LYMPH NODE
generally...–oval, bean shaped structures scattered throughout body along lymphvessels–Usually 1-25 mm in length–may be de...
Anatomical picture
Usually 1-25mm in length,but they canbe larger.Greatestconcentrationnear groin,axilla, neck,thorax, andalong guttube inabd...
Structure of a Lymph Node➢Outermost is the covering called capsulecomposed of fibrous connective tissue➢Capsule contains t...
● outer cortex ●     - filled with lymph follicles   -outer edge of follicle contains more T cells- inner germinalcenter i...
Cytology of the lymph nodeThe normal or reactive lymph node iscomposed of ➢ Transient B and T lymphocytes➢   Antigen proce...
B lymphocytes arelocated primarily in the follicles andperifollicular areas                       T lymphocytes arefound p...
physiology
•Macrophages and lymphocytes reside in theouter ("cortex") region of a node.Afferent (entering) vessels bring lymph in.●●L...
•Macrophages reside on these fibers wherethey phagocytise foreign matter. •The node acts as a “settling tank,” because the...
●This allows lymphocytes and macrophages timeto carry out their protective functions●Reticular fibres filter and trap dama...
Distribution
Lymph nodes of clinical importance have been  put under 5 main groups:➢     Cervical groups➢     Axillary groups➢     Ingu...
Cervical groups● Right & left groups●          each divided into: horizontal (circular)and vertical           The horizont...
The vertical group include:> superficial (along external jugular vein)                      > deep (along internaljugular ...
Axillary groups● Right & left groups●          each divided into 5 groups:                > Anterior (pectoral)           ...
Inguinal groups             Horizontal group lies along theinguinal ligament (both above and over)              Vertical g...
Epitrochlear nodes               3 cm proximal to the medialhumeral epicondyle, in the groove between thebiceps and tricep...
Thank you.....
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
Anatomy of lymph node
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Anatomy of lymph node

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Anatomy of lymph node

  1. 1. LYMPH NODE
  2. 2. generally...–oval, bean shaped structures scattered throughout body along lymphvessels–Usually 1-25 mm in length–may be deep or superficial–concentrated along the respiratory tree and GI tract, in the mammaryglands, axillae, and groin–filter lymph fluid to trap foreign organisms, cell debris, and tumor cells
  3. 3. Anatomical picture
  4. 4. Usually 1-25mm in length,but they canbe larger.Greatestconcentrationnear groin,axilla, neck,thorax, andalong guttube inabdomen.
  5. 5. Structure of a Lymph Node➢Outermost is the covering called capsulecomposed of fibrous connective tissue➢Capsule contains theparenchyma or stroma➢Stroma isdifferentiated intocortex & medulla•Trabeculae extendfrom cortex to medulla
  6. 6. ● outer cortex ● - filled with lymph follicles -outer edge of follicle contains more T cells- inner germinalcenter is the site of B-cell proliferation●inner medulla-medullary cords oflymphocytes, Cortexmacrophages, plasmacells. Medulla
  7. 7. Cytology of the lymph nodeThe normal or reactive lymph node iscomposed of ➢ Transient B and T lymphocytes➢ Antigen processing and presenting cells➢ Replicating B and T lymphocytes (in response to antigen)➢ Persistent and transient final effector cells➢ Macrophages
  8. 8. B lymphocytes arelocated primarily in the follicles andperifollicular areas T lymphocytes arefound primarily in the interfollicular orparacortical areas of the lymph node.
  9. 9. physiology
  10. 10. •Macrophages and lymphocytes reside in theouter ("cortex") region of a node.Afferent (entering) vessels bring lymph in.●●Lymph first enters into a large subcapsularsinus & then into many small sinuses.●Throughout the node are lymph sinusescrisscrossed by reticular fibers
  11. 11. •Macrophages reside on these fibers wherethey phagocytise foreign matter. •The node acts as a “settling tank,” because there are fewer efferent vessels, lymph stagnates somewhat in the node.
  12. 12. ●This allows lymphocytes and macrophages timeto carry out their protective functions●Reticular fibres filter and trap damagedcells, microorganisms, foreign substances, tumorcells.●Macrophages phagocytize some, lymphocytesdestroy some by immune defenses. "Medulla" is the inner collecting area. Efferent (exiting) vessel leaves at the "hilus.
  13. 13. Distribution
  14. 14. Lymph nodes of clinical importance have been put under 5 main groups:➢ Cervical groups➢ Axillary groups➢ Inguinal groups➢ Epitrochlear lymph nodes➢ Popliteal lymph nodes
  15. 15. Cervical groups● Right & left groups● each divided into: horizontal (circular)and vertical The horizontal group include: > sub-mental > sub-mandibular > parotid > pre-auricular > post-auricular > occipital
  16. 16. The vertical group include:> superficial (along external jugular vein) > deep (along internaljugular vein) > Prelaryngeal > Pretracheal > Paratracheal
  17. 17. Axillary groups● Right & left groups● each divided into 5 groups: > Anterior (pectoral) > posterior (sub-scapular) > medial (along chest wall) > lateral (humeral) > central
  18. 18. Inguinal groups Horizontal group lies along theinguinal ligament (both above and over) Vertical group is beside thegreat saphenous vein in the proximal thigh.Iliac nodes:aboveand deep to inguinalligament
  19. 19. Epitrochlear nodes 3 cm proximal to the medialhumeral epicondyle, in the groove between thebiceps and triceps brachii.
  20. 20. Thank you.....

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