Presented by :
• Eman Elsayed Elsayed
• Esraa Nabil Morsy
• Eman Ahmed Ali
• Alaa Talha Elsayed Elshitany
• Asmaa Gamal Ali Alaraby
• Aya Mohamed Nour Eldein
• Alaa Ramadan Shoraky
• Muscle atrophy is
defined as A decrease in
the mass of the muscle .
• It can be A partial or
complete wasting away
of muscle .
• This leads to muscle
weakness since the
ability to exert force is
related to mass.
• Attached to skeleton
• Large in size
• Cylindrical shape
• Striated muscle
• Has thick sarcolemma
• Has multiple oval peripheral nucleus
• Sarcoplasm contains organelles especially mitochondria, sarcoplasmic
reticulum and myofibrils…..//inclusion: myoglobin, glycogen granules and lipid droplets as a
source of energy.
• Triad tubular system
• Regenerates from satellite cells
(present within the external lamina of sarcolemma)
• Innervation from somatic nervous system
• Muscular atrophy affects a high number of the elderly .
• Symptoms that frequently affect the muscles may also involve
other body systems .
• Muscular atrophy decreases qualities of life as the sufferer
becomes unable to perform certain tasks or worsen the risks of
accidents while performing those (like walking). Muscular
atrophy increases the risks of falling in conditions such as IBM
(inclusion body myositis).
• Muscle atrophy may accompany other
symptoms affecting the neuromuscular system
• Balance problems, difficulty walking, and falls.
• Difficulty with speaking and swallowing.
• Facial weakness.
• memory loss, tingling or weakness of extremities.
• Loss of muscle coordination.
• Impaired balance and coordination.
• Numbness in arms or legs.
• Progressive loss of movement.
• Progressive weakness and numbness in the legs.
• Symptoms of multiple sclerosis, such as weakness, vision
problems, unsteady walk, fatigue, and depression.
Causes Of Muscle Atrophy
Disuse Atrophy caused by situations or conditions
Being bedridden(not moving for a long time like paralysis.)
Dermatomyositis (a condition characterized by muscle
inflammation and skin rash)
Muscular dystrophy: (inherited disorder that causes a
progressive loss of muscle tissue and muscle weakness)
Polymyositis: (widespread inflammation and weakness of
Malnutrition (progressive weakening and inability to adequately use
Neurogenic causes of muscle
Multiple sclerosis (disease that affects the brain and spinal cord causing weakness,
coordination, balance difficulties, and other problems)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease; a severe
neuromuscular disease that causes muscle weakness and disability)
Spinal cord atrophy (genetic disease causing decreased muscle function from a neural
(nerve damage due to high blood sugar levels associated with diabetes)
Guillain-Barre syndrome (autoimmune nerve disorder)
Exposure to toxin or poisonous substances
1- your doctor will take a complete medical history and to understand all of
2- Tell him or her about old or recent injuries you’ve experienced and
previously diagnosed medical conditions.
3- List prescriptions, over-the counter medications, and supplements you are
taking and your symptoms.
4-Your doctor may order additional tests to help
With the diagnosis and to rule out certain diseases
What to do??
• blood tests
• magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
• computed tomography (CT) scan
• nerve conduction studies
• muscle or nerve biopsy
• electromyography (EMG)
• Your doctor may refer you to a specialist depending on the results of these
Treatment by electrical stimulation
• By using electrical muscle
stimulation (E.M.S) of low
voltage to stimulate denervated
muscle (where nerve is
• It is placed on patient skin over
the affected muscle and elicits a
sensory effect of decreased pain
or a muscular effect through
changes of intensity , frequency
and pulse of the current.
• Exercise is aimed at strengthening the affected muscle and restoring as much
• The physical therapy program employed may depend on the underlying cause of
atrophy ..extend of atrophy and location of the atrophied muscle .
• It involves increasing the rang of motion for the affected joint.
• Aquatic rehabilitation
• Musculoskeletal manipulation
Treatment by surgery
When atrophy occurs as a result of contractures caused by sever burns
Surgery is performed to correct the contractures . This may be followed by
extensive rehabilitation involving physical therapy .
.Condition such as herniated discs also require surgical intervention
Treatment by medication
• To reduce inflammation ….
doctors give a course of anti-inflammatory medication to patients
particularly for patients with autoimmune disorder.
doctors use amino acid therapy when muscle wasting occurs due to
inadequacies in protein diet or absence of certain amino acid .
In cases of sever muscle atrophy :Anabolic steroid are commonly
administered to patients as a treatment for inflammation
Treatment by diet
After muscle atrophy , should focus on protein diet to
help muscle growth
Fish : the most source for muscle atrophy
(Chicken ,eggs , beef and lentil ) : another
important proteins for muscle rebuilding
Vegetables e.g. (spinach)and fruits to have
minerals and vitamins.
*in addition to that patient should eat