Networking (2)


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Networking (2)

  1. 1. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Standalone computer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single computer not attached to a network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot match power and convenience of network </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>What is a Network? </li></ul><ul><li>A  computer network , often simply referred to as a network, is a collection of computers and devices interconnected by communications channels that facilitate communications and allows sharing of resources and information among interconnected devices. </li></ul><ul><li>A network consists of 2 or more computers connected together, and they can communicate and share resources (e.g. information) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Internal Firewall </li></ul>External Firewall Switch Figure: Typical network Internet Router
  4. 4. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Node - Anything that is connected to the network. While a node is typically a computer, it can also be something like a printer or CD-ROM tower. </li></ul><ul><li>Backbone - The main cabling of a network that all of the segments connect to. Typically, the backbone is capable of carrying more information than the individual segments. For example, each segment may have a transfer rate of 10 Mbps (megabits per second: 1 million bits a second), while the backbone may operate at 100 Mbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Segment - Any portion of a network that is separated, by a switch, bridge or router, from other parts of the network. </li></ul><ul><li>Gateway - A gateway is a node that allows you to gain entrance into a network and vice versa. </li></ul><ul><li>Hub - A common connection point for devices in a network. Hubs are commonly used to connect segments of a LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. </li></ul><ul><li>Router - A router is a device or, in some cases, software in a computer, that determines the next network point to which a packet should be forwarded toward its destination.  </li></ul><ul><li>Switch - A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge - The basic operation of a bridge is to join two or more network segments together. </li></ul><ul><li>Topology - The way that each node is physically connected to the network. </li></ul>Some Important Terms
  5. 5. <ul><li>IP Address (Internet Protocol Address): </li></ul><ul><li>This number is an exclusive number all information technology devices (printers, routers, modems, et al) use which identifies and allows them the ability to communicate with each other on a computer network. There is a standard of communication which is called an  I nternet  P rotocol standard ( IP ). In laymans terms it is the same as your home address. In order for you to receive snail mail at home the sending party must have your correct mailing address ( IP address ) in your town ( network ) or you do not receive bills, pizza coupons or your tax refund. The same is true for all equipment on the internet. Without this specific address, information cannot be received. </li></ul><ul><li>Domain Name System (DNS):  This allows the IP address to be translated to words. It is much easier for us to remember a word than a series of numbers. The same is true for email addresses. For example, it is much easier for you to remember a web address name such as than it is to remember or in the case of email it is much easier to remember than email@ </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>In computer networks, bandwidth is often used as a synonym for data transfer rate - the amount of data that can be carried from one point to another in a given time period (usually a second). This kind of bandwidth is usually expressed in bits (of data) per second (bps). Occasionally, it's expressed as bytes per second (Bps). </li></ul>
  6. 6. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>How many kinds of Networks? </li></ul><ul><li>Depending on one’s perspective, we can classify networks in different ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on transmission media : Wired (Guided)(UTP, coaxial cables, fiber-optic cables) and Wireless (Unguided) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on network size : LAN and WAN (and MAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on management method : Peer-to-peer and Client/Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on topology (connectivity): Bus, Star, Ring … </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Based on transmission media : </li></ul><ul><li>Conducted or guided media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use a conductor such as a wire or a fiber optic cable to move the signal from sender to receiver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wireless or unguided media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use radio waves of different frequencies and do not need a wire or cable conductor to transmit signals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Guided Transmission Media </li></ul><ul><li>Transmission capacity depends on the distance and on whether the medium is point-to-point or multipoint </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted pair wires </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cables </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optical fiber </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Twisted pair wires </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consists of two insulated copper wires arranged in a regular spiral pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used at customer facilities and also over distances to carry voice as well as data communications </li></ul><ul><li>Low frequency transmission medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted-Pair cables: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) cables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) cables </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Unshielded Twisted-Pair (UTP) </li></ul><ul><li>Typically wrapped inside a plastic cover (for mechanical protection) </li></ul><ul><li>A sample UTP cable with 5 unshielded twisted pairs of wires </li></ul>Metal Insulator
  11. 11. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Shielded Twisted-Pair (STP) </li></ul><ul><li>STP cables are similar to UTP cables, except there is a metal foil or braided-metal-mesh cover that encases each pair of insulated wires </li></ul>
  12. 12. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Twisted Pair Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Inexpensive and readily available </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible and light weight </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to work with and install </li></ul><ul><li>Twisted Pair Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptibility to interference and noise </li></ul><ul><li>Distance increases signal quality decreases . </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively low bandwidth (3000Hz) </li></ul>
  13. 13. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Coaxial Cable (or Coax) </li></ul><ul><li>Used for cable television, LANs, telephony </li></ul><ul><li>Has an inner conductor surrounded by a braided mesh </li></ul><ul><li>Both conductors share a common center axial, hence the term “co-axial” </li></ul>
  14. 14. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Coaxial Cable Advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Higher bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Can be tapped easily </li></ul><ul><li>Much less susceptible to interference than twisted pair </li></ul><ul><li>Coaxial Cable Disadvantage </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive over long distance </li></ul><ul><li>Bulky </li></ul>
  15. 15. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Fiber Optic Cable </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively new transmission medium used by telephone companies in place of long-distance trunk lines </li></ul><ul><li>Also used by private companies in implementing local data communications networks </li></ul>
  16. 16. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Fiber Optic Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Greater capacity (bandwidth of up to 2 Gbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller size and lighter weight </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber Optic Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive over short distance </li></ul><ul><li>Requires highly skilled installers </li></ul><ul><li>Adding additional nodes is difficult </li></ul>
  17. 17. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Wireless Examples </li></ul><ul><li>Terrestrial microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast radio </li></ul><ul><li>Infrared </li></ul>
  18. 18. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Terrestrial microwave </li></ul><ul><li>Used for long-distance telephone service </li></ul><ul><li>Uses radio frequency spectrum, from 2 to 40 Ghz </li></ul><ul><li>Parabolic dish transmitter, mounted high </li></ul><ul><li>Used by common carriers as well as private networks </li></ul><ul><li>Requires unobstructed line of sight between source and receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Curvature of the earth requires stations (repeaters) ~30 miles apart </li></ul>
  19. 19. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Satellite Microwave Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Television distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Long-distance telephone transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Private business networks </li></ul>
  20. 20. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Microwave Transmission Disadvantages </li></ul><ul><li>Line of sight requirement </li></ul><ul><li>Expensive towers and repeaters </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to interference such as passing airplanes and rain </li></ul>
  21. 21. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Satellite Transmission Links </li></ul><ul><li>Earth stations communicate by sending signals to the satellite on an uplink </li></ul><ul><li>The satellite then repeats those signals on a downlink </li></ul><ul><li>The broadcast nature of the downlink makes it attractive for services such as the distribution of television programming </li></ul>
  22. 22. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Radio </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is omnidirectional and microwave is directional </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is a general term often used to encompass frequencies in the range 3 kHz to 300 GHz. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile telephony occupies several frequency bands just under 1 GHz. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Based on network size : LAN and WAN (and MAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local Area Network (LAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small network, short distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A room, a floor, a building </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limited by no. of computers and distance covered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually one kind of technology throughout the LAN </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serve a department within an organization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network inside the Student Computer Room </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Network inside your home </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Wide Area Network (WAN) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A network that uses long-range telecommunication links to connect 2 or more LANs/computers housed in different places far apart. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Towns, states, countries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ATM – Asynchronous Transfer Mode </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Concepts of Networking
  26. 26. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Based on management method : Peer-to-peer and Client/Server </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-Peer Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer network is also called workgroup </li></ul><ul><li>No hierarchy among computers  all are equal </li></ul><ul><li>No administrator responsible for the network </li></ul>
  27. 27. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Advantages of peer-to-peer networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple to configure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User has full accessibility of the computer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of peer-to-peer networks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May have duplication in resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to uphold security policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to handle uneven loading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Where peer-to-peer network is appropriate: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 or less users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No specialized services required </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security is not an issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only limited growth in the foreseeable future </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Clients and Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Clients ( Workstation ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that request network resources or services </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Computers that manage and provide network resources and services to clients </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually have more processing power, memory and hard disk space than clients </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Run Network Operating System that can manage not only data, but also users, groups, security, and applications on the network </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Servers often have a more stringent requirement on its performance and reliability </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Advantages of client/server networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate resource sharing – centrally administrate and control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitate system backup and improve fault tolerance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance security – only administrator can have access to Server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support more users – difficult to achieve with peer-to-peer networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages of client/server networks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High cost for Servers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need expert to configure the network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Introduce a single point of failure to the system </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Based on topology (connectivity): Bus, Star, Ring … </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Bus Topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simple and low-cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A single cable called a trunk (backbone, segment) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only one computer can send messages at a time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Passive topology - computer only listen for, not regenerate data </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Concepts of Networking <ul><ul><li>Star Topology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Each computer has a cable connected to a single point </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More cabling, hence higher cost </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>All signals transmission through the hub; if down, entire network down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on the intelligence of hub, two or more computers may send message at the same time </li></ul></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Concepts of Networking <ul><li>Ring Topology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every computer serves as </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a repeater to boost signals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typical way to send data: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Token passing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only the computer who </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gets the token can send data </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Difficult to add computers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If one computer fails, whole network fails </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>What is the Internet? </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a network of computers around the world that are linked together by telecommunications in order to share information. It is a network of networks. Different types of computers make up the network. Some computers contain information(host computers) or servers, others (clients) access the host or server to retrieve needed information. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a network of Computer Networks. Each computer on the network has a unique address, the Internet Protocol address (IP). It is made up of lots of servers and clients that hold and exchange information all over the world. The network is self organizing and self governing. There is no group that or individual that heads the network of net works. The computers are able to communicate with each other because they use a common set of rules or protocols </li></ul><ul><li>The protocols Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) allows the connection and exchange of information between computers. There are a number of Internet protocols that make communication and information retrieval possible on the WWW. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Birth of the Net </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet grew out of an experiment in the 1960s by the U.S. Department of Defense . The DoD wanted to create a computer network that would continue to function in the event of a disaster, such as a nuclear war. If part of the network was damaged or destroyed, the rest ofthe system still had to work. That network was ARPANET, (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) which linked U.S. scientific and academic researchers. It was the forerunner of today's Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1985, the National Science Foundation (NSF), an American research organization, created NSFNET, a series of networks for research and education communication. Based on ARPANET protocols, the NSFNET created a national backbone service, provided free to any American research and educational institution. At the same time, regional networks were created to link individual institutions with the national backbone service. </li></ul><ul><li>NSFNET grew rapidly as people discovered its potential and as new software applications were created to make access easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Corporations such as Sprint and MCI began to build their own networks that they then linked to NSFNET. When commercial firms and other regional network providers took over the operation of the major Internet arteries, NSF withdrew from the backbone business. </li></ul><ul><li>NSF also coordinated a service called InterNIC that registered all addresses on the Internet so that data could be routed to the right system. This service has now been taken over by Network Solutions, Inc. and other Internet registration services in cooperation with NSF </li></ul>
  36. 36. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Internet Protocols include: </li></ul><ul><li>E-mail (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol –SMTP) makes the distribution of electronic messages between computers possible. </li></ul><ul><li>TCP/IP - Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol make the transmission of data through the network possible. </li></ul><ul><li>FTP ( File transfer Protocol) Transfers texts between computers. </li></ul><ul><li>HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) Used to create documents on the World Wide Web) </li></ul><ul><li>HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol) HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. </li></ul><ul><li>TELNET Make it possible to login to a host computer and execute instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet uses </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is used by students, researchers and the general population to satisfy their information needs. An Internet user has access to a wide variety of services such as: </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Mail </li></ul><ul><li>File Transfer </li></ul><ul><li>News Services. </li></ul><ul><li>Information Networks </li></ul>
  37. 37. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Web Browser </li></ul><ul><li>A web browser is the software program you use to access the World Wide Web, the graphical portion of the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The first browser, called NCSA Mosaic , was developed at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications in the early 1990s. The easy-to-use point-and-click interface helped popularize the Web. </li></ul><ul><li>Microsoft Internet Explorer and Netscape Navigator are the two most popular ones. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Navigating the Web </li></ul><ul><li>The Web is known as a client-server system. Your computer is the client; the remote computers that store electronic files are the servers. To visit the website, enter the address or URL of the website in your web browser. Browser requests the web page from the web server that hosts the requested site. The server sends the data over the Internet to your computer. Your web browser interprets the data, displaying it on your computer screen. </li></ul>
  39. 39. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Uniform Resource Locator  ( URL ) </li></ul><ul><li>A  Uniform Resource Locator  ( URL ) is a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) that specifies where a known resource is available and the mechanism for retrieving it. It is also referred to as a  Universal Resource Locator  and in many technical documents and verbal discussions it is often used . </li></ul>
  40. 40. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Navigating the Web </li></ul><ul><li>The &quot;glue&quot; that holds the Web together is called hypertext and hyperlinks. This feature allows electronic files on the Web to be linked so you can jump easily between them. On the Web, you navigate through pages of information--commonly known as browsing or surfing--based on what interests you at that particular moment. </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages are written in a computer language called Hypertext Markup Language or HTML. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>World Wide Web </li></ul><ul><li>The  World Wide Web  (abbreviated as  WWW  or  W3  and commonly known as  the Web ), is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>The World Wide Web was originally developed in 1990 at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics. </li></ul><ul><li>The original idea came from a young computer scientist, Tim Berners-Lee. It is now managed by The World Wide Web Consortium . The WWW Consortium is funded by a large number of corporate members, including AT&T, Adobe Systems, Inc., Microsoft Corporation and Sun Microsystems, Inc. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Internet Explorer Usage Web Addresses For example: The Home page of MIM
  43. 43. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Domain Name </li></ul><ul><li>Every computer that hosts data on the Internet has a unique numerical address. For example, the numerical address for the White House is But since few people want to remember long strings of numbers, the Domain Name System (DNS) was invented. DNS, a critical part of the Internet's technical infrastructure, correlates a numerical address to a word. </li></ul><ul><li>To access the White House website, you could type its number into the address box of your web browser. But most people prefer to use &quot;; In this case, the domain name is </li></ul>
  44. 44. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>The Structure of a Domain Name </li></ul><ul><li>A domain name has two or more parts separated by dots and consists of some form of an organization's name and a three letter or more suffix. For example, the domain name for IBM is &quot;;; the United Nations is &quot;; The domain name suffix is known as a generic top-leve domain (gTLD). It describes the type of organization. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently in use gTLDs: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.aero--For the air-transport industry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.biz--Reserved for businesses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.com--For businesses, commercial enterprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.edu--For educational institutions and universities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.gov--Reserved for United States government agencies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.info--For all uses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.mil--For the United States military </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.net--For networks; usually reserved for organizations such as Internet </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>service providers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>.org--For non-commercial organizations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>To search the Internet you use what are called Internet search engines. </li></ul><ul><li>These are easily accessed via your Internet browser (i.e. Microsoft Internet Explorer or Netscape Navigator/Communicator). </li></ul><ul><li>Within the search engine you enter a word or phrase and it will retrieve documents from the Internet based on the information you typed in. </li></ul>
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  53. 53. Internet Explorer Usage To Search a relevant document /Page in a website
  54. 54. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Boolean Searching on the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a vast computer database. As such, its contents must be searched according to the rules of computer database searching. Much database searching is based on the principles of Boolean logic. Boolean logic refers to the logical relationship among search terms, and is named for the British-born Irish mathematician George Boole. </li></ul><ul><li>On Internet search engines, the options for constructing logical relationships among search terms often modify the traditional practice of Boolean searching. This will be covered in the section below,  Boolean Searching on the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Boolean logic consists of three logical operators: </li></ul><ul><li>1. OR </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2.AND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.NOT </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>OR Logic </li></ul>In this search, we will retrieve records in which AT LEAST ONE of the search terms is present. We are searching on the terms  college  and also  university  since documents containing either of these words might be relevant.
  56. 56. Internet Explorer Usage AND LOGIC In this search, we retrieve records in which BOTH of the search terms are present
  57. 57. Internet Explorer Usage NOT LOGIC In this search, we retrieve records in which ONLY ONE of the terms is present, the one we have selected by our search
  58. 58. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Advanced Searching Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Truncation </li></ul><ul><li>Proximity Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phrase searching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Near operator. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Case sensitivity </li></ul>
  59. 59. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Truncation </li></ul><ul><li>Truncation  broadens your search  by allowing you to retrieve  all variant endings or spellings of that word . </li></ul><ul><li>A particular character, like an asterisk (*) is used to truncate the  END or MIDDLE OF A WORD . This is sometimes referred to as a  WILDCARD . The truncation symbol and rules will depend on the database or search engine you are using. </li></ul>
  60. 60. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Proximity Searching   </li></ul><ul><li>Refers to the ability to specify how close within a record multiple terms should be to each other. The most commonly used proximity search option in Internet finding aids is a  phrase search that requires terms to be in the exact order specified within the phrase markings. The default standard for identifying phrases is to use double quotes (&quot; &quot;) to surround the phrase. </li></ul><ul><li>1.Phrase Searching Example: &quot;phrase searching is fun&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Beyond phrase searching, other proximity operators can specify how close terms should be to each other. Some will also specify the order of the search terms </li></ul><ul><li>2. Near Operator </li></ul><ul><li>What if you are looking for a sequence of words that are normally connected, but that may be split by other words? If you were looking for information on the inventor Thomas Alva Edison, you could possibly search for a phrase, like this: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thomas Alva Edison&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>But this search would not bring you pages where the name is given as  Thomas A. Edison  or  Thomas Edison . You could solve this problem by entering </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Thomas Alva Edison&quot; OR &quot;Thomas A. Edison&quot; OR &quot;Thomas Edison&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>or you could use the NEAR search operator. NEAR means &quot;show me pages where these words are near each other&quot;. </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas NEAR Edison </li></ul>
  61. 61. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Case Sensitive Search </li></ul><ul><li>For instance, &quot;Ram&quot; is the name of a Hindu God while &quot;RAM&quot; is an abbreviation for Random Access Memory. They both share the same spelling and it's the case that helps you understand the real context of the word. Unfortunately, Google searches are not case sensitive (or fold case) and hence most search results for Ram or RAM are about the &quot;temporary&quot; memory. </li></ul><ul><li>To solve this problem and help you conduct case sensitive searches on Google, someone has created a Google Appengine powered search engine at Case Sensitive Search - it scans through Google search results and filters out results that match the case of your search query. </li></ul><ul><li>Coming back to original example, here's is a comparison of case sensitive Google search results for &quot;Ram&quot; vs. &quot;RAM&quot;. </li></ul>
  62. 62. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>More Search Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Field Specific Searching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Date </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>URL </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Language Restrictions </li></ul>
  63. 63. Internet Explorer Usage <ul><li>Bookmarks and Favorites save Web addresses so you can return to them quickly. </li></ul><ul><li>To save a web page, go to the Bookmarks or Favorites menu or click on its icon and select Add. When you click on the icon again, the title of the page you recorded will appear at the bottom of the list. To access the page, just double-click on the title. </li></ul>
  64. 64. Internet Explorer Usage
  65. 65. Internet Explorer Usage
  66. 66. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>What is Email and Why is it Popular? </li></ul><ul><li>An electronic message sent from one computer to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Email saves money and time compared to regular mail. </li></ul><ul><li>An email message takes seconds to reach destination. </li></ul>
  67. 67. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>How does Email Work? </li></ul><ul><li>Email travels via the Internet from one computer to another. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers known as mail servers direct outgoing mail and store incoming the mail. </li></ul><ul><li>Once email reaches your mail server, it waits in an electronic mail box, the &quot;Inbox” for you to collect it. </li></ul>
  68. 68. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Things You Can Do with Email </li></ul><ul><li>Compose and Send: write an email and send it to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Reply: reply to an email that you received. </li></ul><ul><li>Forward: pass on an email that you received to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Attachment: You can send files with your email such as: pictures, music, software and documents </li></ul>
  69. 69. E-mail Concepts <ul><ul><li>An email address consists of 3 parts: </li></ul></ul>
  70. 70. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Two Ways to Get Email </li></ul><ul><li>1. Provided by your Internet Service Provider </li></ul><ul><li>Monthly fee for internet connection often includes email service. </li></ul><ul><li>Aliant - [email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Eastlink - … </li></ul><ul><li>2. Free Web-Based Service Providers </li></ul><ul><li>Advertising on the site pays for the service. </li></ul><ul><li>Gmail - … </li></ul><ul><li>Hotmail - … </li></ul>
  71. 71. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Two Ways People Check Email </li></ul><ul><li>1. Web-Based Email </li></ul><ul><li>Login to a web site </li></ul><ul><li>Messages stay on the mail server </li></ul><ul><li>Can be accessed from any computer with internet connection </li></ul><ul><li>2. Using Email Software </li></ul><ul><li>Open and login to your email software application (e.g. Outlook) </li></ul><ul><li>The application retrieves your messages from the mail server and saves them to your computer’s hard drive </li></ul>
  72. 72. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>How to Sign Up for a Gmail Email Account </li></ul><ul><li>Go to </li></ul><ul><li>Click on “ Sign Up for Gmail ” </li></ul><ul><li>3. Fill in the </li></ul><ul><li>Registration Form </li></ul>
  73. 73. E-mail Concepts
  74. 74. E-mail Concepts
  75. 75. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Signing In </li></ul><ul><li>Go to </li></ul><ul><li>Type in your username </li></ul><ul><li>and password </li></ul><ul><li>Click on the ‘sign in’ </li></ul><ul><li>button </li></ul>
  76. 78. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>To: contains the e-mail addresses of the recipients. This is a mandatory entry. </li></ul><ul><li>CC: short for Carbon Copy. This is optional. </li></ul><ul><li>BCC:, short for Blind Carbon Copy, contains the e-mail addresses of other recipients who receive copies, but their names and addresses are hidden from the other recipients. This is optional. </li></ul>
  77. 79. E-mail Concepts
  78. 80. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Checking for New Email Messages </li></ul>
  79. 81. E-mail Concepts
  80. 82. E-mail Concepts
  81. 83. E-mail Concepts
  82. 84. E-mail Concepts
  83. 85. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Replying to a Message </li></ul><ul><li>“ Replying” to a message sends it back to the person who sent it to you. </li></ul><ul><li>Forwarding a Message </li></ul><ul><li>By “forwarding” you can pass a message on to other friends. </li></ul>
  84. 86. E-mail Concepts
  85. 87. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>The Trash Folder </li></ul><ul><li>Deleted messages go to the “Trash” folder. </li></ul><ul><li>If you delete something by accident, you can retrieve it from </li></ul><ul><li>“ Trash”. </li></ul><ul><li>If you delete a message in “Trash”, it is gone for good. </li></ul><ul><li>You can delete everything in the “Trash” folder by clicking on </li></ul><ul><li>“ Empty” </li></ul>
  86. 88. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>E-mail can include a signature at the end of the message. An e-mail signature is not your hand-written signature. </li></ul><ul><li>Like a business card, an e-mail signature can include your name, title, telephone and fax numbers, street address, and e-mail address. </li></ul><ul><li>It saves time, you don’t have to retype the information each time you send a message. Clicking the feature automatically adds it to the message. </li></ul>
  87. 89. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Managing your Addresses </li></ul><ul><li>With most software, you can create a set of e-mail addresses called a group. When you address a message with a group, the message is automatically addressed to all the people in the group. This is sometimes referred to as a mailing list. </li></ul><ul><li>As your list grows, use the Search or Find function in the address book to locate an e-mail address based on a person's first or last name. </li></ul>
  88. 90. E-mail Concepts <ul><li>Email Security </li></ul><ul><li>Always sign out, especially if you are using a public computer! </li></ul><ul><li>Never send your SIN or bank account number by email. </li></ul><ul><li>Beware of messages that: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask for your bank account information, even if they say they want to put money into your account (e.g. The Nigerian Scam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask you to click on a link, login and verify personal information (e.g. Phishing bank scams) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inform you that you have won a prize/money and ask for personal information in order to give you your prize </li></ul></ul>
  89. 91. E-mail Concepts