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Operations Management Session 2 –  Operations Strategy in a Global Environment
Outline ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Outline  –  Continued ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Outline  –  Continued ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Outline  –  Continued ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Outline  –  Continued ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Learning Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
Learning Objectives ,[object Object],[object Object],When you complete this chapter you should be able to:
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Latecoere France Passenger doors Labinel France Wiring Dassault France Design and    PLM software Messier-Bugatti France Electric brakes Thales France Electrical power    conversion system    and integrated    standby flight display Messier-Dowty France Landing gear structure Diehl Germany Interior lighting
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Cobham UK Fuel pumps and valves Rolls-Royce UK Engines Smiths Aerospace UK Central computer    system BAE SYSTEMS UK Electronics Alenia Aeronautics Italy Upper center    fuselage &    horizontal stabilizer Toray Industries Japan Carbon fiber for    wing and tail units
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Fuji Heavy Japan Center wing box Industries Kawasaki Heavy Japan Forward fuselage, Industries   fixed section of wing,   landing gear well Teijin Seiki Japan Hydraulic actuators Mitsubishi Heavy  Japan Wing box Industries Chengdu Aircraft  China Rudder Group Hafei Aviation China Parts
Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Korean Aviation South Wingtips   Korea Saab Sweden Cargo access doors
Reasons to Globalize Reasons to Globalize ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Tangible Reasons Intangible Reasons
Cultural and Ethical Issues ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
You May Wish To Consider ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Developing Missions and Strategies Mission  statements tell an organization where it is going The  Strategy  tells the organization how to get there
Mission ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
FedEx ,[object Object]
Merck ,[object Object]
Hard Rock Cafe ,[object Object]
Factors Affecting Mission Benefit to Society Mission Philosophy and Values Profitability and Growth Environment Customers Public Image
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample Company Mission To manufacture and service an innovative, growing, and profitable worldwide microwave communications business that exceeds our customers’ expectations. Sample Operations Management Mission To produce products consistent with the company’s mission as the worldwide low-cost manufacturer.
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Product design To design and produce products and services with outstanding quality and inherent customer value. Quality management To attain the exceptional value that is consistent with our company mission and marketing objectives by close attention to design, procurement, production, and field service operations Process design To determine and design or produce the production process and equipment that will be compatible with low-cost product, high quality, and good quality of work life at economical cost.
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Location To locate, design, and build efficient and economical facilities that will yield high value to the company, its employees, and the community. Layout design To achieve, through skill, imagination, and resourcefulness in layout and work methods, production effectiveness and efficiency while supporting a high quality of work life. Human resources To provide a good quality of work life, with well-designed, safe, rewarding jobs, stable employment, and equitable pay, in exchange for outstanding individual contribution from employees at all levels.
Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Supply chain   management To collaborate with suppliers to develop innovative products from stable, effective, and efficient sources of supply. Inventory To achieve low investment in inventory consistent with high customer service levels and high facility utilization. Scheduling To achieve high levels of throughput and timely customer delivery through effective scheduling. Maintenance To achieve high utilization of facilities and equipment by effective preventive maintenance and prompt repair of facilities and equipment.
Strategic Process Organization’s Mission Marketing Operations Finance/ Accounting Functional Area Missions
Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Strategies for Competitive Advantage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Competing on Differentiation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Competing on Cost ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Competing on Response ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
OM’s Contribution to Strategy Figure 2.4 Operations Specific Competitive Decisions Examples Strategy Used Advantage Product Quality Process Location Layout Human   resource Supply chain Inventory Scheduling Maintenance FLEXIBILITY: Sony’s constant innovation  of new products……………………………….... Design HP’s ability to lead  the printer market……………………………… Volume Southwest Airlines No-frills service……..….. LOW COST DELIVERY: Pizza Hut’s 5-minute guarantee  at lunchtime…………………..…..…………………. Speed Federal Express’s “absolutely,  positively on time”………………………..…. Dependability QUALITY: Motorola’s HDTV converters….……........ Conformance Motorola’s pagers………………………..…. Performance Caterpillar’s after-sale service  on heavy equipment…………….... AFTER-SALE SERVICE Fidelity Security’s broad  line of mutual funds…………. BROAD PRODUCT LINE Response (Faster) Cost leadership (Cheaper) Differentiation (Better)
10 Strategic OM Decisions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Goods and service design Product is usually tangible Product is not tangible Quality Many objective standards Many subjective standards Process and capacity design Customers not involved Customer may be directly involved Capacity must match demand
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Location selection Near raw materials and labor Near customers Layout design Production efficiency Enhances product and production Human resources and job design Technical skills, consistent labor standards, output based wages Interact with customers, labor standards vary
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Supply chain  Relationship critical to final product Important, but may not be critical Inventory Raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods may be held Cannot be stored Scheduling Level schedules possible Meet immediate customer demand
Goods and Services and  the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Maintenance Often preventive and takes place at production site Often “repair” and takes place at customer’s site
Managing Global Service Operations ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Requires a different perspective on:
Process Design Low Moderate High Volume High Moderate Low Variety of Products Process-focused JOB SHOPS (Print shop, emergency room, machine shop,  fine-dining restaurant ) Repetitive (modular) focus ASSEMBLY LINE (Cars, appliances, TVs,  fast-food restaurants ) Product focused CONTINUOUS (steel, beer, paper, bread,  institutional kitchen ) Mass Customization Customization at high Volume (Dell Computer’s PC, cafeteria )
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Product Selection and Design Heavy R&D investment; extensive labs; focus on development in a broad range of drug categories Low R&D investment; focus on development of generic drugs Quality Major priority, exceed regulatory requirements Meets regulatory requirements on a country by country basis
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Process Product and modular process; long production runs in specialized facilities; build capacity ahead of demand Process focused; general processes; “job shop” approach, short-run production; focus on high utilization Location Still located in the city where it was founded Recently moved to low-tax, low-labor-cost environment
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Scheduling Centralized production planning Many short-run products complicate scheduling Layout Layout supports automated product-focused production Layout supports process-focused “job shop” practices
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Human Resources Hire the best; nationwide searches Very experienced top executives; other personnel paid below industry average Supply Chain Long-term supplier relationships Tends to purchase competitively to find bargains
Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Inventory High finished goods inventory to ensure all demands are met Process focus drives up work-in-process inventory; finished goods inventory tends to be low Maintenance Highly trained staff; extensive parts inventory Highly trained staff to meet changing demand
Issues In Operations Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Characteristics of  High ROI Firms ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],From the PIMS program of the Strategic Planning Institute
Strategic Options to Gain a Competitive Advantage ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Elements of Operations Management Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Preconditions ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],One must understand:
Dynamics of  Strategic Change ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Product Life Cycle Figure 2.5 Best period to increase market share R&D engineering is critical Practical to change price or quality image Strengthen niche Poor time to change image, price, or quality Competitive costs become critical Defend market position Cost control critical Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Company Strategy/Issues Internet search engines Sales Xbox 360 Drive-through restaurants CD-ROMs 3 1/2” Floppy disks LCD & plasma TVs Analog TVs iPods
Product Life Cycle Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production runs High production costs Limited models Attention to quality Forecasting critical Product and process reliability Competitive product improvements and options Increase capacity Shift toward product focus Enhance distribution Standardization Less rapid product changes – more minor changes Optimum capacity Increasing stability of process Long production runs Product improvement and cost cutting Little product differentiation Cost minimization Overcapacity in the industry Prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin Reduce capacity Figure 2.5 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline OM Strategy/Issues
SWOT Analysis  Strategy Analysis Internal  S trengths Internal  W eaknesses External  O pportunities External  T hreats Mission
Strategy Development Process Figure 2.6 Determine Corporate Mission State the reason for the firm’s existence and identify the value it wishes to create. Form a Strategy Build a competitive advantage, such as low price, design, or volume flexibility, quality, quick delivery, dependability, after-sale service, broad product lines. Environmental Analysis Identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Understand the environment, customers, industry, and competitors.
Strategy Development and Implementation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],The operations manager’s job is to implement an OM strategy, provide competitive advantage, and increase productivity
Critical Success Factors Production/Operations Figure 2.7 Decisions Sample Options Chapter Product Customized, or standardized 5 Quality Define customer expectations and how to achieve them 6, S6 Process Facility size, technology, capacity 7, S7 Location Near supplier or near customer 8 Layout Work cells or assembly line 9 Human resource Specialized or enriched jobs 10, S10 Supply chain Single or multiple suppliers 11, S11 Inventory When to reorder, how much to keep on hand 12, 14, 16 Schedule Stable or fluctuating production rate 13, 15 Maintenance  Repair as required or preventive maintenance 17 Marketing Service Distribution Promotion Channels of distribution Product positioning (image, functions) Finance/Accounting Leverage Cost of capital Working capital Receivables Payables Financial control Lines of credit
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],International  Strategy
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global  Strategy
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global Strategy International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Four International Operations Strategies ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global Strategy International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Multidomestic  Strategy
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global Strategy International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Multidomestic Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Four International Operations Strategies International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Multidomestic Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global Strategy Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Transnational  Strategy
Four International Operations Strategies Cost Reduction Considerations High Low High Low Local Responsiveness Considerations (Quick Response and/or Differentiation) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Global Strategy Transnational Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],International Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Multidomestic Strategy ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance  Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materials and services, transform them into intermediate goods and the final product, and deliver them to customers Competition is no longer between companies; it is between supply chains
Supply Chain Management ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Important activities include determining
A Supply Chain for Beer Figure 11.1
Global Supply Chain Issues ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Supply chains in a global environment must be able to
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Supplier’s goal Supply demand at lowest possible cost (e.g., Emerson Electric, Taco Bell) Respond quickly to changing requirements and demand to minimize stockouts (e.g., Dell Computers) Share market research; jointly develop products and options (e.g., Benetton) Primary selection criteria Select primarily for cost Select primarily for capacity, speed, and flexibility Select primarily for product development skills
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Process charact-eristics Maintain high average utilization Invest in excess capacity and flexible processes Modular processes that lend themselves to mass customization Inventory charact-eristics Minimize inventory throughout the chain to hold down cost Develop responsive system with buffer stocks positioned to ensure supply Minimize inventory in the chain to avoid obsolescence
How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Lead-time charact-eristics Shorten lead time as long as it does not increase costs Invest aggressively to reduce production lead time Invest aggressively to reduce development lead time Product-design charact-eristics Maximize performance and minimize costs Use product designs that lead to low setup time and rapid production ramp-up Use modular design to postpone product differentiation as long as possible

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Operations Strategy

  • 1. Operations Management Session 2 – Operations Strategy in a Global Environment
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  • 9. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Latecoere France Passenger doors Labinel France Wiring Dassault France Design and PLM software Messier-Bugatti France Electric brakes Thales France Electrical power conversion system and integrated standby flight display Messier-Dowty France Landing gear structure Diehl Germany Interior lighting
  • 10. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Cobham UK Fuel pumps and valves Rolls-Royce UK Engines Smiths Aerospace UK Central computer system BAE SYSTEMS UK Electronics Alenia Aeronautics Italy Upper center fuselage & horizontal stabilizer Toray Industries Japan Carbon fiber for wing and tail units
  • 11. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Fuji Heavy Japan Center wing box Industries Kawasaki Heavy Japan Forward fuselage, Industries fixed section of wing, landing gear well Teijin Seiki Japan Hydraulic actuators Mitsubishi Heavy Japan Wing box Industries Chengdu Aircraft China Rudder Group Hafei Aviation China Parts
  • 12. Some Boeing Suppliers (787) Firm Country Component Korean Aviation South Wingtips Korea Saab Sweden Cargo access doors
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  • 16. Developing Missions and Strategies Mission statements tell an organization where it is going The Strategy tells the organization how to get there
  • 17.
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  • 21. Factors Affecting Mission Benefit to Society Mission Philosophy and Values Profitability and Growth Environment Customers Public Image
  • 22. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample Company Mission To manufacture and service an innovative, growing, and profitable worldwide microwave communications business that exceeds our customers’ expectations. Sample Operations Management Mission To produce products consistent with the company’s mission as the worldwide low-cost manufacturer.
  • 23. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Product design To design and produce products and services with outstanding quality and inherent customer value. Quality management To attain the exceptional value that is consistent with our company mission and marketing objectives by close attention to design, procurement, production, and field service operations Process design To determine and design or produce the production process and equipment that will be compatible with low-cost product, high quality, and good quality of work life at economical cost.
  • 24. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Location To locate, design, and build efficient and economical facilities that will yield high value to the company, its employees, and the community. Layout design To achieve, through skill, imagination, and resourcefulness in layout and work methods, production effectiveness and efficiency while supporting a high quality of work life. Human resources To provide a good quality of work life, with well-designed, safe, rewarding jobs, stable employment, and equitable pay, in exchange for outstanding individual contribution from employees at all levels.
  • 25. Sample Missions Figure 2.3 Sample OM Department Missions Supply chain management To collaborate with suppliers to develop innovative products from stable, effective, and efficient sources of supply. Inventory To achieve low investment in inventory consistent with high customer service levels and high facility utilization. Scheduling To achieve high levels of throughput and timely customer delivery through effective scheduling. Maintenance To achieve high utilization of facilities and equipment by effective preventive maintenance and prompt repair of facilities and equipment.
  • 26. Strategic Process Organization’s Mission Marketing Operations Finance/ Accounting Functional Area Missions
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  • 32. OM’s Contribution to Strategy Figure 2.4 Operations Specific Competitive Decisions Examples Strategy Used Advantage Product Quality Process Location Layout Human resource Supply chain Inventory Scheduling Maintenance FLEXIBILITY: Sony’s constant innovation of new products……………………………….... Design HP’s ability to lead the printer market……………………………… Volume Southwest Airlines No-frills service……..….. LOW COST DELIVERY: Pizza Hut’s 5-minute guarantee at lunchtime…………………..…..…………………. Speed Federal Express’s “absolutely, positively on time”………………………..…. Dependability QUALITY: Motorola’s HDTV converters….……........ Conformance Motorola’s pagers………………………..…. Performance Caterpillar’s after-sale service on heavy equipment…………….... AFTER-SALE SERVICE Fidelity Security’s broad line of mutual funds…………. BROAD PRODUCT LINE Response (Faster) Cost leadership (Cheaper) Differentiation (Better)
  • 33.
  • 34. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Goods and service design Product is usually tangible Product is not tangible Quality Many objective standards Many subjective standards Process and capacity design Customers not involved Customer may be directly involved Capacity must match demand
  • 35. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Location selection Near raw materials and labor Near customers Layout design Production efficiency Enhances product and production Human resources and job design Technical skills, consistent labor standards, output based wages Interact with customers, labor standards vary
  • 36. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Supply chain Relationship critical to final product Important, but may not be critical Inventory Raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods may be held Cannot be stored Scheduling Level schedules possible Meet immediate customer demand
  • 37. Goods and Services and the 10 OM Decisions Table 2.1 Operations Decisions Goods Services Maintenance Often preventive and takes place at production site Often “repair” and takes place at customer’s site
  • 38.
  • 39. Process Design Low Moderate High Volume High Moderate Low Variety of Products Process-focused JOB SHOPS (Print shop, emergency room, machine shop, fine-dining restaurant ) Repetitive (modular) focus ASSEMBLY LINE (Cars, appliances, TVs, fast-food restaurants ) Product focused CONTINUOUS (steel, beer, paper, bread, institutional kitchen ) Mass Customization Customization at high Volume (Dell Computer’s PC, cafeteria )
  • 40. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Product Selection and Design Heavy R&D investment; extensive labs; focus on development in a broad range of drug categories Low R&D investment; focus on development of generic drugs Quality Major priority, exceed regulatory requirements Meets regulatory requirements on a country by country basis
  • 41. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Process Product and modular process; long production runs in specialized facilities; build capacity ahead of demand Process focused; general processes; “job shop” approach, short-run production; focus on high utilization Location Still located in the city where it was founded Recently moved to low-tax, low-labor-cost environment
  • 42. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Scheduling Centralized production planning Many short-run products complicate scheduling Layout Layout supports automated product-focused production Layout supports process-focused “job shop” practices
  • 43. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Human Resources Hire the best; nationwide searches Very experienced top executives; other personnel paid below industry average Supply Chain Long-term supplier relationships Tends to purchase competitively to find bargains
  • 44. Operations Strategies for Two Drug Companies Table 2.2 Brand Name Drugs, Inc. Generic Drug Corp. Competitive Advantage Product Differentiation Low Cost Inventory High finished goods inventory to ensure all demands are met Process focus drives up work-in-process inventory; finished goods inventory tends to be low Maintenance Highly trained staff; extensive parts inventory Highly trained staff to meet changing demand
  • 45.
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  • 51. Product Life Cycle Figure 2.5 Best period to increase market share R&D engineering is critical Practical to change price or quality image Strengthen niche Poor time to change image, price, or quality Competitive costs become critical Defend market position Cost control critical Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Company Strategy/Issues Internet search engines Sales Xbox 360 Drive-through restaurants CD-ROMs 3 1/2” Floppy disks LCD & plasma TVs Analog TVs iPods
  • 52. Product Life Cycle Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production runs High production costs Limited models Attention to quality Forecasting critical Product and process reliability Competitive product improvements and options Increase capacity Shift toward product focus Enhance distribution Standardization Less rapid product changes – more minor changes Optimum capacity Increasing stability of process Long production runs Product improvement and cost cutting Little product differentiation Cost minimization Overcapacity in the industry Prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin Reduce capacity Figure 2.5 Introduction Growth Maturity Decline OM Strategy/Issues
  • 53. SWOT Analysis Strategy Analysis Internal S trengths Internal W eaknesses External O pportunities External T hreats Mission
  • 54. Strategy Development Process Figure 2.6 Determine Corporate Mission State the reason for the firm’s existence and identify the value it wishes to create. Form a Strategy Build a competitive advantage, such as low price, design, or volume flexibility, quality, quick delivery, dependability, after-sale service, broad product lines. Environmental Analysis Identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats. Understand the environment, customers, industry, and competitors.
  • 55.
  • 56. Critical Success Factors Production/Operations Figure 2.7 Decisions Sample Options Chapter Product Customized, or standardized 5 Quality Define customer expectations and how to achieve them 6, S6 Process Facility size, technology, capacity 7, S7 Location Near supplier or near customer 8 Layout Work cells or assembly line 9 Human resource Specialized or enriched jobs 10, S10 Supply chain Single or multiple suppliers 11, S11 Inventory When to reorder, how much to keep on hand 12, 14, 16 Schedule Stable or fluctuating production rate 13, 15 Maintenance Repair as required or preventive maintenance 17 Marketing Service Distribution Promotion Channels of distribution Product positioning (image, functions) Finance/Accounting Leverage Cost of capital Working capital Receivables Payables Financial control Lines of credit
  • 57.
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  • 65. The Supply Chain’s Strategic Importance Supply chain management is the integration of the activities that procure materials and services, transform them into intermediate goods and the final product, and deliver them to customers Competition is no longer between companies; it is between supply chains
  • 66.
  • 67. A Supply Chain for Beer Figure 11.1
  • 68.
  • 69. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Supplier’s goal Supply demand at lowest possible cost (e.g., Emerson Electric, Taco Bell) Respond quickly to changing requirements and demand to minimize stockouts (e.g., Dell Computers) Share market research; jointly develop products and options (e.g., Benetton) Primary selection criteria Select primarily for cost Select primarily for capacity, speed, and flexibility Select primarily for product development skills
  • 70. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Process charact-eristics Maintain high average utilization Invest in excess capacity and flexible processes Modular processes that lend themselves to mass customization Inventory charact-eristics Minimize inventory throughout the chain to hold down cost Develop responsive system with buffer stocks positioned to ensure supply Minimize inventory in the chain to avoid obsolescence
  • 71. How Supply Chain Decisions Impact Strategy Table 11.1 Low-Cost Strategy Response Strategy Differentiation Strategy Lead-time charact-eristics Shorten lead time as long as it does not increase costs Invest aggressively to reduce production lead time Invest aggressively to reduce development lead time Product-design charact-eristics Maximize performance and minimize costs Use product designs that lead to low setup time and rapid production ramp-up Use modular design to postpone product differentiation as long as possible