GRM 2011: Development and evaluation of drought-adapted sorghum germplasm for Africa and Australia

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GRM 2011: Development and evaluation of drought-adapted sorghum germplasm for Africa and Australia

  1. 1. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentDeveloping drought-adapted sorghumgermplasm for Africa and AustraliaUniversity ofQueenslandAndrew BorrellDavid JordanQueenslandGovernmentBarb George-JaeggliIER, MaliSidi Bekaye CoulibalyNiaba TemeMamoutou KouressyCIRAD, MaliMichel Vaksmann
  2. 2. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentOutline1. The „stay-green‟ trait2. Overview of GCP project3. Physiological studies in Australia4. Stay-green germplasm for Mali5. Conclusions
  3. 3. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentMaintaining greenleaves and stems whenwater is limiting duringthe grain-filling period1. The “stay-green” traitStay-green Senescent
  4. 4. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentCrop productivity in water-limited environments isregulated by:Drought adaptationStay-green affects all three processes.a) the extent of water capture by the crop (T),b) the efficiency with which the cropexchanges water for CO2 via transpiration inproducing biomass (TE), andc) the fraction of the total biomass that ends upin the grain (HI).
  5. 5. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentHigher yieldIncreased water use during grain fillingIncreased water availability at floweringIncreased wateraccessibility(roots)Reduced wateruse at floweringHigher plantwater statusIncreasedgrowth rateIncreasedTEDelayed leafsenescenceSmallerplant size„Low tillering‟mechanism„Small leaf‟mechanismModified leafanatomyDriving TDriving TEDriving HIEmergentconsequencesIncreased NuptakeIncreasedstem strength
  6. 6. Working together with theQueensland Government2. Overview of GCP projectDevelopment and evaluation of drought-adapted sorghum for Africa and Australia
  7. 7. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentAfrican partners (Phase 1)MaliInstitut d‟Economie Rurale (IER)CIRAD, Bamako, Mali
  8. 8. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentAfrican partners (Phase 2)Niger, Sudan, Ethiopia,Kenya & Uganda
  9. 9. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentObjective 1. Determine the impact of changesin plant height and photoperiod sensitivityon the expression and value of stay-greenObjective 2. Develop Malian germplasmenriched for stay-green QTLsObjective 3. Training of African scientist(s) inthe physiology and breeding of droughtadaptationObjectives (Phase 1)
  10. 10. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentObjectives (Phase 2)Objective 1: Evaluating in Africa the materialproduced in Phase 1Objective 2• Training in Australia for visiting Africanscientists on sorghum crop improvement• Training in Africa by visiting Australianscientists on sorghum crop improvementObjective 3: Evaluation of African germplasm forknown stay-green regions
  11. 11. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentKnowledge gapsInteraction between stay-green and plant height isunknown.Interaction with photoperiod response is unknown.Value of the trait will be influenced by the types ofdrought experienced in Mali.Will stay-green be useful inMali ?ChallengesValue of stay-green is more obvious in hybridscompared with inbred lines.Variation in flowering time complicates conventionalselection.Selecting for stay-green while retaining localadaptation (PPS, grain quality, pest resistance etc).
  12. 12. Working together with theQueensland Government3. Physiological studies in Australia
  13. 13. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentCreating „managed‟ environmentsIrrigated Control(HD & LD)Water-Limited Treatment(HD & LD)Low density(mild drought)High density(severe drought)
  14. 14. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentGenotypesTall & stay-green(R931945-2-2)Short & stay-green(R931945-2-2)Tall & senescent(R955343-1)Short &senescent(R955343-1)
  15. 15. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentSeasonal variation2009: Post-flowering drought(stopped irrigating 2 weeksbefore flowering)2010: Pre-floweringdrought (stoppedirrigating 3 weeksbefore flowering)2011: Post-floweringdrought (stoppedirrigating 3 weeksbefore flowering)
  16. 16. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentRetention of green leaf area0500010000150002000025000Greenleafarea(cm2/m2)T S T S T S T SR931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)R931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)High Low2009The stay-green pair retained more green leaf area at maturity than the senescent pairunder both high and low density treatments. There were no significant differences ingreen leaf area between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
  17. 17. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentGrain yield0100200300400500600700800Grainyield(g/m2)T S T S T S T SR931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)R931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)High Low2009The stay-green pair exhibited higher grain yield than the senescent pair under both highand low density treatments. Grain yield was higher in the tall (T) than short (S) isoline ofthe stay-green pair under both densities. Hence, the „tall stay-green‟ combination yieldedparticularly well under post-flowering drought.
  18. 18. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentLodging resistance-200-150-100-50050100Deltastemmass(g/m2)T S T S T S T SR931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)R931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)High Low2009Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair remobilized less stem reserves during grain filling thanthe senescent pair under both high and low densities. Less stem reserves were mobilized in the tall (T)than short (S) isolines in the stay-green pair, while the reverse was true for the senescent pair. Thissuggests that stay-green should provide much-needed lodging resistance in tall sorghums under post-flowering drought.
  19. 19. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentStay-greenSenescent05010015020025030035016 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137Cumulativewateruse(mm)Days afteremergenceLow Density (2011)
  20. 20. Working together with theQueensland Government4. Germplasm with enhanced stay-greenand adaptation for MaliThe DEEDI sorghum breeding program has beenselecting for the stay-green trait in sorghum for more than30 years while simultaneously selecting for grain yield.In Australia, 3-dwarf hybrids with stay-green have beenshown to increase grain yield & grain size, and decreaselodging in crops subjected to post flowering drought.Choosing a stay-green donor• Options: B35 or an elite line from the DEEDI program• Chose R931945-2-2 as a well characterized line fromthe DEEDI program with high SG and good yield potentialand other potentially useful traits (e.g. midge resistance).Stay-greenSenescentR2= 0.2180123456782 3 4 5 6 7 8 9Stay-green rating (1=SG 9=dead)Yieldt/haData from 20 breeding trials (934 hybrids)conducted between 2005 and 2008
  21. 21. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentProduce populations based on elitematerial from Mali (Phase 1)Prior to the commencement of the GCP project, DEEDIhad developed 33 F2 populations each based on a crossbetween a diverse set of germplasm lines from Mali withthe elite DEEDI line (R931945-2-2).In consultation with Malian breeders, four of the 33populations were chosen for:• backcrossing to the recurrent parent andselection for four SG QTL;• development of RIL populations; and• production of F1 hybrids with CMS linescontrasting in SG.
  22. 22. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentEvaluation in Africa of materialproduced in Phase I (Phase 2)Seed from selected BC1F2 will be used by Maliancollaborators for final stage selection and evaluation.QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in about 12 trials peryear (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2 years.Target countries will include Mali, Niger, Sudan,Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda.Five plants from each of 15 backcross-derivedintrogression lines have been selected (13 lines fromF2_R04021-2/PI609084 and 2 lines from F2_R04003-2/PI585749).Hence about 75 genotypes x 2 reps x 2 water regimes(WW & WD) will be evaluated per site, depending onirrigation capacity for WW treatment.Evaluation will focus on yield, height, maturity, stay-green and grain quality.
  23. 23. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentEvaluation of African germplasm forknown stay-green QTL (Phase 2)Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400 lines (totaling 917individuals) will be phenotyped at the F4 generation (2012). Lines were selected forheight and PPS similar to the recurrent parent. QTL mapping studies will beconducted in Phase 2.Seed of 6 F1 hybrids produced. Trials will be conducted to compare the yield andstay-green of the F1 hybrids at 2 sites in Mali during 2012.
  24. 24. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentVariables & constants areinitialised in model or readfrom spreadsheet (canalso read APSIM met filesetc to prototype)Variables & constants areinitialised in model or readfrom spreadsheet (canalso read APSIM met filesetc to prototype)Can compare runs &monitor all variables usinggraph tools (or via APSIMtools, with VenLink)Can compare runs &monitor all variables usinggraph tools (or via APSIMtools, with VenLink)At present, VenLink toAPSIM is only for completemodules, but DeanHolzworth is going toenable Vensim to work asa sub-module, e.g. cropprocessAt present, VenLink toAPSIM is only for completemodules, but DeanHolzworth is going toenable Vensim to work asa sub-module, e.g. cropprocessGreat tool for prototypingideas before programmingAPSIM moduleGreat tool for prototypingideas before programmingAPSIM moduleGenomics Simulation ModellingData managementPhenotypic dataIntegratedinformation that isbetter able toaddress complexquantitative traitsEnvironmentalcharacterisationEnhanced genetic gainTraining on linking breeding,molecular & physiological aspects
  25. 25. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentCost-effective HTP wholegenome profiling technologyApplied to QTL and associationmapping studiesGenomics: What do you need?Good quality genetic linkage mapsApplied to structured andunstructured germplasm setsKnowledge of genomic regions controllingkey traitsPut this is context of existing knowledge ofother QTL and major effects genes in orderto develop more effective breedingstrategies
  26. 26. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentStg1
  27. 27. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentStg1 QTL region67 markers across376 genotypes (AYT)With such dense marker data sets, wecan look at the haplotypes in selectedQTL regions. This example focuses onStg1 on SBI-03. We can identify whichhaplotype class is derived from stay-green lines vs those from senescent lines.B35 derivedhaplotype(stay-green)Principal component analysis
  28. 28. Working together with theQueensland Government5. Conclusions (Physiology)1) Height did not counteract the benefits of stay-green. Onthe contrary, under stress, the tall version of the stay-green pair yielded significantly more than the shortversion.2) The yield advantage in the tall version of the stay-greenpair was due primarily to larger grain size.3) Stem mass during grain filling increased in the stay-green pair and decreased in the senescent pair,highlighting the role of stay-green in lodging resistance,particularly in the tall version of the stay-green pair.4) Tall stay-green line extracted more water during grainfilling than the tall senescent line.
  29. 29. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentConclusions(Population development)1) About 75 QTL-enriched lines will be evaluated in 12trials per year (6 countries x 2 sites per country) over 2years.2) Four RIL populations containing between 170 and 400lines (totaling 917 individuals) will be phenotyped at theF4 generation.3) Yield and stay-green of six F1 hybrids will be comparedat 2 sites in Mali.
  30. 30. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentConclusions (Training)1) Intensive training for two Malianscientists in Australia on physiologicalmethods and breeding techniquesrelated to drought adaptation will occurin Feb 2012 (Phase 1).2) Workshop in Africa on „breeding fordrought‟ and „physiology of droughtadaptation (Phase 2).3) Six African scientists will work with thesorghum program in Australia for 3months each (Phase 2).
  31. 31. Working together with theQueensland Government
  32. 32. Working together with theQueensland Government
  33. 33. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentCanopy development0.000.200.400.600.801.001.20Tillers/plantTall Short Tall ShortR931945-2-2 (stay-green) R955343-1 (senescent)2009The stay-green pair reduced tillering compared with the senescent pair. There were nosignificant differences in tillering between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-greenpair.
  34. 34. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentImplications for the grainsindustry
  35. 35. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentStay-greenSenescent05010015020025030035016 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137Cumulativewateruse(mm)Days afteremergenceHigh Density (2011)Stay-greenSenescent05010015020025030035016 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137Cumulativewateruse(mm)Days afteremergenceLow Density (2011)
  36. 36. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentLeaf senescence0102030405060SPAD(FL-2)T S T S T S T SR931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)R931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)High Low2009The stay-green pair retained greener leaves (higher SPAD) during late grain filling thanthe senescent pair under both high and low density treatments. There were no significantdifferences in leaf greenness between tall (T) and short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.
  37. 37. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentStay-greenSenescent05010015020025030035016 30 44 65 73 79 86 93 100 107 121 137Cumulativewateruse(mm)Days afteremergenceHigh Density (2011)
  38. 38. Working together with theQueensland GovernmentGrain size051015202530Grainmass(mg)T S T S T S T SR931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)R931945-2-2(stay-green)R955343-1(senescent)High Low2009Under stressed conditions, the stay-green pair exhibited larger grain size than thesenescent pair, particularly under low density. Grain size was generally larger in the tall (T)compared with the short (S) isolines of the stay-green pair.

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