It infrastructure


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It infrastructure

  1. 2. NETWORKS, TELECOMMUNICATIONS, AND MOBILE TECHNOLOGY Business Driven Information Systems 2e
  2. 3. NETWORK BASICS <ul><li>Telecommunication system - enables the transmission of data over public or private networks </li></ul><ul><li>Network - a communications, data exchange, and resource-sharing system created by linking two or more computers, and by establishing standards, or protocols, so that they can work together </li></ul>
  3. 4. NETWORK BASICS <ul><li>Three types of networks include LAN, WAN, MAN: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local area network (LAN) - A computer network that uses cables or wireless signals to link two or more computers within a geographically limited area, generally one building or a group of buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wide area network (WAN )- A computer network that provides data communication services for business in geographically dispersed areas (such as across a country or around the world). The Internet is a WAN that spans the world. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. NETWORK BASICS <ul><ul><li>Metropolitan area network (MAN) - a computer network that provides connectivity in a geographic area or region larger than that covered by a local area network, but smaller than the area covered by a wide area network, usually spanning a city </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May be used to link community services such as police, fire, hospitals, EMS, traffic control, broadcast systems, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 7. NETWORK BASICS <ul><li>Networks are differentiated by the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Architecture: peer-to-peer, client/server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Network Operating System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packet switching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Topology: bus, star, ring, hybrid, wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols: Ethernet, Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wired: coaxial, twisted-pair, fiber-optic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless: microwave, satellite, Wi-Fi, infra-red, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 8. ARCHITECTURE <ul><li>Two primary types of architectures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer-to-peer (P2P) network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Client/server network </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Architecture: Peer-to-Peer Networks <ul><li>Peer-to-peer (P2P) network - a network without a central file server, in which all computers in the network have access to the public files located on all other workstations </li></ul>
  9. 10. Architecture: Client/Server Networks <ul><li>Client/server network – a network in which the bulk of the back-end processing takes place on a server , while the front-end processing is handled by the clients </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Client - a computer that is designed to request information from a server </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Server - a computer that is dedicated to providing information in response to external requests </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Network Operating System <ul><li>Network operating system (NOS) - the operating system that runs a network, steering information between computers and managing security and users </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinates: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>User accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource sharing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Novell NetWare; Microsoft Windows Server; Converging Technologies LANtastic </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Packet-switching <ul><li>Packet-switching - occurs when the sending computer divides a message into a number of efficiently sized units called packets, each of which contains the address of the destination computer </li></ul><ul><li>Allows millions of users to send large and small chunks of data across the Internet concurrently </li></ul><ul><li>Based on the concept of turn taking ; packets from each user are alternated in the shared network </li></ul>
  12. 13. Routers <ul><li>Router - an intelligent connecting device (HW) that examines each packet of data it receives and then decides which way to send (route) it onward toward its destination </li></ul>
  13. 14. TOPOLOGY <ul><li>Network topology - refers to the geometric arrangement of the actual physical organization of the computers and other network devices) in a network </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Star </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless </li></ul></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>All devices are directly connected to the central hub or switch </li></ul><ul><li>If the central device goes down, the entire network is disabled </li></ul><ul><li>Bottlenecks can occur since all messages must pass through the central device </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to manage & expand </li></ul>Star Network Topology The network is configured in the shape of a star with all nodes or workstations connected to a central hub, through which all messages pass
  15. 16. <ul><li>Computers & devices are connected to a central line or cable </li></ul><ul><li>Each device can communicate directly with all other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to add on to, but need to be careful about how many devices you add </li></ul>Bus Network Topology The network is configured in the shape of an open-ended line with all nodes or workstations connected to the bus individually.
  16. 17. <ul><li>Computers & devices are connected in a ring; a closed circuit </li></ul><ul><li>Messages travel around the ring in one direction </li></ul><ul><li>Better traffic mgmt. & error control than bus </li></ul><ul><li>Less signal loss </li></ul><ul><li>High bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>Long distances </li></ul><ul><li>Relatively expensive </li></ul>Ring Network Topology The network is configured in the shape of a circle with each node connecting to the next node. Messages travel around the circle in one direction. Each node examines the message and uses it or regenerates it and passes it to the next node
  17. 18. Hybrid Network Topology <ul><li>Combination of other network types </li></ul><ul><li>More flexible, able to accommodate specific needs in a network </li></ul>
  18. 19. Wireless Networks <ul><li>Devices are connected by a receiver/transmitter to a special network interface card (NIC) that transmits signals wirelessly between a computer and a server, all within an acceptable transmission range </li></ul>
  19. 20. Review - TOPOLOGIES
  20. 21. PROTOCOLS <ul><li>Interoperability - the capability of two or more computer systems to share data and resources, even though they are made by different manufacturers </li></ul><ul><li>Protocol – a standard that specifies the format of data as well as the rules to be followed during transmission – controls communication across a network </li></ul>
  21. 22. Protocols: Ethernet <ul><li>Ethernet - a physical and data layer technology for LAN networking </li></ul>
  22. 23. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol <ul><li>Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) - provides the technical foundation for the public Internet as well as for large numbers of private networks </li></ul>
  23. 24. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol <ul><li>TCP – Transmission Control Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaks information into small chunks called data packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manages the transfer of the packets from computer to computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reassembles data packets back into the message at the destination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>IP – Internet Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls how data packets are formed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Addresses each packet with the source and destination address </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol <ul><li>TCP/IP applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>File transfer protocol (FTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple mail transfer protocol (SMTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telnet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple network management Protocol (SNMP) </li></ul></ul>
  25. 26. MEDIA <ul><li>Network transmission media - refers to the various types of media used to carry the signal between computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wired media (guided, cabled) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless media (unguided, broadcast) </li></ul></ul>
  26. 27. Characteristics of Transmission Media <ul><li>Speed – measured in bps (bits per second) </li></ul><ul><li>Bandwidth : the communications capacity of a communications channel; the range of frequencies available in the channel; the difference between the highest and the lowest frequencies that can be transmitted on a single medium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broadband - refers to high-speed Internet connections transmitting data at speeds greater than 200 kilobytes per second (Kbps) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. Characteristics of Transmission Media <ul><li>Attenuation – this results when the power of an electrical signal weakens as it is sent over increasing distance </li></ul><ul><li>Electro Magnetic Interference (EMI) – interference commonly caused by fluorescent lights, weather, or other electronic signals that affect the distance a signal can travel as well as its quality </li></ul>
  28. 29. Wired Media <ul><li>Wired Media – physical transmission media manufactured so that signals will be confined to a narrow path and will behave predictably </li></ul><ul><li>Three commonly used types include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twisted-pair wiring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coaxial cable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fiber Optic (or optical fiber) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. Twisted Pair Two or more pairs of insulated copper wires twisted together; may be shielded (STP) or unshielded (UTP). It has the lowest capacity of the cable options <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Slow for data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interference (susceptible to attenuation and EMI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  30. 31. Coaxial Cable Contains a solid inner copper conductor surrounded by insulation and outer braided copper or foil shield . It comes in different thicknesses and is higher capacity than twisted pair <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater capacity (bandwidth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faster </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less interference (less susceptible to attenuation & EMI) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not as widely available as twisted pair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security </li></ul></ul>
  31. 32. <ul><li>Fiber-Optic </li></ul><ul><li>Made of light-conducting glass or plastic core, surrounded by more glass , called cladding , and a tough outer sheath. It is high capacity and is mainly used in high speed backbones </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Much greater speed and capacity (very high bandwidth) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No electrical interference (immune to EMI) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Very secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low attenuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fits into small spaces </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More costly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More difficult to install and maintain </li></ul></ul>
  32. 33. Wired Media
  33. 34. Wireless Media <ul><li>Wireless media - natural parts of the Earth’s environment that can be used as paths to carry electrical signals; no physical transmission media </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High frequency radio </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pagers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi & WiMax </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microwave/satellite transmission </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Infrared light <ul><li>Uses high-frequency light waves to transmit data on an unobstructed path between nodes – computers or other devices such as a printer – on a network up to 24.4 meters (i.e. most electronic remotes use this infrared light) </li></ul><ul><li>are susceptible to attenuation , EMI , eavesdropping , high-intensity light , and smoke </li></ul>
  35. 36. Hi Frequency Radio <ul><li>A fast transmission medium for distances up to 40 kilometers, depending on obstructions. Attenuation is very low within the prescribed distance, but is susceptible to EMI and eavesdropping. </li></ul><ul><li>Applications of this technology include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RFID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bluetooth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular phones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wi-Fi/Wi-Max </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. RFID - Radio Frequency Identification <ul><li>Radio frequency identification (RFID) - uses active or passive tags in the form of chips or smart labels that can store unique identifiers and relay this information to electronic readers </li></ul><ul><li>RFID tag - contains a microchip and an antenna, and typically work by transmitting a serial number via radio waves to an electronic reader, which confirms the identity of a person or object bearing the tag </li></ul>
  37. 38. RFID
  38. 39. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
  39. 40. Bluetooth <ul><li>Bluetooth – a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection; transmits over the unlicensed 2.4 GHz frequency band </li></ul>
  40. 41. Bluetooth <ul><li>BMW’s new motorcycle helmet “System-Helmet 5” can be equipped with a Bluetooth network that allows riders to operate their Bluetooth-enabled cell phones, using hands-free operation through the motorcycle’s navigation system. (not approved in USA) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  41. 42. Pagers <ul><li>A one way, wireless messaging system in multiple types </li></ul>
  42. 43. Cellular Phone A two-way wireless communication that assigns a call to a frequency, and hands it off to another cell with a different frequency as you move from area to area
  43. 44. Cellular Transmission
  44. 45. GSM Base Station photos - One2One                                                                                                                                                                                             
  46. 47. USING CELLULAR TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS <ul><li>The latest trends in cell phones reflect a convergence of voice, video and data communications </li></ul><ul><li>Personal digital assistants (PDA) are small, handheld computers capable of entirely digital communications transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Smartphone - combines the functions of a cellular phone and a PDA in a single device </li></ul>
  47. 48. WIRELESS FIDELITY (Wi-Fi) <ul><li>Wi-Fi (Wireless fidelity) – based on the IEEE standard called 802.11, this technology enables multiple computers to share Internet access, files, and peripheral devices within ranges of 150’ – 300’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A, B, G, Super G, N, Xtreme N </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The main problem with Wi-Fi access is that hot spots are relatively small, so coverage is limited </li></ul>
  48. 49. WIRELESS FIDELITY (WiMAX) <ul><li>WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access) – based on the 802.16 standard, enables wireless networks to extend as far as 30 – 50 miles </li></ul><ul><li>A WiMAX system consists of two parts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A WiMAX tower - A single WiMAX tower can provide coverage to a very large area - as big as 3,000 square miles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A WiMAX receiver - The receiver and antenna could be built into a laptop the way Wi-Fi access is today </li></ul></ul>
  49. 50. WiMAX
  50. 51. Microwave A high frequency radio signal that is sent through the air using either terrestrial (earth-based) or satellite systems Terrestrial Microwave - A line-of-site technology (unobstructed) used to cross inaccessible terrain or to connect buildings where cable installation would be expensive. Attenuation is low over short distance but higher over longer distances. High winds , heavy rain , EMI and eavesdropping are also problems.
  51. 52. Satellite Microwave - A line-of-site technology that uses relay stations to transfer signals between antennae located on earth and a satellite orbiting the earth . It can be used to access very remote locations and like terrestrial microwave, attenuation , EMI and eavesdropping are also problems
  52. 53. Satellite Microwave
  53. 54. USING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS <ul><li>Global positioning system (GPS) – a &quot;constellation&quot; of 24 well-spaced satellites that orbit the Earth and make it possible for people with ground receivers to pinpoint their geographic location by determining current latitude, longitude, speed, and direction of movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market for GPS services is at $5 billion with expectations for the demand to double over the next five years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Location accuracy is anywhere from 10 to 100 meters </li></ul></ul>
  54. 55. Global Positioning System (GPS)
  55. 56. USING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS <ul><li>Geographic Information System (GIS) - is designed to work with information that can be shown on a map </li></ul><ul><li>Most location based applications use a GIS combined with database and GPS technology </li></ul>
  56. 57. USING SATELLITE TECHNOLOGIES IN BUSINESS <ul><li>Location-based services (LBS) - are wireless mobile content services which provide location-specific information to mobile users moving from location to location </li></ul><ul><li>Common Location Based Services based on GIS/GPS technology: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding what is nearby </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Routing information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information alerts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping densities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mapping quantities </li></ul></ul>
  58. 59. <ul><li>GPS Shoes </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  59. 60. INCREASING THE SPEED OF BUSINESS – Comparing Media
  60. 61. INCREASING THE SPEED OF BUSINESS – Comparing Media Advantages & Disadvantages of Broadband Tech.
  61. 62. Using Networks and Telecommunications For Business Advantages <ul><li>Network and telecommunication applications/competitive advantages include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice over IP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Networking businesses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing the speed of business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Securing business networks </li></ul></ul>
  62. 63. VOICE OVER IP (VoIP) <ul><li>Voice over IP (VoIP) - uses TCP/IP technology to transmit voice calls over long-distance telephone lines/Internet connections </li></ul>
  63. 64. NETWORKING BUSINESSES – Supporting E-Business <ul><li>Industry-leading companies have developed Internet-based products and services to handle many aspects of customer and supplier interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Customers now expect seamless retailing between online and in-store </li></ul>
  64. 65. NETWORKING BUSINESSES – Supporting E-Business
  65. 66. SECURING BUSINESS NETWORKS <ul><li>Network security is important – networks are a tempting target for mischief and fraud </li></ul><ul><li>Organizations are concerned about… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication, Authorization, Access to and protection of data </li></ul></ul>
  66. 67. SECURING BUSINESS NETWORKS <ul><li>Virtual private network (VPN) - a way to use the public telecommunication infrastructure (e.g., Internet) to provide secure access to an organization’s network </li></ul><ul><li>Valued-added network (VAN) - a private network, provided by a third party, for exchanging information through a high capacity connection </li></ul>
  67. 68. BUSINESS DRIVERS FOR A MOBILE WORKFORCE <ul><li>Companies worldwide are going wireless to increase productivity, speed delivery to market, and reduce operating costs </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless transmissions rely on radio waves, microwaves, and satellites to send data across high frequency radio ranges that later connect to wired media </li></ul>
  68. 69. BUSINESS DRIVERS FOR A MOBILE WORKFORCE <ul><li>The terms mobile and wireless are often used synonymously, but actually denote two different technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile means the technology can travel with the user, but it is not necessarily in real-time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless refers to any type of electrical or electronic operation that is accomplished without the use of a “hard wired” connection </li></ul></ul>
  69. 70. BUSINESS DRIVERS FOR WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Drivers of wireless technology growth include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Universal access to information and applications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User convenience, timeliness, and ability to conduct business/communicate 24x7 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The automation of business processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sheer number of U.S. wireless device users </li></ul></ul>
  70. 71. BUSINESS DRIVERS FOR WIRELESS TECHNOLOGIES <ul><li>Wireless devices changing business include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless local area networks (wLAN) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular phones and pagers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordless computer peripherals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satellite radio and television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiFi and WiMAX </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Positioning Systems (GPS) </li></ul></ul>
  71. 72. MOBILE WORKFORCE TRENDS <ul><li>Social networking gets mobilized </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile TV </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-function devices become cheaper and more versatile </li></ul><ul><li>Location-based services </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile advertising </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless providers move into home entertainment </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless security moves to the forefront </li></ul><ul><li>Enterprise mobility </li></ul>