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skeletal Muscle atrophy


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presentation about muscle atrophy
made by first year medical students
faculty of medicine k.f.s university

Published in: Health & Medicine
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skeletal Muscle atrophy

  1. 1. Muscle Atrophy
  2. 2. Presented by : • Eman Elsayed Elsayed • Esraa Nabil Morsy • Eman Ahmed Ali • Alaa Talha Elsayed Elshitany • Asmaa Gamal Ali Alaraby • Aya Mohamed Nour Eldein • Alaa Ramadan Shoraky Under supervision: DrAzaa Helal
  3. 3. definition: • Muscle atrophy is defined as A decrease in the mass of the muscle . • It can be A partial or complete wasting away of muscle . • This leads to muscle weakness since the ability to exert force is related to mass.
  4. 4. Before
  5. 5. After
  6. 6. Structure of skeletal muscle : muscle fibers myofibrils myofilaments Thin filament Thick filament
  7. 7. Transverse section of skeletal muscle
  8. 8. • Attached to skeleton • Large in size • Cylindrical shape • Striated muscle • Has thick sarcolemma • Has multiple oval peripheral nucleus • Sarcoplasm contains organelles especially mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and myofibrils…..//inclusion: myoglobin, glycogen granules and lipid droplets as a source of energy.
  9. 9. •Origin.. • Triad tubular system • Regenerates from satellite cells (present within the external lamina of sarcolemma) • Innervation from somatic nervous system
  10. 10. symptoms • Muscular atrophy affects a high number of the elderly . • Symptoms that frequently affect the muscles may also involve other body systems . • Muscular atrophy decreases qualities of life as the sufferer becomes unable to perform certain tasks or worsen the risks of accidents while performing those (like walking). Muscular atrophy increases the risks of falling in conditions such as IBM (inclusion body myositis).
  11. 11. • Muscle atrophy may accompany other symptoms affecting the neuromuscular system including: • Balance problems, difficulty walking, and falls. • Difficulty with speaking and swallowing. • Facial weakness. • memory loss, tingling or weakness of extremities. • Loss of muscle coordination. • Impaired balance and coordination.
  12. 12. • Numbness in arms or legs. • Progressive loss of movement. • Progressive weakness and numbness in the legs. • Symptoms of multiple sclerosis, such as weakness, vision problems, unsteady walk, fatigue, and depression.
  13. 13. Causes Of Muscle Atrophy Disuse Atrophy caused by situations or conditions including : Being bedridden(not moving for a long time like paralysis.)  Dermatomyositis (a condition characterized by muscle inflammation and skin rash)
  14. 14. Dermatomyositis
  15. 15. Injury or fraction Injury, such as a broken arm or leg that must be immobilized
  16. 16. • Osteoarthritis: (common type of arthritis that causes pain and immobility.
  17. 17. • Rheumatoid arthritis: (chronic autoimmune disease characterized by joint inflammation)
  18. 18.  Muscular dystrophy: (inherited disorder that causes a progressive loss of muscle tissue and muscle weakness)  Polymyositis: (widespread inflammation and weakness of muscles) Malnutrition (progressive weakening and inability to adequately use muscles)
  19. 19. Neurogenic causes of muscle atrophy :  Multiple sclerosis (disease that affects the brain and spinal cord causing weakness, coordination, balance difficulties, and other problems)  Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease; a severe neuromuscular disease that causes muscle weakness and disability)  Spinal cord atrophy (genetic disease causing decreased muscle function from a neural defect)
  20. 20. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis Spinal cord atrophy
  21. 21.  Diabetic neuropathy (nerve damage due to high blood sugar levels associated with diabetes) Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune nerve disorder)  Exposure to toxin or poisonous substances
  22. 22. Diagnosis 1- your doctor will take a complete medical history and to understand all of your symptoms. 2- Tell him or her about old or recent injuries you’ve experienced and previously diagnosed medical conditions. 3- List prescriptions, over-the counter medications, and supplements you are taking and your symptoms. 4-Your doctor may order additional tests to help With the diagnosis and to rule out certain diseases
  23. 23. What to do?? • blood tests • X-rays • magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) • computed tomography (CT) scan • nerve conduction studies • muscle or nerve biopsy • electromyography (EMG) • Your doctor may refer you to a specialist depending on the results of these tests
  24. 24. Diagnosis
  25. 25. Treatment  Electrical stimulation  Physical therapy  Surgery  Medication  Diet
  26. 26. Treatment by electrical stimulation • By using electrical muscle stimulation (E.M.S) of low voltage to stimulate denervated muscle (where nerve is damaged). • It is placed on patient skin over the affected muscle and elicits a sensory effect of decreased pain or a muscular effect through changes of intensity , frequency and pulse of the current.
  27. 27. Physical therapy • Exercise is aimed at strengthening the affected muscle and restoring as much normal. • The physical therapy program employed may depend on the underlying cause of atrophy ..extend of atrophy and location of the atrophied muscle . • It involves increasing the rang of motion for the affected joint. • Aquatic rehabilitation • Musculoskeletal manipulation
  28. 28. Aquatic rehabilitation
  29. 29. Musculoskeletal manipulation
  30. 30. Physical treatment
  31. 31. Treatment by surgery When atrophy occurs as a result of contractures caused by sever burns Surgery is performed to correct the contractures . This may be followed by extensive rehabilitation involving physical therapy . .Condition such as herniated discs also require surgical intervention
  32. 32. Treatment by medication • To reduce inflammation ….  doctors give a course of anti-inflammatory medication to patients particularly for patients with autoimmune disorder.  doctors use amino acid therapy when muscle wasting occurs due to inadequacies in protein diet or absence of certain amino acid .  In cases of sever muscle atrophy :Anabolic steroid are commonly administered to patients as a treatment for inflammation
  33. 33. Treatment by diet After muscle atrophy , should focus on protein diet to help muscle growth Fish : the most source for muscle atrophy treatment (Chicken ,eggs , beef and lentil ) : another important proteins for muscle rebuilding Vegetables e.g. (spinach)and fruits to have minerals and vitamins. *in addition to that patient should eat carbohydrate.