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GRM 2011: Asian Maize Drought Tolerance (AMDROUT) Project

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GRM 2011: Asian Maize Drought Tolerance (AMDROUT) Project

  1. 1. Asian Maize Drought Tolerance (AMDROUT) Project SP3 PROJECT G4008.56 Principal Investigator: B. S. Vivek
  2. 2. Maize Area and Productivity in Asia Area Production (million ha) (million tons) China 29.9 166.0 5.55 India 8.3 19.3 2.32 Indonesia 4.0 16.3 4.07 Philippines 2.7 6.9 2.6 Vietnam 1.1 4.5 4.02 Pakistan 1.1 4.0 3.61 Thailand 1.0 3.8 3.93 Nepal 0.9 1.9 2.15 Myanmar 0.4 1.1 3.22 Bangladesh 0.2 1.3 6.01 Laos 0.2 1.1 4.83 Cambodia 0.2 0.6 3.75 Sri Lanka 0.1 0.1 2.16 Malaysia 0.02 0.1 3.19 Total 50.0 227.1 3.7 Country Productivity (tonnes/ha)
  3. 3. Maize in Asia  Maize area (South and South-East Asia) expanding by 2.2% annually. 16.5 m ha (2001) to 18.0 m ha (2006)  Over 80% of the maize is rain fed where productivity is half that of irrigated maize  Erratic rainfall 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1979 1980 198 1 1 982 1983 19 84 1985 1986 1 987 1988 1989 1990 Year Rainfall(mm) 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2.0 Maizeyield(t/ha) Rain fall M aize yield
  4. 4. Grim Reality……of geographical climate  Climatic change effect declining ground water table => water shortage => drought  'India would have a water deficit of 50 per cent by 2030 while China would have a shortage of 25 per cent.„ – ADB  Addressing the problem of drought should provide the highest technical returns to rain-fed maize
  5. 5. Grim Reality……of geographical climate  Each degree day spent above 30 C reduced the final yield of maize by 1% under optimal rain-fed conditions, and by 1.7% under drought conditions  … data generated by international networks of crop experimenters represent a potential boon to research aimed at quantifying climate impacts …
  6. 6. Yield Gaps (t/ha) in Maize (Source : Edmeades et al., 2003) Attainable Yield Actual Yield
  7. 7. Principle Outputs  Yellow drought tolerant inbred lines  Knowledge on drought tolerant donor lines and MARS technology  Scientists trained in molecular breeding
  8. 8. We thrive on collaboration ………  Dr. B. S. Vivek, CIMMYT-India  Dr. P. H. Zaidi, CIMMYT-India  Dr. Fan Xingming, YAAS, Kunming, China  Dr. Pichet Grudloyma, NSFCRC, Tak Fa, Thailand  Dr. M. Azrai, ICERI, Maros, Indonesia  Dr. Le Quy Kha, NMRI, Vietnam  Dr. Eureka Ocampo, Institute of Plant Breeding, UPLB, Philippines  Dr. I.S. Singh, Krishidhan Seeds, India  Dr. R.P. Singh, Syngenta, India
  9. 9. Project Details  Grant Period: (Start: Nov 08) (End: Oct 2013)
  10. 10. Technology  Drought Screening Technology  Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection
  11. 11. Managed Drought Stress Irrigation for germination Last irrigation Slide Courtesy: P. H. Zaidi Genotypic variability
  12. 12. Not a shot in the dark ...... We have a history of breeding progress under drought in CIMMYT What has accelerated breeding progress for DT in CIMMYT? ● Managed drought screening sites ● Collaboration through regional trials Average breeding progress (Banziger et al, 2006) Percentage yield increase of experimental hybrids (n=42) over checks (n=41) 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 0-1 1-2 2-3 3-4 4-5 5-6 6-7 7-8 8-9 >9 Average trial yield (t/ha) Yieldincreaseoverchecks + +* * *** *** *** *** *** *** Trial #: 18 41 38 48 31 27 21 22 20 7 Low yielding environments High yielding environments
  13. 13. Courtesy: P. H. Zaidi Progress Under Drought
  14. 14. Technology  Drought Screening Technology  Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection
  15. 15. Inbred Line Development S1 F2 F1 P1 P2x S6 Genotype S1 families Form S1 x tester Evaluate test crosses Form C1 using genotype & phenotype data Genotype C1 plants Form C2 using genotype data only Marker Assisted Recurrent Selection (MARS) Genome Wide Selection (GWS) Pedigree Breeding C2 AMDROUT
  16. 16. Why is MARS successful?  Objective: maximize the frequency of favorable alleles in the resulting population, from which inbreds are extracted.  “By changing the favorable allele frequency from 0.5 to 0.96, the probability of recovering the ideal genotype for 20 independent regions increases from one per trillion to one in five.” (Eathington et al. 2007)  Advantage of MARS is greatest for traits controlled by many genes. Mean Lines developed by pedigree selection Lines selected for recombination from C0 phenotyping Cycle 3 MARS lines Population of random lines extracted from a cross MARS moves the mean of the selected population in advanced cycles beyond the original distribution by greatly increasing the frequency of favorable alleles
  17. 17. Not a shot in the dark ...... Evidence for MARS  Moreau et al. 2004. Experimental evaluation of several cycles of marker-assisted recurrent selection in maize. Euphytica 137:111  Podlich et al. 2004. Mapping as you go: an effective approach to marker-assisted selection for quantitative traits. Crop Sci. 44:1560  Bernardo and Charcosset. 2006. Usefulness of gene information in marker-assisted recurrent selection: a simulation appraisal. Crop Sci. 46:614  Bernardo and Yu. 2007. Prospects for genome-wide selection for quantitative traits in maize. Crop Sci. 47:1082  Eathington et. al. 2007. Molecular markers in a commercial breeding program. Crop Sci 47:S-154-S-163 (2007)  Bernardo, R. 2008. Molecular markers and selection for complex traits in plants: learning from the last 20 years. Crop Sci. 48:1649–1664.
  18. 18. Use of MARS  MARS is being implemented by several multinational breeding companies to accelerate breeding progress in maize  An increasing number of maize hybrids in Europe and the US originate from MARS approaches  MARS is currently not being implemented in the public sector, partly due to lack of access to high- throughput genotyping and data processing facilities  In collaboration with the GCP, IITA, Cornell University and Monsanto, CIMMYT has initiated the world-wide largest public sector MARS breeding approach
  19. 19. Suite of Supplementary project/s  Drought Tolerant Maize for Africa (DTMA) Project  Mega pan-African project  Biggest public sector MARS effort  MARS know-how trickling in  Affordable, Accessible, Asian (AAA) Drought Tolerant Maize Project  Asian Project  Association mapping, MARS  Bigger in scope We are not alone…………..
  20. 20. ACHIEVEMENTS …………..SO FAR
  21. 21. Key Milestones: Donor and Recipient Lines  Donors (Drought Tolerance)  CML312  CML395  CML440  CML441  CML442  CML443  CML444  CML445  CML488  CML489  CZL04006  CZL03014  CZL00003  CZL03007  Elite Asian Lines  CML427  CML429  CML451  CML470  CML472  CML473  CML474  CA00106  CA03118-1  CA03147  CA14522  CA14701  (CTS013050/(AMATLC0H S167-B)
  22. 22. Entry Pedigree GrainYiel d RankNo Anthesis Date GrainYiel d RankNo GrainYiel d RankNo GrainYiel d RankNo t/ha # d t/ha # t/ha # t/ha # Entries with anthesis date between 58 - 62 days 10 (CA00310 / AMATLC0HS71-1-1-2-1-1-1-B*6-B- B-B- B)/ZM621A-10-1-1-1-2-B*7-B-B-B 6.47 6 60.8 2.06 7 7.96 2 9.38 8 11 (CA00310 / AMATLC0HS71-1-1-2-1-1-1-B*4-B-B-B-B-B- B)/ZM621A-10-1-1-1-2-B*7-B-B-B 6.06 8 62.1 2.31 3 7.54 3 8.32 17 12 (CTS013058 / (AMATLC0HS167-1-1-1-2F/R)- BBBBB/Nei402011-B-B-B-B)/ZM621A-10-1-1-1-2-B*7-B-B- B 5.95 9 59.1 1.88 11 6.28 11 9.68 6 25 (CTS011072 / P31C4S5B-38-#-#-2-B-B-B-B/P31DMR-88- 3#-B*14-B-B-B-B)/CML444 6.88 12 59.8 1.77 15 5.91 19 12.95 1 Entries with anthesis date > 62 days 20 P31C4S5B-6-#-#-B-B-B-B-B-B-B-B/CML444 6.24 6 62.5 2.14 6 6.45 10 10.13 3 Mean 5.93 17 62.3 1.62 17 5.93 17 8.39 17 LSD (0.05) 1.34 10 2.5 1.32 10 1.71 10 3.49 10 p 0.414 0.003 0.171 Min 3.30 1 58.7 0.43 1 3.61 1 5.87 1 Max 6.88 33 66.2 2.48 33 8.14 33 12.95 33 OPTIMAL: 09CAGCP1 Across Pusa Ind Hanoi Vie Jinghong Chi Key Milestones: Breeding Starts CML470 x CML444 (AMDROUT1) VL1012767 x CML444 (AMDROUT2) VL1012764 x CML444 (AMDROUT5) CML472 x CML440 (AMDROUT6)
  23. 23. SNP genotyping for MARS
  24. 24. AMDROUT: Current Status  Test cross phenotypic data from one season available for 2 populations Heritability over 0.6 for grain yield attainable  Genotypic data available  Analysis is in progress Debate on QTL vs. GWS approaches
  25. 25. AMDROUT: Challenges  Phenotyping Low heritabilities for many trials  Germplasm Exchange Obtaining permits
  26. 26. Projects  AMDROUT, B Vivek  Maize in Indonesia M Azrai, ICeRI, Indonesia  Maize reference set composition and evaluation, J Gethi  Maize acid soil tolerance, C Guimaraes & D. Ligeyo  MSV resistance in maize, J Derera  Outline of the maize programme at IITA, M Gedil  Outline of the Maize programme at Seed Co, E Tembo  Outline of the Maize programme at Krishidhan, IS Singh  Outline of the Maize programme at Syngenta, RP Singh  Introducing the Syngenta Foundation AAA project, B Vivek
  27. 27. Group Members  Jean-Marcel Ribaut, GCP  Bindiganavile Vivek, CIMMYT  Azrai, Muhammad, ICERI, Indonesia  Bennet, Andrew, GCP Executive Board  Danquah, Eric, WACCI –Ghana  Danson, Jedidah Wamuyu, ACCI, South Africa  Derera, John, ACCI, South Africa  Gedil, Melaku, IITA  Gethi, James, KARI – Kenya Agricultural Research Institute  Guimaraes, Claudia Teixeira, EMBRAPA, Brazil  Krishna, Girish Kumar, CIMMYT  Robinson, Mike, Syngenta Foundation for Sustainable Agriculture  Singh, I.S, Krishidhan Seeds, India  Singh, RP, Syngenta, India  Tembo, Elliot, Seed Co, Zimbabwe  Vengadessan, V, CIMMYT
  28. 28. Data Sharing  All participants agreed to test the phenotypic database. (IMIS)  GCP will help in putting existing files in database if necessary, either through visits by informatics groups or by email  Participants agreed to fill data file requests and share it with GCP.  All were enthusiastic about Samsung Galaxy tablets  GCP will collect requests and distribute tablets (reasonable number)  Tools will be provided through IBP on the condition that participants will use it.  Most people were willing to share data amongst themselves.  GCP will take care of the implementation especially for accessing database tools of the platform.
  29. 29. Breeding activities  Fingerprinting exercise was presented.  All participants were invited to submit their lines for fingerprinting. It was recommended to target elite and popular lines; about 30 lines per program.
  30. 30. Ontology  After presentation of the maize crop dictionary and ontology, Rosemary committed to indicate to participants the information that she would need, mainly to see if any major traits are missing and to see if the definitions for existing traits made sense.  Group agreed that the trait list available on central database should focus on those that are used routinely by breeders. Since this is based on Maize Finder and Fieldbook there are ample number of traits which need to be properly categorized. Need to make sure that DUS traits are included. Trait definitions are well defined in maize and this should be built upon.  Groups were expecting some simple protocols to use the crop ontology finder and curator system for eg. How do you search if your trait is already in the database?
  31. 31. Capacity building  Eric and Jedidah presented about WACCI and ACCI.  Jean Marcel presented the 3 year capacity building proposal.  Participants were asked to think about nominations in their programs and neighbouring programs on who would contribute to this training.  Whether one week would be sufficient for such training should be considered. Also, more thought needs to be put on grouping by country or teams.
  32. 32. Communities of Practice (COP)  Why would one want to be in a COP?  Crop was primary motivation.  Inability to do certain tasks, need for mentorship, socializing, expertise.  Components: confidence, trust, mobilize, support, openness, sharing, clear added value, good use of time, knowledge.  Mike Robinson made the comment that delivery chain could be important in a COP implying that farmers should be a part.  If crop COP is the entry point then people agreed that there was a need for a regional component.  If delivery chain is the key driver of a COP then it would have to be region specific.  COP based on language was suggested to be an important.  The group present was not representative of the maize community; therefore that linkages to DTMA and WEMA are required to ensure that more people are brought on board.

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