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# Network Topology

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What is Network Topology? Types of Network Topology.

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### Network Topology

1. 1. A Seminar on 1 Presented By: Swapna Subhadarsini 13-Jan-14
2. 2. CONTENTS 2 Definition Types of Topology Network Topologies       Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology Hybrid Topology References 13-Jan-14
3. 3. DEFINITION Network topology refers to the physical or logical layout of a network. It defines the way different nodes are placed and interconnected with each other. Network topology may describe how the data is transferred between these nodes. 13-Jan-14 4
4. 4. Types of topology There are two types of network topologies: Physical Topology logical Topology Physical Topology emphasizes the physical layout of the connected devices and nodes. logical Topology focuses the pattern of data transfer between network nodes. 13-Jan-14 5
5. 5. Both Physical and Logical Network Topologies can be categorized into 6 basic types: Bus Topology Ring Topology Star Topology Tree Topology Mesh Topology Hybrid Topology 13-Jan-14 6
6. 6. BUS TOPOLOGY In Bus Topology, all devices are connected sequentially to the same backbone or transmission line. 13-Jan-14 A signal from the source travels in both directions to all stations until it finds the intended recipient. If the station address matches the intended address, it accepts the data otherwise ignored. 7
7. 7. Bus Topology is further divided into 2 types: Linear Bus- All of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has exactly two endpoints. Distributed Bus- All of the nodes of the network are connected to a common transmission medium which has more than two endpoints. A fully connected Bus Topology is having only 1 linking channel. 13-Jan-14 8
8. 8. Use: Local Area Network(LAN) AdvantageLess expensive and easy to implement. DisadvantageSince one cable is utilized, when it breaks, the entire network will be terminated. 13-Jan-14 9
9. 9. RING TOPOLOGY In Ring Topology, all network devices are connected sequentially to a backbone forming a physical ring. Here the data flow is unidirectional, so when a device sends data, it must travel through each device on the ring until it reaches its destination. 13-Jan-14 10
10. 10. A fully connected Ring Topology is having (n) linking channels. Use: Local Area Network(LAN) AdvantageLess expensive in nature. DisadvantageSince one cable is used, when it fails, the whole network will be effected. 13-Jan-14 11
11. 11. STAR TOPOLOGY In Star Topology, all the nodes in the network are connected to a central device called Hub or Switch via cables. All traffic is controlled by the Hub. Devices transfer the data to each other only through the Hub not directly. 13-Jan-14 12
12. 12. Star Topology is further divided into 2 types: Extended Star- A network which has one or more repeaters used to extend the maximum distance between the Hub and other devices. Distributed Star- A network which is composed of individual networks connected in a linear fashion with no central connection. A fully connected Star Topology is having (n) linking channels. 13-Jan-14 13
13. 13. Use: Client-Server network AdvantageSimple, Easy to design and implement. Disadvantage• Since a central Hub controls all devices, if it fails, the entire network will be terminated. • Wiring is more, so highly expensive. 13-Jan-14 14
14. 14. TREE TOPOLOGY In Tree Topology, a root node is connected to two or more sub-level nodes, which themselves are connected hierarchically to sub-level nodes. Here the top level node is called Root and the low level node is called Child. It is the combination of Bus and Star Topology. 13-Jan-14 15
15. 15. Use: Cable TV technology, Wireless networks for military, Mobile applications Advantage• Easier fault identification and isolation. • It is scalable; Secondary nodes allow more devices to be connected to a central node. Disadvantage• Maintenance of the network may be difficult when the network spans a great area. • Since it is a variation of bus topology, if the backbone fails, the entire network is crippled. 13-Jan-14 16
16. 16. MESH TOPOLOGY In Mesh Topology, each node is directly connected to some or all the other nodes present in the network. A fully connected Mesh Topology is having n(n-1)/2 linking channels. 13-Jan-14 17
17. 17. Mesh Topology is further divided into 2 types: Fully Connected- A network in which every node is connected to each other. It doesn't need to use switching nor broadcasting. Partially Connected- A network in which some of the nodes are connected to more than one other. Use: Long distance transmission of data It has more disadvantages so that rarely used. Disadvantage• Message delay may be high. • Requires more cabling, hence costly. 13-Jan-14 18
18. 18. HYBRID TOPOLOGY Hybrid Topologies use a combination of any two or more topologies in such a way that the resulting network does not exhibit one of the standard topologies. 13-Jan-14 19
19. 19. A hybrid topology is always produced when two different basic network topologies are connected. For Example: Star-Ring network and Star-Bus network 13-Jan-14 20
20. 20. REFERENCES Data Communications and Networking : Behrouz A. Forouzan, Tata MCGraw-Hill, 4th Ed Computer Networks: A.S. Tannenbum, D.Wetherall, Prentice Hall, Imprint of Pearson,5th Ed  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Network_topology  http://www.techopedia.com/definition/5538/network- topology 13-Jan-14 21