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The cold war 2


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The cold war 2

  1. 1. THE COLD WAR
  2. 2. 1963-1975 PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE
  3. 3. PEACEFUL COEXISTENCE In the 1960s, a new era or peaceful coexistence began, characterised by greater dialogue between the two superpowers. Kennedy and Krushchev were more flexible in their negotiations with one another than previous leaders had been. A number of international disarmament conferences took place, with the aim of preventing nuclear war. Video Cuban Missiles crisis
  6. 6. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  LA GUERRA DE VIETNAM It was the bloodiest conflict of this period. Vietnam became independent of France in 1954 and was divided in two parts by the 17th parallel: North Vietnam: Communist South Vietnam: Anti-communist.
  8. 8. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) In South Vietnam the procommunist Vietcong guerrillas had appeared to try to join the country to North Vietnam.
  9. 9. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) When did USA intervene? 1962: USA intervened when Kennedy sent military advisers to South Vietnam to prevent the fall of the anti-communist regime. Why did USA intervene? Because they were afraid of the fact that if Vietnam unified under a Communist regime, other countries would be absorbed by the Sovietic bloc.
  10. 10. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  In the following years, president Johnson sent American troops to help the government of South Vietnam.  In 1968 there were half a million American soldiers.
  11. 11. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) The conflict spread to Laos and Cambodia.
  12. 12. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975)  This war was very unpopular in the USA, because of: It long duration. A lot of casualties. The Vietcong was not defeated in spite of the superiority of the American troops.
  13. 13. THE VIETNAM WAR (1961-1975) President Nixon started a gradual withdrawal of the USA, which finished in 1974. In 1975, South Vietnam was defeated and Vietnam became unified.
  14. 14.  In 1948, the territory of Palestine was divided into two separate states. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT One of these was Israel, which was created as a homeland for the Jewish people in the British mandate in Palentine. However, the Arabs the creation of the state of Israel. who lived in Palestine strongly opposed
  15. 15.  In 1964, the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) was established. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Yasser Arafat
  16. 16.  Since 1960s, disputes between the Israelis and the Palestinians have been a source of constant tension and conflict in the Middle East. THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT Israelis Supported by USA and Western European countries. Palestinians Supported by various Arab states.
  19. 19.  What is decolonisation? It´s the process through which colonies become independent states after 1945. DECOLONISATION
  20. 20. CAUSES  During WW2, people from Allied colonies had fought against the Axis Powers in defence of freedom and democracy. DECOLONISATION This encouraged the colonies to demand their own freedom after the war.
  21. 21.  CAUSES  The United Nations supported the right of all peoples to national self-determination. DECOLONISATION
  22. 22.  CAUSES  Members of the colonial elites, who had often been educated in Europe, demanded independence for their respective homelands. DECOLONISATION
  24. 24. DECOLONISATION Algeria India Indonesia
  25. 25. INDIA  India became independent from Great Britain in 1947 thanks to a nationalist movement led by Mahatma Gandhi. DECOLONISATION India was partitioned into two countries: India, with majority Hindu population, and Pakistan, with majority Muslim population.
  26. 26. INDONESIA  Indonesia gained its independence from the Netherlands in 1949.  The new country´s first president was Sukarno, but he was replaced by one of his generals in 1967. DECOLONISATION
  27. 27. ALGERIA  Algeria became independent in 1962 after a war between factions that either favoured or opposed independence from France. DECOLONISATION
  28. 28.  This movement emerged during the 1950s.  It consisted of countries that wanted to remain neutral in the Cold War and did not want to align themselves with either bloc.  This movement was a product of decolonisation, since it originated among African and Asian countries, which had recently gained independence. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  29. 29.  THE BANDUNG CONFERENCE  In 1955, the African and Asian countries which had gained the independence met at the Bandung Conference in Indonesia, where they established the principles of non-alignment.  After that meeting, this THIRD BLOC of countries gained new members, including Yugoslavia, Colombia and Ecuador. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  31. 31. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS  POLITICS  Different forms of government: democracies and dictatorships.  Supported the right to national self-determination.  Supported the right for every country to take decisions without external interference. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  32. 32. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS  INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS:  Non-aligned countries did not establish or join military alliances.  They declared themselves neutral in the Cold War.  They advocated the non-violent resolution of conflict through negotiation. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  33. 33. COMMON CHARACTERISTICS  THE ECONOMY  The majority of these countries had developing economies:  They aimed to achieve economic growth and development through cooperation. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  34. 34. THIRD WORLD PROBLEMS  Non-aligned countries = Third World = develping nations  Some political, economic and social problems that these countries suffer today are product of:  Imperialism  Decolonisation process THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT
  35. 35. THE NON-ALIGNED MOVEMENT THIRD WORLD PROBLEMS Wars between ethnic or religious groups which were separated or displaced when the borders of new independent nations were established. Poverty cuased by these countries´ dependence on selling raw materials such as oil, rubber and diamonds to developed countries. As a result, they have not invested in the new industries, infrastructure and technical education necessary for sustainable economic development.
  37. 37. In the final decades of the 20th, the Eastern bloc collapsed. THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  38. 38. The end of the cold war Reform in the Soviet Union The collapse of the Eastern Bloc The dissolution of the USSR THE END OF THE COLD WAR
  39. 39. THE END OF THE COLD WAR The collapse of Communism The Russian Federation The survival of Communism China
  40. 40. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION After 1975, important developments occured in the Eastern Bloc. Repressive policies in Eastern Europe USSR economic stagnation Perestroika
  41. 41. Repressive policies in Eastern Europe There was increasing popular discontent in Eastern Europe. This was caused by the Soviet Union´s repressive policies, which prevented democratic reform. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  42. 42. USSR economic stagnation Causes: The Soviet´s high military expenditure. Consequences: This reduced investment in other areas and led to a fall in agricultural and industrial productivity. There were shortages of food and consumer goods. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  43. 43. The Perestroika  In 1985, Gorvachev was named Secretary General of the Soviet Communist Party and leader of the USSR.  He implemented a series of political and economic reforms known as perestroika.  The goal of the perestroika was to end Soviet economic stagnation. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  44. 44. Political Reform Economic Reform REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  45. 45. PERESTROIKA: POLITICAL REFORM  The USSR evolved from a single-party system to one in which other political parties were permitted.  The State also adopted a policy known as glasnost, which aimed to make government more open and transparent.  As a part of glasnost, limitations on freedom of speech were also relaxed. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  46. 46. PERESTROIKA: ECONOMIC REFORM  In order to increase agricultural productivity, PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF LAND was allowed.  SPENDING CUTS were also introduced in an attempt to reduce state expenditure.  However, these measures failed to improve the economic situation. REFORM IN THE SOVIET UNION
  47. 47. In 1987, United States President Reagan and Gorvachev had commited to withdraw Soviet troops from Eastern Europe. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC As a result, popular protest movements emerged in these countries. They wanted to remove the Communist regimes from power.
  48. 48. In 1989, the Eastern European Communist regimes were in a very weak position. The most important revolutions occured in: POLAND In 1989 elections were won by Solidarity. This led to the formation of a non-Communist government. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC
  49. 49. In 1989, the Eastern European Communist regimes were in a very weak position. The most important revolutions occured in: BERLIN In 1989 the people of Berlin pulled down the Berlin Wall. In 1990, the GDR (East Germany)  was dissolved and  Germany was reunified. THE COLLAPSE OF THE EASTERN BLOC The fall of the Berlin Wall. 1989, 11th November.
  50. 50.  Independent movements had emerged in the Soviet republics after the introduction of perestroika.  In 1991, a number of these republics gained independence.  Gorvachev resigned and the Soviet Union was dissolved.  As a result, the Cold War ended. THE DISSOLUTION OF THE USSR
  52. 52. THE CIS The USSR was replaced by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), which included the Russian Federation and a majority of the old Soviet republics.
  54. 54.  In 1990, the Socialist republics that made up Yugoslavia demanded their independence.  The largest republic was Serbia, which wanted to maintain the unity of Yugoslavia and opposed to the independent movements. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA
  55. 55.  The independence movements were based in religious differences among the different republics of Yugoslavia. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA
  56. 56.  As a consequence of political and religious conflicts there was a Civil war (1991-1995).  As a result, Yugoslavia was divided into various states: Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Serbia and Montenegro.  In 2006, Montenegro became independent.  In 2008, the region of Kosovo declared its independencde from Serbia. THE DISSOLUTION OF YUGOSLAVIA However, Serbia and Russia, and some European countries didn´t recognise Kosovo as an independent state.