine the group’s
• Do Followers Resist Leaders?
Most people prefer to be led
rather than be leaderless.
• Do All Groups Have Leaders?
Not all group have leaders but
as groups increase in size and
complexity, most select a
• Robert Kelley’s theory of followership suggests
that followers vary along two dimensions:
• He identified five types of followers:
Conformist (yes people)
Pragmatic (rank-and-file members)
Alienated (not committed)
Robert Kelley’s Theory of Followership
What Do Leaders Do?
• The Task-Relationship Model is a descriptive
model of leadership which maintains that most
leadership behaviors can be classified in two
basic clusters, performance maintenance or
• Different situations require different skills of
leaders, but researchers have identified these
two dimensions of leadership in study after
study of what leaders actually do when they are
Task-Relationship Leadership Model
• focuses on the group’s work
and its goals. promoting task
communication, and reducing
• focuses on the interpersonal
relations within the group.
maintaining and enhancing
relations in the group;
friendliness, mutual trust,
The Ohio State University Leadership Studies
• Implicit Leadership Theory Implicit leadership
theory (ILT) by Robert Lord
• Social Identity Theory by Michael Hogg
• Social Role Theory by Alice Eagly
• Terror Management Theory by several theorists
including Sigmund Freud
• Evolutionary Theory by several theorists
• maintains that substitutes for leadership
sometimes ―negate the leader’s ability to either
improve or impair subordinate satisfaction and
performance‖ (Kerr & Jermier, 1978, p. 377).
Who Will Lead?
• The individual who emerges as the group’s
leader is often the one who is the most
conscientious, experienced, socially intelligent,
flexible, and capable. But not always, for some
groups let themselves be led by people who are
outgoing, talkative, older and male.
Who Will Lead?
• Early leadership researchers once believed that
leaders possessed certain personality traits that
set them apart from others.
• A Sampling of Personality Characteristics That
Are Reliably Associated with Leadership
Emergence are noted on the next slide.
Big Five personality factors
Self-efficacy for leadership
Who Will Lead?
• Sex Differences in Leadership Behavior
▫ Leadership has two sides—the task side and the
relationship side—and humans come in two varieties—
man and woman.
▫ Despite changes in the role of men and women in
contemporary society, when men and women gather in
groups, the men tend to be agentic—task oriented,
active, decision focused, independent, goal oriented—
whereas women are more communal— helpful to
others, warm in relation to others, understanding,
aware of others’ feelings (Abele, 2003).
The Look of Leader
• Leadership Emergence - The process by which
an individual becomes formally or informally,
perceptually or behaviorally, and implicitly or
explicitly recognized as the leader of a formerly
• Diversity - Leadership is not limited to any
particular cultural, ethnic, or racial group.
The Look of Leader
• Great Leader Theory - A view of leadership,
attributed to historian Thomas Carlyle, which
states that successful leaders possess certain
characteristics that mark them for greatness,
and that such great leaders shape the course of
• Physical Appearances - Leaders tend to differ
physically from their subordinates.
Harry S. Truman assumed the
position of Vice President and eighty
two (82) days after he learned of the
death of President Roosevelt. It was
President Truman who made the final
decision to use the atomic bombs on
Japan to speed up the end of
the World War II. His use of the
bomb was not only a way to stop what
could have been a bloody fight on the
mainland but also to send a message
to the Soviet Union that the U.S. was
not afraid to use the bomb if
necessary. Truman was president
during the beginnings of the Cold
War and also during the Korean War.
―A leader is a man who has the ability
to get other people to do what they
don’t want to do, and like it.‖
Baroness Margaret Thatcher was
an extraordinary woman and a
natural born leader, without
hesitation to deliver a vision of a
stronger, determined Britain. She
succeeded, for she changed our
British political landscape globally
and will always remain as one of
the most iconic British Prime
Ministers of all times. Rest in
―If you want something said, ask a
man; if you want something done,
ask a woman.‖
Ho Chi Minh was a revolutionary
leader and politician that helped
create the Democratic Republic of
Vietnam. He was born Nguyen
Sinh Cung in the village of Hoang
Tru, Vietnam, on May 19, 1890.
―To use people is like using wood.
A skilled worker can make use of
all kinds of wood, whether it is big
or small, straight or curved.‖
Theodore Roosevelt served as the
26th President of the United
States. young Roosevelt quickly
made a name for himself as he
worked to move the Republican
Party to more progressive reforms
and a stronger foreign policy.
Roosevelt was also known for his
expansion of his executive power,
believing that his office had the
responsibility for doing whatever
necessary to promote public good,
as long as it fell within the
parameters of the law.
―The best executive is the one who
has the sense enough to pick good
men to do what he wants done,
and self-restraint enough to keep
from meddling with them while
they do it.‖
• Why do some leaders succeed and others
fail? These theories attempt to explain.
• Contingency Theory
• Style Theories
▫ Leadership Grid
• Leader–Member Exchange Theory
• Participation Theories
• Transformational/Transactional Leadership
• Leadership is not recognized as a positive force
in all countries and cultures, but nearly all
societies consider transformational leaders who
maintain high moral standards to be superior to
less virtuous authorities.
• The GLOBE researchers also discovered that
certain specific traits were highly valued in some
cultures but seen as harmful to leadership in
others (Dorfman, Hanges, & Brodbeck, 2004).
• In conclusion, the future promises many changes in
the nature and application of leadership principles.
• The future may see increased numbers of women
rising to positions of leadership in groups and
organizations. As noted earlier, male and female
leaders differ to a degree in their basic approaches
to leadership, but the sexes are equivalent when it
comes to providing members with task-orientation
and relational support (Eagly, Karau, & Makhijani,