Network servers


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Network servers

  1. 1. Network Servers
  2. 2. Client-Server and Peer to Peer - I• Client – Server – Consist of one or more clients and only one server – It is not possible for one client to access shared resources on another client system
  3. 3. Client-Server and Peer to Peer - II• Peer to Peer – Computers on the network can have access to resources and data. The computers act as both clients and servers – Computers are able to communicate with each other and share data with other users
  4. 4. Types of Servers• Servers are classified depending on the nature of work• Types: – File Server – Print Server – Mail Server – Database Server – FTP Server – DNS Server – DHCP Server – WINS Server
  5. 5. Sharing Resources on Network• Networking tasks includes sharing files and network recourses and setting up network security• User can share: – Internet connection among multiple computers – Several numbers of files, folders to avoid data redundancy over Local Area Network
  6. 6. E-Mail Server Often referred as mail server Receives and delivers e-mails over the network Maintains a storage area for e-mails Employs a set of user defined rules that determine the strategy for mail server to respond according to the destination of a specific message Most e-mail servers use Linux OS as they less prone to viruses
  7. 7. Domain Name System (DNS)• Two ways to resolve names: NetBIOS and DNS• Technique used to provide standard naming conventions for finding IP address configured hosts• Uses hierarchical name space and distributed database• Internet domains are classified into various categories like “root” or the top most level of the Internet domain namespace• DNS is based on logical tree structure called domain name space
  8. 8. DNS Namespace• Categories of top-level domains: – Organizational domain – e.g. .com – Geographical domain – e.g. .uk – Reverse domain –
  9. 9. DNS Server - I• Contains information about the zones• Zones are continuous portion of the domain name system namespace
  10. 10. DNS Server - II• A complete DNS name including the host name and all of its domains is known as fully qualified domain name (FQDN)• A single DNS server contain all the host names on the domain and their corresponding IP address in the entire network is known as authoritative DNS server• No two machines should have the same FQDN
  11. 11. Name Resolution In DNS• Name can be resolved in three ways: by consulting locally stored text file called HOSTS, by contacting a DNS server or by broadcasting• As the database is centralized on the DNS server, it is easy for the administrator to add new entries just once rather than adding new entries to each machines• DNS server has to know about other DNS servers where it can go for more information
  12. 12. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)• Provides dynamic configuration of IP addresses on time lease basis• Provides information like IP address, default gateway, DNS address and so on• Backward compatible with BOOTP• DHCP Server employs manual, automatic and dynamic IP address allocation methods• Reduces administration of a TCP/IP network
  13. 13. DHCP Server Responsibilities• Address Storage and Management• Configuration Parameter Storage and Management• Lease Management• Responding To Client Requests• Providing Administration Services
  14. 14. DHCP Client Responsibilities• Configuration Initiation• Configuration Parameter Management• Lease Management• Message Retransmission
  15. 15. IP Address Allocation• DHCP provides temporary IP address with a particular amount of time• Methods of allocating IP address to the hosts: – Manual allocation – IP addresses are manually entered by server administrator – Automatic allocation – Assigns the requesting client an IP address from a pool of IP address – Dynamic allocation – Makes use of IP address request and permits process with time lease
  16. 16. WINS - I• Windows Internet Name Service• Maps Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS) computer names to corresponding IP addresses• Was created to resolve the problems of broadcast-based name resolution
  17. 17. WINS - II• WINS Client Name Registration – In WINS database NetBIOS, the WINS-enabled client registers the names of processes running on it. – These client names should be renewed in the WINS database• WINS Client Name Renewal – The renewal interval determines how long the server stores the name registration as an active record in the WINS database
  18. 18. WINS – III• WINS Client Name Release – NetBIOS names are released explicitly or silently• WINS Client Name Resolution – WINS server accepts client’s name resolution request – A system name and a share name needs to be specified by the user in order to connect to a network drive
  19. 19. WINS - IV• WINS Client Behaviour – Basic functions that a WINS client includes; • Startup • Plugging to subnet • Extended shutdowns • Establishing connections
  20. 20. Troubleshooting WINS• Most WINS problems are not directly related to WINS rather they are related to NetBIOS• Nbtstat is used to troubleshoot NetBIOS name resolution problems• NetBIOS over TCP/IP (NetBT) resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses
  21. 21. NOS - I• Network Operating System• An Operating System for computer that can be connected in network• Organizes the activities of multiple computers across a network• Windows NT (New Technology) – Contains advanced features for security, network support, multitasking and user administration – Basically two products; Windows NT Workstation and Windows NT Server
  22. 22. NOS - II• Windows 2000 – Improved version of Windows NT – No need to configure or use NetBIOS – Desktop and a server version of Windows 2000: • Windows 2000 Professional • Windows 2000 Server – Active directory - Centralized storage area of information about network resources related to users, applications, files and printers
  23. 23. NOS - III• Windows 2003 Server – .NET version of the Windows 2000 server operating system – Windows Server 2003 editions: • Small Business Server (Standard and Premium Edition) • Web Edition • Standard Edition • Enterprise Edition • Datacenter Edition• Windows XP Professional – Device support, user friendly and Remote Desktop – Multiple users can log in and use the system without logging out the previous users
  24. 24. NOS - IV• Novell Netware – Novell Corporation is a local-area network (LAN) operating system – Netware supported different types of LAN technologies from Ethernet to IBM’s token-ring networks• Linux – An open source computer operating system – Linux is based on UNIX operating system which was designed to support networking