Production & operations management

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Production & Opreation Management... For MBA Trainees..

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  • This slide simply introduces the 10 decisions. You may not wish to do more than “define” the decision area and give one or two examples.
  • This slide can be useful in summarizing strategy changes over the lifecycle of the product.
  • This slide can be used to introduce the process design options, and help students begin to understand the conditions of volume and variety under which they are most useful. Student should be asked to provide and discuss examples.
  • You might also ask them to consider what happens as the rate of productivity improvement approaches zero. Does this simply mean that the standard of living ceases to rise, or are there more ominous manifestations?
  • Production & operations management

    1. 2. Production & Operations Management Course Outline: MB202 <ul><li>Operations Management </li></ul><ul><li>Product Design and Development </li></ul><ul><li>Process Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Location </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Planning </li></ul><ul><li>PPC </li></ul><ul><li>Work Study & Method Study </li></ul><ul><li>Plus ……. </li></ul>
    2. 3. What is Operations Management? <ul><li>The business function responsible for planning , coordinating , and controlling the resources needed to produce a company’s products and services </li></ul>
    3. 4. Operations Management <ul><li>The field of management that specializes in the physical production of goods or services and uses quantitative techniques for solving manufacturing problems </li></ul>
    4. 5. Operations Management Flow Chart
    5. 6. Organization Inputs Outputs <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Manag. Res. </li></ul><ul><li>Goods </li></ul><ul><li>Services </li></ul>
    6. 7. Operations Management <ul><li>Operations Management is the conversion of inputs into outputs, using physical resources, so as to provide the desired utility/utilities of form, place, possession or state or a combination there of to the customer while meeting the other organizational objectives of effectiveness, efficiency and adaptability. </li></ul>
    7. 8. Ten Decision Areas of OM <ul><li>Goods & service design </li></ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul><ul><li>Process & capacity design </li></ul><ul><li>Location selection </li></ul><ul><li>Layout design </li></ul><ul><li>Human resource and job design </li></ul><ul><li>Supply-chain management </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul>
    8. 9. A Process Management Perspective <ul><li>We all manage processes... </li></ul>Inputs Outputs Goods Services Labor & Capital Resources Information structure Network of Activities and Buffers Flow units (customers, data, material, cash, etc.) Process Management
    9. 10. Process Management <ul><li>A business process is a network of activities performed by resources that transforms inputs into outputs… </li></ul><ul><li>Process Management is a set of managerial policies specifying how a process should be operated over time... </li></ul>
    10. 11. Typical Organization Chart
    11. 12. Typical Manufacturing Organization
    12. 13. Products & Facilities Product design Facilities layout Capacity planning Facilities location Structure Reporting relationships Teams Control Processes Inventory management Productivity Quality The Technical Core Operations Management Inputs Raw materials Human resources Land, buildings Information Technology Outputs Products Services Operations Strategy Feedback
    13. 14. Business Information Flow
    14. 15. Differences between Manufacturers and Service Operations <ul><li>Services: </li></ul><ul><li>Intangible product </li></ul><ul><li>Product cannot be inventoried </li></ul><ul><li>High customer contact </li></ul><ul><li>Short response time </li></ul><ul><li>Labor intensive </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers: </li></ul><ul><li>Tangible product </li></ul><ul><li>Product can be inventoried </li></ul><ul><li>Low customer contact </li></ul><ul><li>Longer response time </li></ul><ul><li>Capital intensive </li></ul>
    15. 16. Service and Manufacturers <ul><li>All use technology </li></ul><ul><li>Both have quality, productivity, & response issues </li></ul><ul><li>All must forecast demand </li></ul><ul><li>Each will have capacity, layout, and location issues </li></ul><ul><li>All have customers and suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>All have scheduling and staffing issues </li></ul>
    16. 17. Products <ul><li>Products are the desired set of process outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Product Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goods versus Services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product Attributes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery response time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Inputs-Outputs <ul><li>Tangible Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Raw material </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intangible Inputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tangible Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cars </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intangible Outputs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing patient (hospital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivered message (advertising company) </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Transformations <ul><li>Physical--manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Locational--transportation </li></ul><ul><li>Exchange--retailing </li></ul><ul><li>Storage--warehousing </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological--health care </li></ul><ul><li>Informational--telecommunications </li></ul>
    19. 20. All Managers are Ops Managers! <ul><li>All managers must transform inputs into outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Accounting Manager </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs : data, information, labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformation : application of accounting principles and knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs : accounting reports, knowledge of performance, ... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Therefore, all managers are in some sense Operations managers </li></ul><ul><li>All managers have an “operation” to run </li></ul>
    20. 21. Operations Management Value Proposition System Design Planning & Control <ul><li>Operations Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Operation Priorities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product/Service </li></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><li>Process Selection </li></ul><ul><li>TQM </li></ul><ul><li>Facility location </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul><ul><li>JIT </li></ul><ul><li>Aggregate Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Project Management </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>MRP </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Process Control </li></ul>
    21. 23. Operational Concerns for Manufacturing and Service Organizations <ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Must obtain materials and supplies </li></ul><ul><li>Both must be concerned with quality and productivity </li></ul>
    22. 24. Functions of Operations Management <ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Machines and Equipments </li></ul><ul><li>Estimating </li></ul><ul><li>Loading and Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Routing </li></ul>
    23. 25. Functions of Operations Management <ul><li>Dispatching </li></ul><ul><li>Expediting or Follow up </li></ul><ul><li>Inspection </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul>
    24. 26. OM Decisions
    25. 27. Operations Management Decisions <ul><li>Strategic: </li></ul><ul><li>Product/Service Design </li></ul><ul><li>Process Selection </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Location </li></ul><ul><li>Facility Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Job Design </li></ul><ul><li>Tactical: </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Control </li></ul><ul><li>Demand Forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Supply Chain Management </li></ul><ul><li>Production Planning </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul>
    26. 29. Product Design <ul><li>Product design deals with its form and function. Form implies the shape and appearance of the product while function is related to the working of the product. </li></ul>
    27. 30. 1 Producibility Cost Quality Reliability 2 3 4
    28. 31. 1 Producibility Cost Quality Reliability 2 3 4 Timing 5
    29. 32. Characteristics of Goods <ul><li>Tangible product </li></ul><ul><li>Consistent product definition </li></ul><ul><li>Production usually separate from consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Can be inventoried </li></ul><ul><li>Low customer interaction </li></ul>
    30. 33. Characteristics of Service <ul><li>Intangible product </li></ul><ul><li>Produced & consumed at same time </li></ul><ul><li>Often unique </li></ul><ul><li>High customer interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistent product definition </li></ul><ul><li>Often knowledge-based </li></ul><ul><li>Frequently dispersed </li></ul>
    31. 34. Automobile Computer Installed Carpeting Fast-food Meal Restaurant Meal Auto Repair Hospital Care Advertising Agency Investment Management Consulting Service Counseling Percent of Product that is a Good Percent of Product that is a Service 0 25 50 75 100 25 50 75 100
    32. 35. Competitive Priorities- The Edge <ul><li>Four Important Operations Questions: Will you compete on – </li></ul><ul><li>Cost? </li></ul><ul><li> Quality? </li></ul><ul><li>Time? </li></ul><ul><li> Flexibility? </li></ul><ul><li>All of the above? Some? Tradeoffs? </li></ul>
    33. 36. Competing on Cost ? <ul><li>Typically high volume products </li></ul><ul><li>Often limit product range & offer little customization </li></ul><ul><li>May invest in automation to reduce unit costs </li></ul><ul><li>Can use lower skill labor </li></ul><ul><li>Probably use product focused layouts </li></ul>
    34. 37. Competing on Quality ? <ul><li>High performance design: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Superior features, high durability, & excellent customer service </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Product & service consistency: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meets design specifications </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close tolerances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error free delivery </li></ul></ul>
    35. 38. Competing on Time ? <ul><li>Fast delivery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focused on shorter time between order placement and delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>On-time delivery: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deliver product exactly when needed every time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rapid development speed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Using concurrent processes to shorten product development time </li></ul></ul>
    36. 39. Competing on Flexibility ? <ul><li>Product flexibility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily switch production from one item to another </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily customize product/service to meet specific requirements of a customer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Volume flexibility: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to ramp production up and down to match market demands </li></ul></ul>
    37. 40. Characteristics of a Good Design <ul><li>Repairability </li></ul><ul><li>Modular Design </li></ul><ul><li>Redesigning Capability </li></ul><ul><li>Miniaturization </li></ul><ul><li>Wires and Tubing </li></ul>
    38. 41. Characteristics of a Good Design <ul><li>Design by Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Drawings and specifications </li></ul><ul><li>Warranties </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Maintainability </li></ul>
    39. 42. Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Time Sales <ul><li>Best period to increase market share </li></ul><ul><li>R&D engineering critical </li></ul><ul><li>Frequent product and process changes </li></ul><ul><li>Short production runs </li></ul><ul><li>High production costs </li></ul><ul><li>Limited models </li></ul><ul><li>Attention to quality </li></ul><ul><li>Practical to change price or quality image </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen niche </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting critical </li></ul><ul><li>Products and process reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Increase capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Shift towards product focus </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Poor time to change image, price or quality </li></ul><ul><li>Competitive costs become critical </li></ul><ul><li>Defend market position </li></ul><ul><li>Standardization - minor product changes </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Process stability </li></ul><ul><li>Long production runs </li></ul><ul><li>Cost control critical </li></ul><ul><li>Little product differentiation </li></ul><ul><li>Overcapacity in the industry </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce capacity and eventually prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin </li></ul>
    40. 43. Product Development <ul><li>The aim of Product development is to </li></ul><ul><li>(i) provide the goods the market demands with time,(ii) adjust with the variation in quantity required and (iii) charge the prices which the customer is willing to pay as well as under conditions that it may have net profit also. </li></ul>
    41. 44. Introduction Growth Maturity Decline Standardization Less rapid product changes - more minor changes Optimum capacity Increasing stability of process Long production runs Product improvement and cost cutting Little product differentiation Cost minimization Overcapacity in the industry Prune line to eliminate items not returning good margin Reduce capacity Forecasting critical Product and process reliability Competitive product improvements and options Increase capacity Shift toward product focused Enhance distribution Product design and development critical Frequent product and process design changes Short production runs High production costs Limited models Attention to quality Best period to increase market share R&D product engineering critical Practical to change price or quality image Strengthen niche Cost control critical Poor time to change image, price, or quality Competitive costs become critical Defend market position OM Strategy/Issues Company Strategy/Issues HDTV CD-ROM Color copiers Drive-thru restaurants Fax machines Station wagons Sales 3 1/2 ” Floppy disks Internet
    42. 45. Product Development Process (Technical) Needs Identification Advance product planning Advance design Detailed engineering design Production process design and development Product evaluation and implementation Product use and support
    43. 46. Needs Identification <ul><li>Once a product idea surfaces, it must be demonstrated that the product fulfils some consumer need, and that existing products do not already fulfill that need. </li></ul>
    44. 47. Advance product planning <ul><li>It includes preliminary market analyses; creating alternative concepts for the product; clarifying operational requirements; establishing design criteria and their priorities; and estimating logistics requirements for producing, distributing, and maintaining the product in the market. </li></ul>
    45. 48. Advance design <ul><li>Promising design alternatives are evaluated according to critical parameters to determine whether design support such as analytical testing, experimentation, physical modeling, and prototype testing will be required. </li></ul>
    46. 49. Detailed engineering design <ul><li>This stage is a series of engineering activities to develop a detailed definition of the product, including its subsystems and components, materials, sizes, shapes, and so on. </li></ul>
    47. 50. Production process design and development <ul><li>Working with the detailed product design, engineers and manufacturing specialists prepare plans for materials acquisitions, production, warehousing, transportation, and distribution. </li></ul>
    48. 51. Product evaluation and implementation <ul><li>Field performance and failure data, technical breakthroughs in materials and equipment, and formal research all are used to monitor, analyze, and redesign the product. </li></ul>
    49. 52. Product use and support <ul><li>Support systems might </li></ul><ul><li>Educate users on specific applications of the product </li></ul><ul><li>Provide warranty and repair service </li></ul><ul><li>Distribute replacement parts; or </li></ul><ul><li>Upgrade the product with design improvements. </li></ul>
    50. 53. Product Developments Techniques <ul><li>Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Simplification </li></ul><ul><li>Specialization </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul>
    51. 54. Standardization <ul><li>Standardization means fixation of some appropriate size, shape, quality, manufacturing process, weight and other characteristics as standards to manufacture a product of desired variety and utility. </li></ul>
    52. 55. Simplification <ul><li>Simplification in an enterprise connotes the elimination of excessive and undesirable or marginal lines of product to hammer out waste and to attain economy coupled with the main object of improving quality and reducing costs and prices leading to increased sales. </li></ul>
    53. 56. Specialization <ul><li>Specialization implies expertise in some particular area or field. Specialization implies reduction in the variety of products manufactured by the organisation. </li></ul>
    54. 57. Diversification <ul><li>It implies policy of producing different types of products by an enterprise. Diversification can be adopted for the purpose of </li></ul><ul><li>Utilisation of idle/surplus resources </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilisation of sales </li></ul><ul><li>To cope with demand fluctuations and </li></ul><ul><li>For survival of the organisation. </li></ul>
    55. 58. Process Selection <ul><li>Project </li></ul><ul><li>Job Shop </li></ul><ul><li>Batch </li></ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>
    56. 59. Project <ul><li>Project technology deals with one-of-a kind products that are tailored to the unique requirements of each customer.Since the products cannot be standardized, the conversion process must be flexible in its equipment capabilities, human skills, and procedures. </li></ul>
    57. 60. Intermittent System <ul><li>Job Shop </li></ul><ul><li>Batch </li></ul>
    58. 61. Intermittent System <ul><li>In this system, the goods are manufactured specially to fulfill orders made by customers rather than for stock. Here the flow of material is intermittent. Intermittent production system are those where the production facilities are flexible to handle a wide variety of products and sizes. </li></ul>
    59. 62. Job Shop <ul><li>Job shop technology is appropriate for manufacturers of small batches of many different products, each of which is custom designed and, consequently, requires its own unique set of processing steps, or routing, through the production process. For example, printing shop, restaurant, etc. </li></ul>
    60. 63. Batch <ul><li>This process is adopted when batches or lots of items are to be produced using the same set of machines in the same sequence.For example, Bakery, Chemical industry, Printing press, etc. </li></ul>
    61. 64. Continuous Production System <ul><li>Mass </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul>
    62. 65. Continuous Production System <ul><li>Continuous production system is the specialized manufacture of identical products on which the machinery and equipment is fully engaged. The continuous production is normally associated with large quantities and with high rate of demand. </li></ul>
    63. 66. Mass (Assembly line) <ul><li> Standardization is the fundamental characteristic of this system. Standardization is there w.r.t. materials and machines. Uniform and uninterrupted flow of material is maintained through predetermined sequence of operations required to produce the product. </li></ul>
    64. 67. Process (Continuous Flow) <ul><li>The product is highly standardized, as are all of the manufacturing procedures, the sequence of product buildup, materials, and equipment. Continuous flow technology affords high-volume, around-the-clock operation with capital-intensive, specialized automation.For example, Oil refineries, Cement factory, Sugar factory, etc. </li></ul>
    65. 68. Process-focused Job Shops (Print shop, emergency room , machine shop, fine dining Repetitive (modular) focus Assembly line (Cars, appliances, TVs, fast-food restaurants) Product-focused Continuous (steel, beer, paper, bread) Mass Customization Customization at high Volume (Dell Computer ’ s PC) Low Moderate High Volume High Moderate Low Variety of Products
    66. 71. Raw Material & Comp. Inventory Finished Item Inventory S1,2 S1,1 S1,n S2,1 S2,2 S2,m Assembly Line 1: Product Family 1 Assembly Line 2: Product Family 2 Fabrication (or Backend Operations) Dept. 1 Dept. 2 Dept. k S1,i S2,i Dept. j
    67. 72. Product-Process Mix <ul><li>Typical combinations of product-process structures are illustrated in Figure.As the product shifts to a different stage, the manufacturing process structure also shifts, and new manufacturing priorities emerge. Whereas manufacturing flexibility and quality are competitive priorities in earlier stages, priorities shift toward dependable delivery and competitive cost in later stages. </li></ul>
    68. 73. Commercial printer Heavy equipment Auto assembly Sugar refinery Void Void Low volume, low standardization, one of a kind Multiple products, low volume Few major products, higher volume High volume, high standardization, commodity products Process structure process life-cycle stages Jumbled flow (job shop ) Disconnected line flow (batch) Connected line flow (assembly line) Continuous flow Product structure Product life-cycle stages
    69. 74. Facility Location <ul><li>A facility (plant) is a place where men, materials, money, machinery and equipment, etc., are brought together for manufacturing product. </li></ul>
    70. 75. Facility Location <ul><li>Cost-benefit analysis – most common approach to selecting a site for a new location </li></ul><ul><li>New location scouting software is helping managers turn facilities location into a science </li></ul>
    71. 76. Importance of Facility Location <ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden Effects </li></ul>
    72. 77. Location Factors <ul><li>Primary factors </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary factors </li></ul>
    73. 78. Primary factors <ul><li>Availability of raw material </li></ul><ul><li>Nearness to market </li></ul><ul><li>Transport facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of labour </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of fuel and power </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of water </li></ul>
    74. 79. Secondary factors <ul><li>Soil and climate </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Financial and other aids </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of facilities like housing, schools, hospitals and recreation clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Momentum of an early start </li></ul>
    75. 80. Secondary factors <ul><li>Special advantage of the place </li></ul><ul><li>Personal factors </li></ul><ul><li>Historical factors </li></ul><ul><li>Political stability </li></ul>
    76. 81. Urban Rural <ul><li>Availability of local market: Due to large population the local demand for the product is fairly high. </li></ul><ul><li>Labour: Ample availability of diversified labour. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport facilities: Good transport facilities are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Allied Industries: Proximity to allied industries are available. </li></ul>The market place is far away from the industries, therefore cost of distribution of finished products is more. It is rather difficult to get skilled labour in rural areas. Adequate transport facilities are not available. Absence of allied industries.
    77. 82. Urban Rural <ul><li>Availability of educational facilities: Availability of educational, recreational and social facilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of land: The cost of land is high. Even at high cost sufficient land is not available which puts constraints on the arrangement of plants and machines. </li></ul><ul><li>Restrictions on constructions: There are greater restrictions on the construction of factory buildings. </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal and public utility services: Certain specific municipal facilities and public utility services such as water supply, drainage, fire fighting, police protection etc. are available. </li></ul>There are fewer educational, social and recreational facilities. Sufficient land is available at cheaper rates. There are few restrictions on construction of factory buildings. Municipal facilities and public utility services are not available.
    78. 83. Urban Rural <ul><li>Postal and Communication Services: Good and prompt postal and communication services are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Rates of taxes: The rates of taxes are relatively high. </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of labour: Due to high standard of living the cost of labour is relatively high. </li></ul><ul><li>Availability of facilities: Banking facilities, credit facilities and insurance facilities are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Labour turnover: High labour turnover because of large number of industries. </li></ul>Prompt postal and communication services are not available. The rates of taxes are quite low. Labour is available at cheaper rate. Absence of banking facilities, credit facilities and insurance facilities. Labour force is more stable.
    79. 84. Urban Rural <ul><li>Trade union movement: The trade union movement is very strong which often result in strikes, lockouts etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Training facilities: Development of the training facilities for workers and management institutes for executives put the city area into privileged position. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage facilities: Sufficient storage facilities including cold-storage are available. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems of pollution: Concentration of many industries in urban areas creates problems of air pollution, water pollution, sanitation etc. </li></ul>Trade union movement is not very strong. Absence of training facilities and management institutes. Storing and warehouse facilities are not available. Problems of air pollution, water pollution, etc. are less and the rural environment is conducive to good health of workers.
    80. 85. Urban Rural <ul><li>Danger of bombardment in war time: Industrial city areas become the target of air attacks in war time. </li></ul><ul><li>Government Policy: To avoid concentration of industries, government imposes restrictions for starting new industries in urban areas. </li></ul>Less danger of bombardment in war time. Government provides financial assistance and land at cheaper rates to attract the entrepreneurs to start industries in rural areas.
    81. 86. General Procedure for Facility Location Planning <ul><li>The Preliminary Screening </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Factor Ratings </li></ul>
    82. 87. The Preliminary Screening <ul><li>Labor skills and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Land availability and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Subcontractors </li></ul><ul><li>Transportation facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Utility availability and rates </li></ul><ul><li>Community receptivity to business </li></ul><ul><li>Construction cost </li></ul><ul><li>Organized industrial complexes </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of life: climate, housing, recreation, schools </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul>Resources Local Conditions
    83. 88. Sources of Information <ul><li>After identifying key location requirements, management undertakes a search to find alternative locations that are consistent with these requirements. </li></ul>
    84. 89. Detailed Analysis <ul><li>Once the preliminary screening narrows alternative sites to just a few, more detailed analysis begins. </li></ul>
    85. 90. Factor Ratings <ul><li>Steps in using Factor Rating </li></ul><ul><li>List the most relevant factors in the location decision (column 1) </li></ul><ul><li>Each factor is rated , say from 1 (very low) to 5 (very high),according to its importance (column 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Each location is rated, say from 1 (very low) to 10 (very high), according to its merits on each characteristic (column 3) </li></ul><ul><li>The factor rating is multiplied by the location rating for each factor </li></ul><ul><li>The sum of the product yields the total rating score for that location </li></ul>
    86. 91. Factor ratings for each location alternative Total Score Factor Factor Rating Location Rating Product of Ratings Tax advantages Suitability of labor skills Proximity to customers Proximity to suppliers Adequacy of water Receptivity of community Quality of educational system Access to rail and air transp. Suitability of climate Availability of power 4 3 3 5 1 5 4 3 2 2 8 2 6 2 3 4 1 10 7 6 32 6 18 10 3 20 4 30 14 12 149
    87. 92. Total Cost Analysis <ul><li>Total Cost = Fixed Cost + Operational Cost </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed cost include expenditure on land, building, machines and other equipments etc. Operational costs are the expenditure incurred on inputs, transformation process and the distribution of output. </li></ul>
    88. 93. Total costs Locations A B C D 5 4 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 5 5 2
    89. 94. Volume of Units Costs of Facts Total Fixed Costs Material Transportation Labor
    90. 95. Volume of Output Total Costs C C B A D E A D B E
    91. 96. M A M B = [CA 1 ] W 1 [CB 1 ] [CA 2 ] W 2 [CB 2 ] [CA n ] W n [CB n ] ……… . If M A M B Is more than one then location A will be better than B.
    92. 97. Facility Layout <ul><li>Layout are concerned with arrangement of production, support, customer service and other facilities used in operation. </li></ul>
    93. 98. Facilities Layout <ul><li>Process Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Product Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Fixed-position Layout </li></ul>
    94. 99. Factors affecting the Plant Layout <ul><li>Product and material specification </li></ul><ul><li>Location and site of the Plant </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing process </li></ul><ul><li>Material Handling </li></ul><ul><li>Storage of in-process inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Plant personnel and employee facilities </li></ul>
    95. 100. Factors affecting the Plant Layout <ul><li>Service facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Design of building </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>Work areas and equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Working conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Disposal of waste and dangerous gases </li></ul>
    96. 101. Types of Plant Layout <ul><li>Process Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Product Layout </li></ul><ul><li>Group Layout </li></ul>
    97. 102. Capacity Planning <ul><li>Capacity is the rate of productive capability of a facility. Capacity is usually expressed as volume of output per time period. </li></ul>
    98. 103. Capacity Planning <ul><li>Determination and adjustment of the organization’s ability to produce products and services to match customer demand </li></ul>
    99. 104. Capacity Planning Decisions <ul><li>Assessing existing capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasting capacity needs </li></ul><ul><li>Identifying alternative ways to modify capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating financial, economical, and technological capacity alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting a capacity alternative most suited to achieving strategic mission </li></ul>
    100. 105. Strategies for Modifying Capacity <ul><li>Short-term Responses </li></ul><ul><li>Long-term Responses </li></ul>
    101. 106. Production Planning and Control <ul><li>Production planning and control is the organisation and planning of the manufacturing process. It co-ordinates supply and movement of materials and labor, ensures economic and balanced utilization of machines and equipment as well as other activities related with production to achieve the desired manufacturing results in terms of quantity, quality, time and place. </li></ul>
    102. 107. Functions of Production Planning and Control <ul><li>Routing </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Loading </li></ul><ul><li>Programming </li></ul><ul><li>Ordering </li></ul><ul><li>Dispatching </li></ul><ul><li>Progressing or Follow-up </li></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control </li></ul>
    103. 108. Work Study <ul><li>Work study is simply the study of work. It is the analysis of work into smaller parts followed by rearrangement of these parts to give the same effectiveness at lesser cost. It examines both the method and duration of the work involved in a process. </li></ul>
    104. 109. Components of Work Study <ul><li>Method Study </li></ul><ul><li>Work Measurement </li></ul>
    105. 110. Method Study <ul><li>Selection of the job </li></ul><ul><li>Recording </li></ul><ul><li>Examining </li></ul><ul><li>Developing </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining </li></ul>
    106. 111. Work Measurement <ul><li>Select the task be studied </li></ul><ul><li>Record the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the facts </li></ul><ul><li>Measure the tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Define the methods and related time </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the work </li></ul>
    107. 112. Productivity <ul><li>Productivity is the ratio between the amount produced and the amount of resources used in the course of production. The resources may be any combination of materials, machines, men and space. </li></ul>
    108. 113. Productivity <ul><li>Measure of process improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Represents output relative to input </li></ul><ul><li>Only through productivity increases can our standard of living improve </li></ul>Productivity Units produced Input used =
    109. 114. Measuring Productivity <ul><li>Productivity = organization’s output of products and services divided by its inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Total factor </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity </li></ul>Output Labor + Capital + Materials + Energy = = Output Labor dollars
    110. 115. Improving Productivity <ul><li>Technological productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Employee productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Managerial productivity </li></ul>
    111. 116. Major Productivity Variables and their contribution to productivity increase <ul><li>Labor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better basic education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better social infrastructure like transportation and sanitation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better labor utilization and motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Capital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Steady and well-planned investments on equipment and its timely maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research & Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controlling of the cost of capital </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploitation of new (information) technologies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilization of accumulated knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul>
    112. 117. Productivity
    113. 118. Measuring Productivity <ul><li>Productivity is a measure of how efficiently inputs are converted to outputs </li></ul><ul><li> Productivity = output/input </li></ul><ul><li>Total Productivity Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity relative to all inputs </li></ul><ul><li>Partial Productivity Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity relative to a single input (e.g., labor hours) </li></ul><ul><li>Multifactor Productivity Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity relative to a subgroup of inputs (e.g., labor and materials) </li></ul>
    114. 119. Labor Productivity <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assume two workers paint twenty-four tables in eight hours: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inputs: 16 hours of labor (2 workers x 8 hours) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outputs: 24 painted tables </li></ul></ul>
    115. 120. Interpreting Productivity Measures <ul><li>Is the productivity measure of 1.41 in the previous example good or bad? </li></ul><ul><li>Can’t tell without a reference point </li></ul><ul><li>Compare to previous measures ( e.g.: last week) or to another benchmark </li></ul>
    116. 121. Productivity Growth Rate <ul><li>Can be used to compare a process’s productivity at a given time (P 2 ) to the same process’ productivity at an earlier time (P 1 ) </li></ul>
    117. 122. Productivity Growth Rate <ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Last week a company produced 150 units using 200 hours of labor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This week, the same company produced 180 units using 250 hours of labor </li></ul></ul>

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