Put Your Thinking CapWhat are language learning strategies?Are learning strategies and learning styles the same?
Rubin (1975) LLS are the techniques or devices that learners use to acquire a second language knowledge.
Stern (1975) LLS are some general order approaches to learning which govern the choice of specific techniques.
Bailystok (1978) LLS are methods or conscious enterprise for exploiting available information to improve competence in second language.
Naiman (1978) Language learning strategy is a generally a more or less deliberate approaches to learning.
Cohen (1984) LLS are mental operations that learners used to accomplish learning tasks.
Tarone (1983) Language learning strategy is an attempt to develop linguistic & sociolinguistic competence in the target language to incorporate these into one’s interlanguage competence.
Rubin (1987) LLS are set of operations, steps, plans & routines of what learners do to facilitate the obtaining, storage, retrieval & use of information, and to regulate learning.
Wenden (1987) LLS refer to language learning behaviours learners actually engage in, strategic knowledge about learning, to learn & regulate a second language learning.
Wenden & Rubin (1987) LLS refer to what learners do to learn & do to regulate their learning.
Chamot (1987) LLS are techniques, approaches, or deliberate actions that students take in order to facilitate learning & recall of both linguistic & content area information.
Oxford (1989) LLS are steps taken by the learner to aid the acquisition, storage & retrieval of information.
Oxford (1990) LLS are specific actions taken by the learner to make learning easier, faster, more enjoyable, more self-directed, more effective, & more transferable to new situation.
Oxford (1993) LLS are specific actions, behaviours, steps or techniques that students use to improve their progress in developing second language skills.
Mohamed Amin Embi (1996) LLS are plans and/or actions that learners take to enhance the process of language learning.
Put Your Thinking Cap What are the differences between language learning strategies & language use strategies?
LLS vs LUS Second language learning & use strategies are steps taken by the learners either to improve the learning of a second language or the use of it.
LLS vs LUS Language learning strategies are used when learners do not have the purpose of communication but have the purpose of learning.
LLS vs LUS Strategies of language use are used when learners do not have the purpose of learning but have the purpose of communicating.
Language Use Strategies Language use strategies include i) language performance strategies & ii) communication strategies.
Language Performance Strategies Language performance strategies include cognitive processing strategies, strategies for solidifying newly acquired language & strategies for determining the amount of cognitive energy to expand.
Communication Strategies Communication strategies focus on getting a message across.
Put Your Thinking Cap What are the main features or characteristics of language learning strategies?