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Working together with the
Queensland Government
Developing drought-adapted sorghum
germplasm for Africa and Australia
University of
Queensland
Andrew Borrell
David Jordan
Queensland
Government
Barb George-Jaeggli
IER, Mali
Sidi Bekaye Coulibaly
Niaba Teme
Mamoutou Kouressy
CIRAD, Mali
Michel Vaksmann
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Outline
1. The „stay-green‟ trait
2. Overview of GCP project
3. Physiological studies in Australia
4. Stay-green germplasm for Mali
5. Conclusions
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Maintaining green
leaves and stems when
water is limiting during
the grain-filling period
1. The “stay-green” trait
Stay-green Senescent
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Crop productivity in water-limited environments is
regulated by:
Drought adaptation
Stay-green affects all three processes.
a) the extent of water capture by the crop (T),
b) the efficiency with which the crop
exchanges water for CO2 via transpiration in
producing biomass (TE), and
c) the fraction of the total biomass that ends up
in the grain (HI).
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Higher yield
Increased water use during grain filling
Increased water availability at flowering
Increased water
accessibility
(roots)
Reduced water
use at flowering
Higher plant
water status
Increased
growth rate
Increased
TE
Delayed leaf
senescence
Smaller
plant size
„Low tillering‟
mechanism
„Small leaf‟
mechanism
Modified leaf
anatomy
Driving T
Driving TE
Driving HI
Emergent
consequences
Increased N
uptake
Increased
stem strength
Working together with the
Queensland Government
2. Overview of GCP project
Development and evaluation of drought-
adapted sorghum for Africa and Australia
Working together with the
Queensland Government
African partners (Phase 1)
Mali
Institut d‟Economie Rurale (IER)
CIRAD, Bamako, Mali
Working together with the
Queensland Government
African partners (Phase 2)
Niger, Sudan, Ethiopia,
Kenya & Uganda
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Objective 1. Determine the impact of changes
in plant height and photoperiod sensitivity
on the expression and value of stay-green
Objective 2. Develop Malian germplasm
enriched for stay-green QTLs
Objective 3. Training of African scientist(s) in
the physiology and breeding of drought
adaptation
Objectives (Phase 1)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Objectives (Phase 2)
Objective 1: Evaluating in Africa the material
produced in Phase 1
Objective 2
• Training in Australia for visiting African
scientists on sorghum crop improvement
• Training in Africa by visiting Australian
scientists on sorghum crop improvement
Objective 3: Evaluation of African germplasm for
known stay-green regions
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Knowledge gaps
Interaction between stay-green and plant height is
unknown.
Interaction with photoperiod response is unknown.
Value of the trait will be influenced by the types of
drought experienced in Mali.
Will stay-green be useful in
Mali ?
Challenges
Value of stay-green is more obvious in hybrids
compared with inbred lines.
Variation in flowering time complicates conventional
selection.
Selecting for stay-green while retaining local
adaptation (PPS, grain quality, pest resistance etc).
Working together with the
Queensland Government
3. Physiological studies in Australia
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Creating „managed‟ environments
Irrigated Control
(HD & LD)
Water-Limited Treatment
(HD & LD)
Low density
(mild drought)
High density
(severe drought)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Genotypes
Tall & stay-green
(R931945-2-2)
Short & stay-
green
(R931945-2-2)
Tall & senescent
(R955343-1)
Short &
senescent
(R955343-1)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Seasonal variation
2009: Post-flowering drought
(stopped irrigating 2 weeks
before flowering)
2010: Pre-flowering
drought (stopped
irrigating 3 weeks
before flowering)
2011: Post-flowering
drought (stopped
irrigating 3 weeks
before flowering)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Retention of green leaf area
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
Greenleafarea
(cm2
/m2
)
T S T S T S T S
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
High Low
2009
The stay-green pair retained more green leaf area at maturity than the senescent pair
under both high and low density treatments. There were no significant differences in
green leaf area between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Grain yield
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
Grainyield(g/m2
)
T S T S T S T S
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
High Low
2009
The stay-green pair exhibited higher grain yield than the senescent pair under both high
and low density treatments. Grain yield was higher in the tall (T) than short (S) isoline of
the stay-green pair under both densities. Hence, the „tall stay-green‟ combination yielded
particularly well under post-flowering drought.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Lodging resistance
-200
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
Deltastemmass(g/m2
)
T S T S T S T S
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
High Low
2009
Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair remobilized less stem reserves during grain filling than
the senescent pair under both high and low densities. Less stem reserves were mobilized in the tall (T)
than short (S) isolines in the stay-green pair, while the reverse was true for the senescent pair. This
suggests that stay-green should provide much-needed lodging resistance in tall sorghums under post-
flowering drought.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Stay-green
Senescent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137
Cumulativewateruse(mm)
Days afteremergence
Low Density (2011)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
4. Germplasm with enhanced stay-green
and adaptation for Mali
The DEEDI sorghum breeding program has been
selecting for the stay-green trait in sorghum for more than
30 years while simultaneously selecting for grain yield.
In Australia, 3-dwarf hybrids with stay-green have been
shown to increase grain yield & grain size, and decrease
lodging in crops subjected to post flowering drought.
Choosing a stay-green donor
• Options: B35 or an elite line from the DEEDI program
• Chose R931945-2-2 as a well characterized line from
the DEEDI program with high SG and good yield potential
and other potentially useful traits (e.g. midge resistance).
Stay-greenSenescent
R2
= 0.218
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
Stay-green rating (1=SG 9=dead)
Yieldt/ha
Data from 20 breeding trials (934 hybrids)
conducted between 2005 and 2008
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Produce populations based on elite
material from Mali (Phase 1)
Prior to the commencement of the GCP project, DEEDI
had developed 33 F2 populations each based on a cross
between a diverse set of germplasm lines from Mali with
the elite DEEDI line (R931945-2-2).
In consultation with Malian breeders, four of the 33
populations were chosen for:
• backcrossing to the recurrent parent and
selection for four SG QTL;
• development of RIL populations; and
• production of F1 hybrids with CMS lines
contrasting in SG.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Evaluation in Africa of material
produced in Phase I (Phase 2)
Seed from selected BC1F2 will be used by Malian
collaborators for final stage selection and evaluation.
QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in about 12 trials per
year (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2 years.
Target countries will include Mali, Niger, Sudan,
Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda.
Five plants from each of 15 backcross-derived
introgression lines have been selected (13 lines from
F2_R04021-2/PI609084 and 2 lines from F2_R04003-
2/PI585749).
Hence about 75 genotypes x 2 reps x 2 water regimes
(WW & WD) will be evaluated per site, depending on
irrigation capacity for WW treatment.
Evaluation will focus on yield, height, maturity, stay-
green and grain quality.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Evaluation of African germplasm for
known stay-green QTL (Phase 2)
Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400 lines (totaling 917
individuals) will be phenotyped at the F4 generation (2012). Lines were selected for
height and PPS similar to the recurrent parent. QTL mapping studies will be
conducted in Phase 2.
Seed of 6 F1 hybrids produced. Trials will be conducted to compare the yield and
stay-green of the F1 hybrids at 2 sites in Mali during 2012.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Variables & constants are
initialised in model or read
from spreadsheet (can
also read APSIM met files
etc to prototype)
Variables & constants are
initialised in model or read
from spreadsheet (can
also read APSIM met files
etc to prototype)
Can compare runs &
monitor all variables using
graph tools (or via APSIM
tools, with VenLink)
Can compare runs &
monitor all variables using
graph tools (or via APSIM
tools, with VenLink)
At present, VenLink to
APSIM is only for complete
modules, but Dean
Holzworth is going to
enable Vensim to work as
a sub-module, e.g. crop
process
At present, VenLink to
APSIM is only for complete
modules, but Dean
Holzworth is going to
enable Vensim to work as
a sub-module, e.g. crop
process
Great tool for prototyping
ideas before programming
APSIM module
Great tool for prototyping
ideas before programming
APSIM module
Genomics Simulation Modelling
Data management
Phenotypic data
Integrated
information that is
better able to
address complex
quantitative traits
Environmental
characterisation
Enhanced genetic gain
Training on linking breeding,
molecular & physiological aspects
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Cost-effective HTP whole
genome profiling technology
Applied to QTL and association
mapping studies
Genomics: What do you need?
Good quality genetic linkage maps
Applied to structured and
unstructured germplasm sets
Knowledge of genomic regions controlling
key traits
Put this is context of existing knowledge of
other QTL and major effects genes in order
to develop more effective breeding
strategies
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Stg1
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Stg1 QTL region
67 markers across
376 genotypes (AYT)
With such dense marker data sets, we
can look at the haplotypes in selected
QTL regions. This example focuses on
Stg1 on SBI-03. We can identify which
haplotype class is derived from stay-
green lines vs those from senescent lines.
B35 derived
haplotype
(stay-green)
Principal component analysis
Working together with the
Queensland Government
5. Conclusions (Physiology)
1) Height did not counteract the benefits of stay-green. On
the contrary, under stress, the tall version of the stay-
green pair yielded significantly more than the short
version.
2) The yield advantage in the tall version of the stay-green
pair was due primarily to larger grain size.
3) Stem mass during grain filling increased in the stay-
green pair and decreased in the senescent pair,
highlighting the role of stay-green in lodging resistance,
particularly in the tall version of the stay-green pair.
4) Tall stay-green line extracted more water during grain
filling than the tall senescent line.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Conclusions
(Population development)
1) About 75 QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in 12
trials per year (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2
years.
2) Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400
lines (totaling 917 individuals) will be phenotyped at the
F4 generation.
3) Yield and stay-green of six F1 hybrids will be compared
at 2 sites in Mali.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Conclusions (Training)
1) Intensive training for two Malian
scientists in Australia on physiological
methods and breeding techniques
related to drought adaptation will occur
in Feb 2012 (Phase 1).
2) Workshop in Africa on „breeding for
drought‟ and „physiology of drought
adaptation (Phase 2).
3) Six African scientists will work with the
sorghum program in Australia for 3
months each (Phase 2).
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Canopy development
0.00
0.20
0.40
0.60
0.80
1.00
1.20
Tillers/plant
Tall Short Tall Short
R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent)
2009
The stay-green pair reduced tillering compared with the senescent pair. There were no
significant differences in tillering between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green
pair.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Implications for the grains
industry
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Stay-green
Senescent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137
Cumulativewateruse(mm)
Days afteremergence
High Density (2011)
Stay-green
Senescent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137
Cumulativewateruse(mm)
Days afteremergence
Low Density (2011)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Leaf senescence
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
SPAD(FL-2)
T S T S T S T S
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
High Low
2009
The stay-green pair retained greener leaves (higher SPAD) during late grain filling than
the senescent pair under both high and low density treatments. There were no significant
differences in leaf greenness between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Stay-green
Senescent
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137
Cumulativewateruse(mm)
Days afteremergence
High Density (2011)
Working together with the
Queensland Government
Grain size
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
Grainmass(mg)
T S T S T S T S
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
R931945-2-2
(stay-green)
R955343-1
(senescent)
High Low
2009
Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair exhibited larger grain size than the
senescent pair, particularly under low density. Grain size was generally larger in the tall (T)
compared with the short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.

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GRM 2011: Development and evaluation of drought-adapted sorghum germplasm for Africa and Australia

  • 1. Working together with the Queensland Government Developing drought-adapted sorghum germplasm for Africa and Australia University of Queensland Andrew Borrell David Jordan Queensland Government Barb George-Jaeggli IER, Mali Sidi Bekaye Coulibaly Niaba Teme Mamoutou Kouressy CIRAD, Mali Michel Vaksmann
  • 2. Working together with the Queensland Government Outline 1. The „stay-green‟ trait 2. Overview of GCP project 3. Physiological studies in Australia 4. Stay-green germplasm for Mali 5. Conclusions
  • 3. Working together with the Queensland Government Maintaining green leaves and stems when water is limiting during the grain-filling period 1. The “stay-green” trait Stay-green Senescent
  • 4. Working together with the Queensland Government Crop productivity in water-limited environments is regulated by: Drought adaptation Stay-green affects all three processes. a) the extent of water capture by the crop (T), b) the efficiency with which the crop exchanges water for CO2 via transpiration in producing biomass (TE), and c) the fraction of the total biomass that ends up in the grain (HI).
  • 5. Working together with the Queensland Government Higher yield Increased water use during grain filling Increased water availability at flowering Increased water accessibility (roots) Reduced water use at flowering Higher plant water status Increased growth rate Increased TE Delayed leaf senescence Smaller plant size „Low tillering‟ mechanism „Small leaf‟ mechanism Modified leaf anatomy Driving T Driving TE Driving HI Emergent consequences Increased N uptake Increased stem strength
  • 6. Working together with the Queensland Government 2. Overview of GCP project Development and evaluation of drought- adapted sorghum for Africa and Australia
  • 7. Working together with the Queensland Government African partners (Phase 1) Mali Institut d‟Economie Rurale (IER) CIRAD, Bamako, Mali
  • 8. Working together with the Queensland Government African partners (Phase 2) Niger, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya & Uganda
  • 9. Working together with the Queensland Government Objective 1. Determine the impact of changes in plant height and photoperiod sensitivity on the expression and value of stay-green Objective 2. Develop Malian germplasm enriched for stay-green QTLs Objective 3. Training of African scientist(s) in the physiology and breeding of drought adaptation Objectives (Phase 1)
  • 10. Working together with the Queensland Government Objectives (Phase 2) Objective 1: Evaluating in Africa the material produced in Phase 1 Objective 2 • Training in Australia for visiting African scientists on sorghum crop improvement • Training in Africa by visiting Australian scientists on sorghum crop improvement Objective 3: Evaluation of African germplasm for known stay-green regions
  • 11. Working together with the Queensland Government Knowledge gaps Interaction between stay-green and plant height is unknown. Interaction with photoperiod response is unknown. Value of the trait will be influenced by the types of drought experienced in Mali. Will stay-green be useful in Mali ? Challenges Value of stay-green is more obvious in hybrids compared with inbred lines. Variation in flowering time complicates conventional selection. Selecting for stay-green while retaining local adaptation (PPS, grain quality, pest resistance etc).
  • 12. Working together with the Queensland Government 3. Physiological studies in Australia
  • 13. Working together with the Queensland Government Creating „managed‟ environments Irrigated Control (HD & LD) Water-Limited Treatment (HD & LD) Low density (mild drought) High density (severe drought)
  • 14. Working together with the Queensland Government Genotypes Tall & stay-green (R931945-2-2) Short & stay- green (R931945-2-2) Tall & senescent (R955343-1) Short & senescent (R955343-1)
  • 15. Working together with the Queensland Government Seasonal variation 2009: Post-flowering drought (stopped irrigating 2 weeks before flowering) 2010: Pre-flowering drought (stopped irrigating 3 weeks before flowering) 2011: Post-flowering drought (stopped irrigating 3 weeks before flowering)
  • 16. Working together with the Queensland Government Retention of green leaf area 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 Greenleafarea (cm2 /m2 ) T S T S T S T S R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) High Low 2009 The stay-green pair retained more green leaf area at maturity than the senescent pair under both high and low density treatments. There were no significant differences in green leaf area between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
  • 17. Working together with the Queensland Government Grain yield 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 Grainyield(g/m2 ) T S T S T S T S R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) High Low 2009 The stay-green pair exhibited higher grain yield than the senescent pair under both high and low density treatments. Grain yield was higher in the tall (T) than short (S) isoline of the stay-green pair under both densities. Hence, the „tall stay-green‟ combination yielded particularly well under post-flowering drought.
  • 18. Working together with the Queensland Government Lodging resistance -200 -150 -100 -50 0 50 100 Deltastemmass(g/m2 ) T S T S T S T S R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) High Low 2009 Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair remobilized less stem reserves during grain filling than the senescent pair under both high and low densities. Less stem reserves were mobilized in the tall (T) than short (S) isolines in the stay-green pair, while the reverse was true for the senescent pair. This suggests that stay-green should provide much-needed lodging resistance in tall sorghums under post- flowering drought.
  • 19. Working together with the Queensland Government Stay-green Senescent 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137 Cumulativewateruse(mm) Days afteremergence Low Density (2011)
  • 20. Working together with the Queensland Government 4. Germplasm with enhanced stay-green and adaptation for Mali The DEEDI sorghum breeding program has been selecting for the stay-green trait in sorghum for more than 30 years while simultaneously selecting for grain yield. In Australia, 3-dwarf hybrids with stay-green have been shown to increase grain yield & grain size, and decrease lodging in crops subjected to post flowering drought. Choosing a stay-green donor • Options: B35 or an elite line from the DEEDI program • Chose R931945-2-2 as a well characterized line from the DEEDI program with high SG and good yield potential and other potentially useful traits (e.g. midge resistance). Stay-greenSenescent R2 = 0.218 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Stay-green rating (1=SG 9=dead) Yieldt/ha Data from 20 breeding trials (934 hybrids) conducted between 2005 and 2008
  • 21. Working together with the Queensland Government Produce populations based on elite material from Mali (Phase 1) Prior to the commencement of the GCP project, DEEDI had developed 33 F2 populations each based on a cross between a diverse set of germplasm lines from Mali with the elite DEEDI line (R931945-2-2). In consultation with Malian breeders, four of the 33 populations were chosen for: • backcrossing to the recurrent parent and selection for four SG QTL; • development of RIL populations; and • production of F1 hybrids with CMS lines contrasting in SG.
  • 22. Working together with the Queensland Government Evaluation in Africa of material produced in Phase I (Phase 2) Seed from selected BC1F2 will be used by Malian collaborators for final stage selection and evaluation. QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in about 12 trials per year (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2 years. Target countries will include Mali, Niger, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda. Five plants from each of 15 backcross-derived introgression lines have been selected (13 lines from F2_R04021-2/PI609084 and 2 lines from F2_R04003- 2/PI585749). Hence about 75 genotypes x 2 reps x 2 water regimes (WW & WD) will be evaluated per site, depending on irrigation capacity for WW treatment. Evaluation will focus on yield, height, maturity, stay- green and grain quality.
  • 23. Working together with the Queensland Government Evaluation of African germplasm for known stay-green QTL (Phase 2) Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400 lines (totaling 917 individuals) will be phenotyped at the F4 generation (2012). Lines were selected for height and PPS similar to the recurrent parent. QTL mapping studies will be conducted in Phase 2. Seed of 6 F1 hybrids produced. Trials will be conducted to compare the yield and stay-green of the F1 hybrids at 2 sites in Mali during 2012.
  • 24. Working together with the Queensland Government Variables & constants are initialised in model or read from spreadsheet (can also read APSIM met files etc to prototype) Variables & constants are initialised in model or read from spreadsheet (can also read APSIM met files etc to prototype) Can compare runs & monitor all variables using graph tools (or via APSIM tools, with VenLink) Can compare runs & monitor all variables using graph tools (or via APSIM tools, with VenLink) At present, VenLink to APSIM is only for complete modules, but Dean Holzworth is going to enable Vensim to work as a sub-module, e.g. crop process At present, VenLink to APSIM is only for complete modules, but Dean Holzworth is going to enable Vensim to work as a sub-module, e.g. crop process Great tool for prototyping ideas before programming APSIM module Great tool for prototyping ideas before programming APSIM module Genomics Simulation Modelling Data management Phenotypic data Integrated information that is better able to address complex quantitative traits Environmental characterisation Enhanced genetic gain Training on linking breeding, molecular & physiological aspects
  • 25. Working together with the Queensland Government Cost-effective HTP whole genome profiling technology Applied to QTL and association mapping studies Genomics: What do you need? Good quality genetic linkage maps Applied to structured and unstructured germplasm sets Knowledge of genomic regions controlling key traits Put this is context of existing knowledge of other QTL and major effects genes in order to develop more effective breeding strategies
  • 26. Working together with the Queensland Government Stg1
  • 27. Working together with the Queensland Government Stg1 QTL region 67 markers across 376 genotypes (AYT) With such dense marker data sets, we can look at the haplotypes in selected QTL regions. This example focuses on Stg1 on SBI-03. We can identify which haplotype class is derived from stay- green lines vs those from senescent lines. B35 derived haplotype (stay-green) Principal component analysis
  • 28. Working together with the Queensland Government 5. Conclusions (Physiology) 1) Height did not counteract the benefits of stay-green. On the contrary, under stress, the tall version of the stay- green pair yielded significantly more than the short version. 2) The yield advantage in the tall version of the stay-green pair was due primarily to larger grain size. 3) Stem mass during grain filling increased in the stay- green pair and decreased in the senescent pair, highlighting the role of stay-green in lodging resistance, particularly in the tall version of the stay-green pair. 4) Tall stay-green line extracted more water during grain filling than the tall senescent line.
  • 29. Working together with the Queensland Government Conclusions (Population development) 1) About 75 QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in 12 trials per year (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2 years. 2) Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400 lines (totaling 917 individuals) will be phenotyped at the F4 generation. 3) Yield and stay-green of six F1 hybrids will be compared at 2 sites in Mali.
  • 30. Working together with the Queensland Government Conclusions (Training) 1) Intensive training for two Malian scientists in Australia on physiological methods and breeding techniques related to drought adaptation will occur in Feb 2012 (Phase 1). 2) Workshop in Africa on „breeding for drought‟ and „physiology of drought adaptation (Phase 2). 3) Six African scientists will work with the sorghum program in Australia for 3 months each (Phase 2).
  • 31. Working together with the Queensland Government
  • 32. Working together with the Queensland Government
  • 33. Working together with the Queensland Government Canopy development 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 1.20 Tillers/plant Tall Short Tall Short R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) 2009 The stay-green pair reduced tillering compared with the senescent pair. There were no significant differences in tillering between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
  • 34. Working together with the Queensland Government Implications for the grains industry
  • 35. Working together with the Queensland Government Stay-green Senescent 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137 Cumulativewateruse(mm) Days afteremergence High Density (2011) Stay-green Senescent 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137 Cumulativewateruse(mm) Days afteremergence Low Density (2011)
  • 36. Working together with the Queensland Government Leaf senescence 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 SPAD(FL-2) T S T S T S T S R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) High Low 2009 The stay-green pair retained greener leaves (higher SPAD) during late grain filling than the senescent pair under both high and low density treatments. There were no significant differences in leaf greenness between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
  • 37. Working together with the Queensland Government Stay-green Senescent 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 16 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137 Cumulativewateruse(mm) Days afteremergence High Density (2011)
  • 38. Working together with the Queensland Government Grain size 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Grainmass(mg) T S T S T S T S R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) R931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent) High Low 2009 Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair exhibited larger grain size than the senescent pair, particularly under low density. Grain size was generally larger in the tall (T) compared with the short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.