A Seminar on
Types of Topology
Network topology refers to the
physical or logical layout of a
network. It defines the way
different nodes are placed and
interconnected with each other.
Network topology may describe how
the data is transferred between
Types of topology
There are two types of network
Physical Topology emphasizes the physical
layout of the connected devices and
logical Topology focuses the pattern of
data transfer between network nodes.
Both Physical and
Topologies can be
categorized into 6
In Bus Topology, all
devices are connected
sequentially to the same
backbone or transmission
A signal from the source
travels in both
directions to all
stations until it finds
the intended recipient.
If the station address
matches the intended
address, it accepts the
data otherwise ignored.
Bus Topology is further divided into 2 types:
Linear Bus- All of the nodes of the network are
connected to a common transmission medium
which has exactly two endpoints.
Distributed Bus- All of the nodes of the
network are connected to a common transmission
medium which has more than two endpoints.
A fully connected Bus Topology is having only 1
Use: Local Area Network(LAN)
AdvantageLess expensive and easy to implement.
DisadvantageSince one cable is utilized, when it breaks,
the entire network will be terminated.
In Ring Topology, all
network devices are
sequentially to a
backbone forming a
Here the data flow is
when a device sends
data, it must travel
through each device
on the ring until it
A fully connected Ring Topology is having (n)
Use: Local Area Network(LAN)
AdvantageLess expensive in nature.
DisadvantageSince one cable is used, when it fails, the
whole network will be effected.
In Star Topology, all
the nodes in the
network are connected
to a central device
called Hub or Switch
All traffic is
controlled by the
Hub. Devices transfer
the data to each
other only through
the Hub not directly.
Star Topology is further divided into 2 types:
Extended Star- A network which has one or more
repeaters used to extend the maximum distance
between the Hub and other devices.
Distributed Star- A network which is composed
of individual networks connected in a linear
fashion with no central connection.
A fully connected Star Topology is having (n)
Use: Client-Server network
AdvantageSimple, Easy to design and implement.
Disadvantage• Since a central Hub controls all devices, if
it fails, the entire network will be
• Wiring is more, so highly expensive.
In Tree Topology, a
root node is
connected to two or
more sub-level nodes,
which themselves are
Here the top level node
is called Root and
the low level node is
It is the combination
of Bus and Star
Use: Cable TV technology, Wireless networks for
military, Mobile applications
Advantage• Easier fault identification and isolation.
• It is scalable; Secondary nodes allow more
devices to be connected to a central node.
Disadvantage• Maintenance of the network may be difficult when
the network spans a great area.
• Since it is a variation of bus topology, if the
backbone fails, the entire network is crippled.
In Mesh Topology,
each node is
to some or all the
other nodes present
in the network.
A fully connected
Mesh Topology is
Mesh Topology is further divided into 2 types:
Fully Connected- A network in which every node is
connected to each other. It doesn't need to
use switching nor broadcasting.
Partially Connected- A network in which some of
the nodes are connected to more than one other.
Use: Long distance transmission of data
It has more disadvantages so that rarely used.
Disadvantage• Message delay may be high.
• Requires more cabling, hence costly.
use a combination
of any two or
in such a way
does not exhibit
one of the
A hybrid topology is always produced when
two different basic network topologies are
For Example: Star-Ring network and Star-Bus
Data Communications and Networking : Behrouz A.
Forouzan, Tata MCGraw-Hill, 4th Ed
Computer Networks: A.S. Tannenbum, D.Wetherall,
Prentice Hall, Imprint of Pearson,5th Ed