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Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
Energy Needs And Road Map Of India
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Energy Needs And Road Map Of India

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The ppt gives various options for energy needs and information on how we can use it.

The ppt gives various options for energy needs and information on how we can use it.

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  1. WELCOME PRESENTATION ONENERGY NEEDS & ROAD MAP OF INDIA BYLT COL VIKRAM BAKSHI
  2. INTRODUCTIONITS AN ENORMOUS AMOUNT OFANCIENT PLANT MATTER THATWENT INTO EVERY SINGLEGALLON OF GASOLINE THAT WEBURN TODAY, SAYS DUKES, ANECOLOGIST
  3. VISION FOR NATIONSENERGY INDEPENDENCE HAS TO BE OUR NATION’SFIRST AND HIGHEST PRIORITY. WE MUST ACHIEVECOMPREHENSIVE ENERGY SECURITY BY 2020 BYCREATING AN ENERGY ASSET PROFILE THAT ALLOWSOUR ECONOMY TO FUNCTION WITH NECESSARYABANDON. WE MUST CONCURRENTLY STRIVE TOACHIEVE ENERGY INDEPENDENCE BY 2030 THROUGHACCRETIONS TO OUR TRADITIONAL STOCKPILES ANDSTRATEGIC RESERVES AS ALSO SKILFUL USE OFALTERNATE AND RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY. President APJ Abdul Kalam
  4. ENERGY SECURITY INTERNATIONAL MARKET GLOBAL OIL PRICES ENTERING THE "SUPER-PIKE" PHASE. SUSTAINED PRICE RISE VS GROWTH RATE & INFLATION. OIL PRICES HAVE CROSSED $70 PER BARREL. HY ANNUAL OIL IMPORTS. HIGH ENERGY CONSUMPTION THAN THAT OF ANY DEVP COUNTRY. INSULATION FROM EVER-VOLATILE INTERNATIONAL ENERGY MARKET.
  5. INDIA ENERGY STATUS IN WORLD INDIA IS BOTH A MAJOR ENERGY PRODUCER AND CONSUMER. ELEVENTH GREATEST ENERGY PRODUCER, ACCOUNTING FOR ABOUT 2.4% OF THE WORLD’S TOTAL ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION WORLD’S SIXTH GREATEST ENERGY CONSUMER, ACCOUNTING FOR ABOUT 3.3% OF THE WORLD’S TOTAL ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION DESPITE ITS LARGE ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION, INDIA IS A NET ENERGY IMPORTER, MOSTLY DUE TO THE LARGE IMBALANCE BETWEEN OIL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION INDIA RANKS FIFTH IN THE WORLD IN TERMS OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION. COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN INDIA 3.5% OF THE WORLD CONSUMPTION IN 2002. AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION ABOUT 6% DURING 1981 -2002.
  6. THE LOOMING CRISIS INDIA HAS PROVEN OIL RESERVES OF LESS THAN 6.5 YEARS OF OUR TOTAL PRESENT CONSUMPTION WORLD CRISIS AHEAD IN THE NEXT FEW YEARS INDIAN CRISIS EVEN MORE SEVERE ! UNPRECEDENTED GROWTH IN HYDROCARBON CONSUMPTION – GASOLINE THE HIGHEST BIOFUELS ONE OF THE MOST ADAPTABLE OPTIONS
  7. SEQUENCE PART 1 : OVERVIEW OF INDIA ENERGY PART 2 : OIL, GAS, HYDROGEN & NUCLEAR PART 3 : BIOFUEL & BIOMASS PART 4 : RENWABLE ENERGY CONCLUSION
  8. PART ONEENERGY REQUIREMENT OF INDIA
  9. AIMTO DISCUSS INDIA ENERGY NEEDS AND ROAD MAP
  10. ENERGY SCENARIO IN INDIA INDIA IS BOTH A MAJOR ENERGY PRODUCER AND CONSUMER. ELEVENTH GREATEST ENERGY PRODUCER, ACCOUNTING FOR ABOUT 2.4% OF THE WORLD’S TOTAL ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION. WORLD’S SIXTH GREATEST ENERGY CONSUMER, ACCOUNTING FOR ABOUT 3.3% OF THE WORLD’S TOTAL ANNUAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION. DESPITE ITS LARGE ANNUAL ENERGY PRODUCTION, INDIA IS A NET ENERGY IMPORTER, MOSTLY DUE TO THE LARGE IMBALANCE BETWEEN OIL PRODUCTION AND CONSUMPTION COMMERCIAL ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN INDIA IS 3.5% OF THE WORLD CONSUMPTION. AVERAGE ANNUAL GROWTH RATE OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IS ABOUT 6% DURING 1998 - 2007.
  11. ENERGY SOURCES – INDIAN SCENARIO 1% 5% Hydro 33% Nuclear Oil Coal LNG53% 8%
  12. MAJOR CONCERNS IN ENERGY SECTOR IN INDIA GROWING GAP BETWEEN DEMAND AND SUPPLY OF COMMERCIAL ENERGY: ELECTRICITY, OIL AND GAS. OIL INTENSIFICATION OF INDIAN ECONOMY DUE TO DECLINING SELF SUFFICIENCY IN OIL AND INCREASING OIL DEMAND. GROWING DEPENDENCE ON NON-COMMERCIAL ENERGY SOURCES LIKE FIRE-WOOD, COW-DUNG AND AGRICULTURAL WASTES IN RURAL AREAS. INADEQUATE DEVELOPMENT OF ECO-FRIENDLY ENERGY SOURCES INCLUDING HYDRO AND RENEWABLE ENERGY. URGENCY FOR CONTROLLING ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION CAUSED BY BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS AND BIOMASS ENERGY. NEED FOR SUSTAINABLE ENERGY PATHWAY FOR INDIA WHICH WILL ENSURE ENERGY SECURITY.
  13.  INDIA’S CURRENT ENERGY BASKET IS COAL DOMINATED AND IS LIKELY TO STAY THIS WAY IN THE NEAR FUTURE. LIMITED DOMESTIC COAL SUPPLY COUPLED WITH ITS POOR QUALITY. LOW LEVEL OF TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENTS AND HIGH INSTANCE OF ENVIRONMENTAL PERILS POSE SERIOUS CHALLENGES FOR OVER DEPENDENCE ON COAL. LIMITED DOMESTIC RESERVES AND UNCERTAIN FOREIGN SUPPLY OF HYDROCARBONS IN WAKE OF THEIR RISING INTERNATIONAL PRICE HAVE SERIOUSLY IMPAIRED COUNTRY’S ENERGY SECURITY.
  14. ENERGY GAPS - HARSH FACTS APPROXIMATELY 2.4 BILLION PEOPLE USE TRADITIONAL BIOMASS FOR COOKING STILL 1.6 MILLION PEOPLE LACK ACCESS TO ELECTRICITY WORLD’S ENERGY NEEDS WILL BE UP BY 60% BY THE YEAR 2030 WITH FOSSILS FUEL STILL BEING THE DOMINANT ENERGY MIX INDOOR BIOMASS STOVES KILLS UP TO 1.6 MILLION WOMEN AND CHILDREN IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
  15. SOME MORE PROBLEMS GAS PIPELINE FROM IRAN, DISCOURAGED BY U.S. COAL SUPPLIES ONLY FOR 200 YEARS OIL - INDIA’S DEMAND WILL OUTSTRIP SUPPLY GAS DISCOVERY BY RELIANCE IN 2003. BUT WILL SERVICE ONLY FRACTION OF INDIA’S POWER NEEDS
  16. SOME MORE PROBLEMS TARAPUR NUCLEAR REACTOR REQUIRES REFUELING GAS PIPELINE FROM TURKMENISTAN, THROUGH PAKISTAN, BUT QUESTIONABLE RESERVES GAS PIPELINE FROM MYANMAR THROUGH BANGLADESH DISCOURAGED BY U.S. PROTESTS AGAINST HYDRO-ELECTRIC DAM AT NARMADA
  17. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS OF INDIA
  18. ENERGY REQUIREMENT OF INDIAOVER THE NEXT 25 YEARS, SIX FOLD INCREASEPROJECTED IN ELECTRICITY AND FOUR FOLDINCREASE IN CRUDE OIL
  19. ENERGY, EVIRONMENT ANDSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Economic Growth Economic opportunity Energy Social progress Environment and Health protectionSocial Empowerment Environmental Sustenance
  20. FUTURE SCENARIO - 2030 GLOBAL PRODUCTION OF OIL - PEAK BY 2030 60% OF NEW INVESTMENTS IN ENERGY – ELECTRICITY RENEWABLE ENERGY - MEET 14% (WORLD’S TOTAL PRIMARY ENERGY DEMAND) - TO REMAIN SAME IN 2030 SHARE OF BIOFUELS (TRANSPORTATION) - 1% BUT WILL GO TO 3% BY 2030
  21. OTHER OPTIONS RENEWABLE ARE INDIGENOUS, NON-DEPLETING, MODULAR AND ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY RENEWABLES CAN PROVIDE ENERGY ACCESS AND MEET UNMET DEMAND PROVIDE CAPTIVE ENERGY THUS CONSERVING FOSSIL FUELS AND ELECTRICITY SUPPLEMENT FOSSIL FUELS IN TRANSPORTATION RENEWABLES CAN CONTRIBUTE TO ENERGY SECURITY IN A SUSTAINABLE MANNER
  22. TYPES OF ENERGY FOSSIL FUELS OIL & NATURAL GAS WITH COAL INDEGINIOUS PRODUCTION HYDROGEN NUCLEAR ENERGRY BIOMASS TECH  BIOFUEL  ETHANOL BLEND  ENERGY FROM WASTE RENEWABLE ENERGY  SOLAR  WIND  HYDRO  TIDAL
  23. QUESTIONS HOW TO ENSURE THAT PLANNING FOR ENERGY IS NOT DONE IN ISOLATION? HOW TO MANAGE TWO CONFLICTING ISSUES, ESPECIALLY IN THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES GOING FOR A GREEN GROWTH WHERE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION STILL LACKS BASIC ENERGY SERVICES? HOW TO MOBILIZE RESOURCES TO CREATE ACCESS TO MODERN ENERGY SERVICES, GIVEN THE BACKGROUND OF RISING ENERGY INSECURITY AND ECONOMIC INSTABILITY DUE TO RISE IN THE OIL PRICES?
  24. PART TWO FOSSIL FUELS  OIL  NATURAL GAS  COAL DERIVATIVES NEW AGE FUEL HYDROGEN NUCLEAR FUEL FOR ELECTRICITY POWER
  25. FOSSIL FUELS OIL & GAS
  26. INDIA’S GAS DEMAND & SUP Indian gas demand and supply GAS DEMAND OUTLOOK SCENARIO scenario HYDROCARBON VISION 2025 ENERGY MIX 2001-02 2006-07 2024-25 5% 3% 8% 3% 15% 20% 50% 50% 54%35% 32% 25% COAL OIL GAS OTHERS VOLUME 151 230 391 GROWTH (65) (MMSCMD)
  27. ROAD MAP FOR OILOIL PROD NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  28. NEAR TERM STATUS OF INDIA’S OIL ACQN OF ASSETS ABROAD  EQUITY PARTICIPATION IN OIL PRODUCING FDS  EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION CONTRACTS  OTHER INITIATIVES ARE:-  PARTICIPATION IN DOWNSTREAM PROJECTS  FINALISATION OF LONG TERM LNG CONTRACTS  SETTING UP OF TRANS-NATIONAL GAS PIPELINES BILATERAL ENGAGEMENTS  ATTRACT FOREIGN INVESTMENT AND PARTICIPATION OF FOREIGN COMPANIES  BRING THE REQD TECH KNOWLEDGE AND EXPERTISE
  29. THE GOVERNMENT IS ENCOURAGING OIL PSUSTO AGGRESSIVELY PURSUE EQUITY OIL AND GAS OPPORTUNITIES OVERSEAS OIL INDIA LTD. - INDIAN OIL CORPORATION IN LIBYA, GABON AND NIGERIA. IN 2006, ONGC VIDESH LTD (OVL) IN VIETNAM,CUBA, NIGERIA, BRAZIL AND LIBYA ONGC - MITTAL JOINT VENTURE ACQUIRED IN SYRIA. GAIL IN OMAN. HPCL, BPCL AND GSPC IN AUSTRALIA PRIVATE INDIAN COMPANIES LIKE RILAND ESSAR PURSUING ABROAD. ONGC FROM SAKHALIN-1 OIL FIELD IN RUSSIA,
  30.  MIDTERM PLANS ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY (EOR)/IMPROVED OIL RECOVERY NEW EXPLORATION LICENSING POLICY (NELP), PRODUCTION SHARING CONTRACTS (PSCS) EXPLORATION DEEP WATER AND DIFFICULT FRONTIER AREAS NEW INDIGENIOUS DISCOVERIES
  31. KG BASIN GAS HYDRATES GEOSCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS FIRST DISSOCIATE THE GAS HYDRATES PRESENT IN THE SOLID FORM BELOW THE SEABED ANOTHER CHALLENGE IS TO PRODUCE AT COMMERCIAL RATE. INDIA IS ONLY THE THIRD COUNTRY IN THE WORLD TO DO SO, AFTER USA AND JAPAN.
  32. COAL BED METHANE COAL BED METHANE IS A NATURAL GAS (METHANE) ADSORBED IN COAL AND LIGNITE SEAMS CBM PRODUCTION IS DONE BY SIMPLE DEPRESSURIZATION AND DEWATERING PROCESS. USED FOR  POWER GENERATION  AS FUEL (CNG) FOR DUMP TRUCKS GOVERNMENT HAS SIGNED CONTRACTS FOR 26 BLOCKS COVERING AN AREA OF 13,600 SQ. KM INDIA MAY JOIN THE RANK OF THE FEW COUNTRIES THAT COMMERCIALLY PRODUCE CBM. DURING XI FIVE YEAR PLAN, CBM GAS PRODUCTION IS ENVISAGED AS 3.78 BILLION CUBIC METRES.
  33. UCG FROM COAL RESERVES EXTRACTING GAS FROM DEEP SEATED AND/OR ISOLATED COAL DEPOSITS/ LIGNITE RESOURCES GASIFICATION (A THERMO-CHEMICAL PROCESS) BREAKS DOWN COAL INTO ITS BASIC CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS . RECOVERABLE ENERGY FROM MEHSANA-AHMEDABAD BLOCK WITH COAL RESERVES THIS IS MANY TIMES THE CONVENTIONAL GAS RESOURCES OF THE COUNTRY AT PRESENT. ONGC HAS SIGNED AN MOU WITH SKOCHINSKY INSTITUTE OF MINING (SIM), RUSSIA
  34. LONG TERM PLANS TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATION INEXPLORATION & PRODUCTION (E&P) 3D SEISMIC AS AN EXPLORATION TOOL DEVELOPMENT DRILLING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT DEEP WATER OFFSHORE TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT OF UNCONVENTIONAL GAS RESOURCES LIKE CBM, GAS HYDRATE AND TIGHT GAS HAS TO BE ABSORBED GAS AS AUTOMOTIVE FUEL, HIGH EFFICIENCY TURBINE, FUEL CELLS AND FOR OBTAINING LIQUID PRODUCTS
  35. R&D EFFORTS OF NATIONAL OIL COMPANIES E.G., ONGC, OIL PILOT PLANT FOR LIQUIFACTION OF COAL EVALUATION OF COALS FOR CBM PILOT & COAL LIQUEFACTION PLANT FOR EXTRACTING OIL FROM OIL SHALE USE OF SHEAR WAVE SEISMIC 4D SEISMIC FOR RESERVOIR MANAGEMENT, USE OF SATELLITE GRAVITY DATE RESERVOIR CHARACTERISATION THROUGH GEOPHYSICS/GEOCHEMISTRY, REVIEW AND REASSESSMENT OF WELL EXPLORED BASINS REASSESSMENT OF SMALL/MEDIUM SIZED FIELDS, REVIEW OF DEVELOPMENT OF LARGE FIELDS, REINTERPRETATION OF DATA IN BASINS FOR NEW PLAYS/PROSPECTS DEEP WATER PRODUCTION DOWN TO 600 METER IN THE FIRST INSTANCE AND THEN TO 1000 METER.
  36. FUTURE PROSPECTS AERIAL GAMMA RAY SPECTORSCOPIC SURVEYS OVER SCHUPPEN BELT. HIGH RESOLUTION AEROMAGNETIC SURVEYS. PROSPECTING IN FOLD BELT/THRUST AREAS. PROSPECTING IN DEEP WATERS. INTRODUCTION OF SEISMIC WHILE DRILLING (SWD). REGIONAL DEEP REFLECTION/REFRACTION PROFILES IDENTIFICATION OF BYPASSED ZONES THROUGH LOG RE-INTERPRETATION. UPGRADATION OF MAGNETO-STRATIGRAPHIC METHODS. GENETIC FACIES MODELLING. COAL PETROGRAPHY FOR COAL BED METHANE EXPLORATION. ENVIRONMENT MODEL RECONSTRUCTION USING COMPUTER SIMULATION
  37. PART TWO OIL& GAS PART TWO GAS LNG & PNG
  38. TECHNOLOGY OF NATURAL GAS NATURAL GAS IS ALSO FORMED MUCH THE SAME WAY THAT OIL IS. IT IS MUCH CLEANER FUEL THAN THE OTHER TWO. CURRENTLY THE SOURCE OF HALF OF THE LPG PRODUCED IN THE COUNTRY. THIS SOURCE COULD LAST FOR 120 YEARS PROCESS PRODUCED FROM RESERVOIRS PROCESSING SEPARATE GAS FROM PETROLEUM LIQUIDS REMOVE CONTAMINANTS. IN ADDITION, NATURAL GAS (METHANE) CAN ALSO COME FROM LANDFILL GAS AND WATER/SEWAGE TREATMENT.
  39. ROAD MAP FOR NATURAL GASGAS SUPPLY NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  40. PRESENT NATURAL GAS STATUS OF INDIA CURRENT DEMAND 96 MILLION CUBIC METRES PER DAY (MCMD) AND ONLY 67 MCMD IS AVAILABLE. NEARLY 70 PERCENT IN GUJARAT AND THE BOMBAY HIGH BASIN. DOMESTIC GAS SUPPLY CANNOT KEEP PACE WITH DOMESTIC GAS DEMAND. FOR THIS REASON, THE COUNTRY MUST IMPORT NATURAL GAS FROM THE MIDEAST. ", EITHER VIA PIPELINE OR LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) TANKER, MAKING IT ONE OF THE WORLDS LARGEST GAS IMPORTERS
  41. GAS IMPORT TRENDS PRESENT STATUS  DEMAND - 49 BCM.  PRODUCTION - 32 BCM. STAUS BY 2025  DEMAND - 125 BCM.  PRODUCTION - 36 BCM. IMPORTS INCREASE TO 89 BCM.
  42. DEVP OWN FIELDS MAIN PRODUCERS. (ONGC), (OIL) AND JVS OF TAPTI, PANNA- MUKTA AND RAVVA. PRIVATE PARTIES ALSO PRODUCING GAS. GOVERNMENT NEW EXPLORATION LICENSING POLICY (NELP) PRODUCTION OF GAS FROM THE WESTERN OFFSHORE AREA. THE ON-SHORE FIELDS IN ASSAM, ANDHRA PRADESH AND GUJARAT STATES ARE OTHER MAJOR PRODUCERS OF GAS. SMALLER QUANTITIES OF GAS ARE ALSO PRODUCED IN TRIPURA, TAMIL NADU AND RAJASTHAN STATES. OIL IS OPERATING IN ASSAM AND RAJASTHAN STATES, WHEREAS ONGC IS OPERATING IN THE WESTERN OFFSHORE FIELDS AND IN OTHER STATES.
  43. ALL INDIA REGION-WISE & SECTOR- WISE GAS SUPPLY BY GAILREGION/SECTOR POWER FERTILIZER S. IRON OTHERS TOTALHVJ & EX- 12.61 13.63 1.24 9.81 37.29 HAZIRAONSHORE 1.66 1.04 2.08 4.78 GUJARATURAN 3.57 3.53 1.33 1.41 9.85K.G. BASIN 4.96 1.91 0.38 7.25CAUVERY BASIN 1.07 0.25 1.32ASSAM 0.41 0.04 0.29 0.74TRIPURA 1.37 0.01 1.38GRAND TOTAL 25.65 20.15 2.58 14.23 62.61
  44. PANNA, MUKTA AND TAPTI GAS FIELDS THE THREE-WAY JOINT VENTURE BY BRITISH GAS, ONGC AND RELIANCE INDUSTRIES LTD OPERATES THE PANNA, MUKTA AND TAPTI GAS FIELDS A SINGLE WELLHEAD PLATFORM WILL BE INSTALLED A NEW 20-INCH EXPORT PIPELINE WILL BE LAID
  45. METHODS OF SUPPLYING GAS LNG PNG
  46. WHAT IS LNG TRANSPORTING NATURAL GAS IN LIQUID FORM IS POSSIBLE COMPLICATED, MORE COSTLY MORE INDUSTRIALLY ADVANCE LIQUID MUCH MORE COMPACT, OCCUPYING 1/600 OF ITS GASEOUS VOLUME
  47. PROCESS OF LNG DEDICATED GAS FIELD DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION. LIQUEFACTION PLANT. TRANSPORTATION IN SPECIAL VESSELS. REGASSIFICATION PLANT. TRANSPORTATION & DISTRIBUTION TO THE GAS CONSUMER
  48. STATUS OF LNG THE POSSIBLE TRANSPORTATION BY WAY OF LNG CARRIERS. IN THE 1970S INTO THE 1980S, "LNG BECAME A PROVEN MEANS OF SUPPLY " CHEAPER AND SAFER SOURCE OF ENERGY OFFERED THE MOST ECONOMIC MEANS OF TRANSPORTING LARGE VOLUMES OF NATURAL GAS TO MARKETS WHERE PIPELINE CONSTRUCTION WAS IMPRACTICAL.
  49. STATUS OF LPG INTRODUCTION CURRENTLY, THE GAS AUTHORITY OF INDIA (GAIL) IS INVOLVED IN TWO LNG VENTURES WITH PETRONET LNG, "WHICH IS SETTING UP TWO LNG IMPORT TERMINALS AT DAHEJ IN GUJARAT AND KOCHI IN KERALA" LPG NOTIFIED AS TRANSPORT FUEL BY MORT&H OIL COMPANIES TO SET UP 260 RETAIL OUTLETS IN MAJOR CITIES.  MUMBAI - 25 STATIONS  DELHI - 18 STATIONS  CHENNAI - 29 STATIONS  KOLKATTA - 20 STATIONS
  50. IMPORT OF NATURAL GAS TO INDIATHROUGH TRANSNATIONAL GAS PIPELINES.  TRANSNATIONAL GAS PIPELINES  IRAN – PAKISTAN – INDIA  MYANMAR – BANGLADESH – INDIA  ADDITIONAL GAS SUP TO BR GROWING SHOTFALL  MYANMAR GAS DEAL STILL OPEN
  51. THE PIPED GAS THE PIPED GAS WOULD BE CHEAPER THAN SHIPPING IN LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG), WHICH WOULD COST US$4,10 PER MBTU THE IRAN-PAKISTAN-INDIA PIPELINE TO IMPORT GAS FOR MEETING THEIR HUMUNGOUS ENERGY NEEDS. THE 56-INCH WIDE 2,600 KM LINE FROM ASSALUYEH IN SOUTHERN IRAN TO RAJASTHAN BORDER IN INDIA CAPACITY TO CONVEY 137 MILLION STANDARD CUBIC METERS PER DAY (MMSCMD) GAS, WOULD COST US$4.5 BILLION. HOWEVER, IRAN HAS BEEN INSISTING ON A PRICE EQUIVALENT TO THE LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS (LNG) FOR THE NATURAL GAS IT PROPOSES TO SELL TO INDIA THROUGH THE PIPELINE.
  52. FUTURISTIC CHALLENGETHE DRAFT NATURAL GAS PIPELINE POLICY COVERING TRANSMISSION PIPELINES AND LOCAL OR CITY GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS IS UNDER FORMULATION, WITH PROPOSED PROVISION IN LINE WITH THOSE UNDER THE DRAFT REGULATORY BOARD BILL.
  53. HYDROGEN ALT FUEL TECHNOLOGY IN GAS HYDROGEN
  54. TECHNOLOGY OF HYDROGEN ENERGY A CLEAN FUEL AND AN ENERGY CARRIER DIRECTLY AS A FUEL FOR PRODUCING MECHANICAL / ELECTRICAL ENERGY THROUGH INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINES. FUEL CELLS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY FOR STATIONARY, PORTABLE AND TRANSPORT APPLICATIONS. REPLACE LIQUID FOSSIL FUELS IN THE FUTURE AND THEREBY PROVIDE ENERGY SECURITY TO INDIA
  55. HOW IS HYDROGEN MADE? HYDROGEN DOESNT EXIST ON EARTH AS A GAS, SEPARATE HYDROGEN ATOMS FROM WATER, BIOMASS, OR NATURAL GAS MOLECULES. STEAM REFORMING AND ELECTROLYSIS (WATER SPLITTING). STEAM REFORMING SEPARATE HYDROGEN ATOMS FROM CARBON ATOMS IN METHANE(CH4). BECAUSE METHANE IS A FOSSIL FUEL, RESULTS IN EMISSIONS THAT ARE LINKED WITH GLOBAL WARMING. ELECTROLYSIS SPLITS HYDROGEN FROM WATER. RESULTS IN NO EMISSIONS BUT IT IS CURRENTLY A VERY EXPENSIVE PROCESS. HYDROGEN CAN BE PRODUCED AT LARGE CENTRAL FACILITIES OR AT SMALL PLANTS FOR LOCAL
  56. PRESENT STATUS
  57. ROAD MAP FOR HYDROGEN INC VEH FUEL ECONOMYREDUCED VEH EMISSION NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  58. NEAR TERM GOAL H2 MIX WITH CNG VEHICLES FUELED WITH HYDROGEN/NATURAL GAS BLENDS (HCNG) ARE AN INITIAL STEP TOWARD THE HYDROGEN-BASED TRANSPORTATION OF THE FUTURE. HCNG VEHICLES OFFER THE POTENTIAL FOR IMMEDIATE EMISSIONS A REDUCTION IN NITROGEN OXIDES (NOX) EMISSIONS. PAVE THE WAY FOR A TRANSITION TO FUEL CELL VEHICLES BY BUILDING EARLY DEMAND FOR HYDROGEN INFRASTRUCTURE
  59. LONG TERM H2 IN CNG THE HCNG PROVIDES PURE HYDROGEN, PURE CNG, OR H/CNG BLENDS TO THE VARIOUS INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE (ICE) TEST VEHICLES. HYDROGEN CONVERSIONS ARE VERY MUCH LIKE NATURAL GAS (CNG) CONVERSIONS. ESSENTIAL DIFFERENCES IN COMPONENTS AND OPPORTUNITIES CORRECTLY ENGINEERED, A HYDROGEN ENGINE CAN PRODUCE MORE POWER A HYDROGEN ENGINE IS EVEN LESS POLLUTING THAN A NATURAL GAS VEHICLE, CHOOSING A FUEL DELIVERY SYSTEM (DIRECT INJECTION IS BEST), SELECTION OF TANKS, AND PLACEMENT OF SAFETY DEVICES.
  60. HYDROGEN FUEL CELL VEHICLE IN COMBUSTION, THE HYDROGEN IS "BURNED" IN ENGINES IN FUNDAMENTALLY THE SAME METHOD AS TRADITIONAL GASOLINE CARS. IN FUEL-CELL CONVERSION, THE HYDROGEN IS REACTED WITH OXYGEN TO PRODUCE WATER AND ELECTRICITY, THE LATTER OF WHICH IS USED TO POWER ELECTRIC MOTORS.
  61. FUEL CELL ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERSION DEVICE. CONVERTS THE CHEMICALS HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN INTO WATER, AND IN THE PROCESS IT PRODUCES ELECTRICITY.
  62.  POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS ADVANTAGES MODULAR NATURE,  CAN BE USED IN CHP MODE IDEALLY SUITED FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER  INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS GENERATION.  SURFACE TRANSPORTATION EMERGING AS POWER SOURCES FOR AUTOMOBILES.  RESIDENTIAL APPLICATIONS FIELD TRIAL OF 3KW PEM FUEL CELL BASED  PERSONAL COMPUTERS, UPS SYSTEM DEMONSTRATION FOR  HOSPITALS, HEALTH CLINICS, STATIONERY APPLICATIONS. ETC. 50KW FUEL CELL POWER  ELECTRIFICATION OF REMOTE PACK WITH METHANOL AS PRIMARY FUEL FOR LOCATIONS/ VILLAGES TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION.
  63. FUTURE PROJECTS SCALE UP STUDIES ON PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN FROM ENTROBACTERIA CLOACAE IIT – BT 08. SOLAR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM WATER FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATION. SYNTHESIS AND EVALUATION OF HYDROGEN ABSORBING ALLOYS BY MECHANICAL ALLOYING. DEVELOPMENT OF POLYMER MEMBRANE GAS FILTERS FOR HYDROGEN. DEMONSTRATION OF A SOLAR HEAT DRIVEN METAL HYDRIDE BASED WATER PUMPING, COOLING AND HEATING HYBRID SYSTEM. DEMONSTRATION OF TEN HYDROGEN FUELLED TWO WHEELER ROAD TRANSPORT. DEVELOPMENT, INSTALLATION AND DEMONSTRATION OF A HYDROGEN GENSET UNIT. DEVELOPMENT OF HYDROGEN FUELLED AGRICULTURAL DIESEL ENGINE.
  64. SMALL POWER GENERATINGSETS, TWOWHEELERS, THREEWHEELER AND CATALYTICCOMBUSTION SYSTEMS
  65. INDIA POWER ENERGY PROBLEMS 534 BILLION KILOWATT HOURS PRODUCED IN 2006 WAS ALMOST DOUBLE THE 2000 OUTPUT, THOUGH STILL REPRESENTING ONLY 505 KWH PER CAPITA FOR THE YEAR. THIS PER CAPITA FIGURE IS EXPECTED TO ALMOST TRIPLE BY 2020, WITH 6.3% ANNUAL GROWTH. COAL PROVIDES OVER HALF OF THE ELECTRICITY AT PRESENT, BUT RESERVES ARE LIMITED. NUCLEAR POWER SUPPLIED 15.6 BILLION KWH (2.6%) OF INDIAS ELECTRICITY IN 2006 FROM 3.5 GWE (OF 110 GWE TOTAL) CAPACITY AND THIS WILL INCREASE STEADILY AS NEW PLANTS COME ON LINE. INDIAS FUEL SITUATION, WITH SHORTAGE OF FOSSIL FUELS, IS DRIVING THE NUCLEAR INVESTMENT FOR ELECTRICITY, AND 25% NUCLEAR CONTRIBUTION IS FORESEEN BY 2050, FROM ONE HUNDRED TIMES THE 2002 CAPACITY
  66. TECHNOLOGY HOW DOES A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PRODUCE ELECTRICITY? STEAM POWER PLANT FUELED BY URANIUM. FUEL IS PLACED IN A REACTOR THE INDIVIDUAL ATOMS ARE ALLOWED TO SPLIT APART. THE SPLITTING PROCESS, KNOWN AS FISSION, RELEASES GREAT AMOUNTS OF ENERGY. THIS ENERGY IS USED TO HEAT WATER UNTIL IT TURNS TO STEAM. THE STEAM PUSHES ON TURBINES, WHICH FORCE COILS OF WIRE TO INTERACT WITH A MAGNETIC FIELD. THIS GENERATES AN ELECTRIC CURRENT
  67. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES.CONSTRUCTION, OPERATING, MAINTENANCEREFURBISHMENT OF THENUCLEAR POWER PLANT.WASTE MANAGEMENTDISMANTLING OF THE REACTORSAFE DISPOSAL OF ALLNUCLEAR WASTEEACH PROCESS EMITS CO2AND OTHER GREENHOUSE GASES.THE REACTOR PRODUCING NOCO2
  68. ROAD MAP FOR NUCLEAR INC ELECTREDUCED VEH EMISSION NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  69. INDIA NUCLEAR POWER FOR CIVIL USE STATUS AS ON DATE COMPLETE INDEPENDENCE IN THE NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE, URANIUM EXPLORATION REACTOR DESIGN PHWRs FAST BREEDER REACTOR THORIUM AS A NUCLEAR FUEL. NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS IN 2004 NUCLEAR POWER CONTRIBUTED 15 BILLION KWH OF ELECTRICITY - 2.8% OF TOTAL, FROM 3 GWE OF CAPACITY.
  70. INDIAS OPERATING NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS REACTOR TYPE MWE NET, EACH STARTTARAPUR 1 & 2 BWR 150 1969KAIGA 1 & 2 PHWR 202 1999-00KAIGA 3 PHWR 202 2007KAKRAPAR 1 & 2 PHWR 202 1993-95KALPAKKAM 1 & 2 (MAPS) PHWR 202 1984-86NARORA 1 & 2 PHWR 202 1991-92RAWATBHATA 1 PHWR 90 1973RAWATBHATA 2 PHWR 187 1981RAWATBHATA 3 & 4 PHWR 202 1999-2000TARAPUR 3 & 4 PHWR 490 2006, 05TOTAL (17) 3779 MWE
  71. NEAR TERM STATUS TWELVE PHWRS ARE OPERATING AND SIX PHWRS COMPRISING A MIX OF 540 AND 220 MWE RATING ARE UNDER CONSTRUCTION SET UP LIGHT WATER REACTORS BASED ON IMPORTED TECHNOLOGY ASSIMILATIONOF FAST BREEDER REACTOR FBR KAMINI, THE ONLY THORIUM FUELLED REACTOR OPERATING THE WORLD 20,000 MWE NUCLEAR CAPACITY ON LINE BY 2020.
  72.  REPROCESSING PLANTS PLUTONIUM-BASED FUEL FABRICATION PLAN. A HIGHER POWER-GENERATING BASE A 40 MWT FAST BREEDER TEST REACTOR (FBTR)
  73. MIDTERM STATUS BASED ON THE THORIUM-URANIUM-233 CYCLE. TECHNOLOGIES TO EXPLOIT THE VAST THORIUM RESERVES IN THE COUNTRY ARE UNDER DEVELOPMENT AN ADVANCED HEAVY WATER REACTOR (AHWR). THE REACTOR PHYSICS DESIGN OF AHWR IS TUNED TO GENERATE ABOUT 75% POWER FROM THORIUM COMPACT HIGH TEMPERATURE REACTOR ADDRESS ACCELERATOR DRIVEN SYSTEMENERGY AMPLIFIER FACILITIES FOR MANAGING INTERMEDIATE- AND LOW- LEVEL WASTES
  74. INDIAS NUCLEAR POWER REACTORS UNDER CONSTRUCTION MWE NET, PROJECT REACTOR TYPE START EACH CONTROLKAIGA 4 PHWR 202 MWE NPCIL 2007RAWATBHAT PHWR 202 MWE NPCIL 2007, 08A5&6KUDANKULA PWR 950 MWE NPCIL 2008M1&2 (VVER)KALPAKKAM FBR 470 MWE BHAVINI 2010PFBRTOTAL (6) 2976 MWE
  75. POWER REACTORS PLANNED OR FIRMLY PROPOSED MWE NET, PROJECT START REACTOR TYPE EACH CONTROL OPERATIONKAKRAPAR 3 PHWR 640 NPCIL 2012&4RAWATBHAT PHWR 640 NPCIL 2012A7&8KUDANKULA PWR - 1000 NPCILM3&4 VVERJAITAPUR 1 & LWR 1000 NPCIL2? LWR X 2 1000 NTPC 2014? PHWR X 4 640 NPCIL? FBR X 4 470 BHAVINI? AHWR 300 ? 2020
  76. FUTURE PLANS MOST REACTORS UNDER CONSTRUCTION ARE ON SCHEDULE, THESE AND FUTURE PLANNED ONES WERE 450 (NOW 490) MWE VERSIONS OF THE 202 MWE DOMESTIC PRODUCTS. BEYOND THEM, FUTURE UNITS WILL BE NOMINAL 700 MWE. RUSSIA IS SUPPLYING THE COUNTRYS FIRST LARGE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT THERE ARE PLANS FOR EIGHT 1000 MWE UNITS AT THE KUDANKULAM SITE, AND IN JANUARY 2007 BETWEEN 2010 AND 2020, FURTHER CONSTRUCTION IS EXPECTED TO TAKE TOTAL GROSS CAPACITY TO 21,180 MWE. THE NUCLEAR CAPACITY TARGET IS PART OF NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY.
  77. NEW TECH FOR FUEL ENABLE REDUCED FUEL HANDLING REQUIREMENTS AND REDUCED ATTRACTIVENESS OF FUEL CYCLE MATERIALS. ADVANCED, CLOSED FUEL CYCLE BILATERAL AND MULTILATERAL ARRANGEMENT FAST-SPECTRUM GENERATION IV NUCLEAR POWER PLANT
  78. NEW WASTE MGMT
  79. PART THREEBIOFUEL & BIOMASS
  80. • ETHANOL• BIO-DIESEL• JATROPHA• BIOMASS
  81. ETHANOL
  82. DEFINATION ETHANOL  ETHYL ALCOHOL OR GRAIN ALCOHOL HAS BEEN PRODUCED SINCE PRE - HISTORIC TIMES,MOSTLY THROUGH THE FERMENTATION OF FRUIT JUICES.
  83. PRODUCTION ETHANOL CAN BE DERIVED FROM DIFFERENT FORMS LIKE SUGAR CANE MOLASSES, BEATS, CORN, SORGHUM, POTATOES AND OTHERS. SHORT-TERM MEASURE WILL INCLUDE EARLY INTRODUCTION OF GASOHOL (90% GASOLINE + 10% ETHANOL) AS A MOTOR FUEL
  84. ADVANTAGES OF ETHANOL ETHANOL IS A RENEWABLE FUEL ETHANOL REDUCES POLLUTION AND GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS. ETHANOL DOES NOT POLLUTE GROUND WATER. ETHANOL IS CHEAPER TO MAKE THAN GASOLINE ETHANOL IS EASY TO SWITCH TO ETHANOL REDUCES OUR DEPENDENCE ON FOREIGN OIL.
  85. ETHANOL
  86. DEFINATION BIO-DIESEL IS A TERM USED TO DESCRIBE ENVIORNMENTALLY SAFE AND NON POLLUTING FUELS FOR STD NON CUMBUSTION AND TURBINE ENGINES. DERIVED FROM VEGITABLES OILS,BIO-DIESEL FUELS ARE SAFE AND VIABLE ALTERNATVE TO NON-RENEWABLE,HVY POLLUTING FUELS.
  87. ADV OF BIO-DIESEL CAN BE USED DIRECTLY INCREASES ENGINE LIFE NO NOTICEABLE EXHAUST ODORS. EXTRACTED FROM NATURAL PLANTS SAFER AND CLEANER ALTERNATIVE REDUCES EMISSIONS AND CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS DOES NOT PRODUCE ECOLOGICAL WASTE.
  88. JATROPA CURACUS
  89. JATROPA FRUITS
  90. JATROPA SEEDS
  91. IDEAL GROWING REGIONS
  92. FOUR MAIN BENEFITS OF JATROPHA CULTIVATION  RENEWABLE ENERGY  EROSION CONTROL & SOIL IMPROVEMENT.  PROMOTION OF WOMEN EMPLOYMENT  POVERTY REDUCTION.
  93. ROAD MAP FOR JATROPAJATROPA NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  94. BIODIESEL DEVELOPMENTS 11 MILLIONS HECTARES OFUNUSED LANDS ARE TO BE CULTIVATED WITH JATROPA THE DEMONSTRATION PROJECT CONSISTS OF 2 PHASES, EACH WITH 200.000 HA PLANTED IN 8 STATES OF 2 X 25.000 HA "COMPACT AREA" EACH IN THE 1st PHASE, WITHIN A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, THE "VIABILITY OF ALL COMPONENTS" IS TO BE TESTED, DEVELOPED AND DEMONSTRATED
  95. PRESENT FOR 2007, WHEN THE PROCESS IS MEANT TO MOVE SELF-SUSTAINED. EXPANSION OF PROCESSING CAPACITIES . ADDITIONAL SUPPORT FOR MAINLY MARKET BASED FOR "PHASE II"
  96. FUTURE EACH STATE TO HAVE ESTENSIFICATIN PLANT COMPACT AREAS IN EACH STATE  SUPPLY OF PLANTING MATERIAL.  PROCUREING OF SEEDS  PRIMARY PROCESSING THROUGH EXPELLERS EXPECTED OUTPUTS FROM 400,000 HA ARE MEANT TO BE 0.5 MILLION T OF BIO-DIESEL.
  97. FUTURE PRESENTLY, THE INDIGENOUSLY DESIGNED BIO-FUEL PLANT FOR 250 LT./DAY IS IN OPERATION TO DESIGN AND DEVELOP BIO-FUEL PLANTS OF 3 TO 10 TONES PER DAY CAPACITY FOR INSTALLATION IN DIFFERENT PARTS OF THE COUNTRY. EFFECTIVE MARKETING CHAIN NEEDS TO BE PLANNED FOR ENABLING FARMERS TO REAP THE BENEFITS DIRECTLY. BIO-FUEL MISSION WILL PROVIDE TECHNOLOGICAL AND EMPLOYMENT GENERATION FOCUSES FOR THE RURAL SECTOR. USE OF ELEVEN MILLION HECTARES OF WASTELAND FOR JETROPHA CULTIVATION CAN LEAD TO GENERATION OF MINIMUM TWELVE MILLION J
  98.  EACH STATE WILL HAVE ONE ESTENFICATION PLANT, WHICH IS MEANT TO BE ECONOMICAL FROM 80.000 T OF BIO-DIESEL ONWARD, EXPECTED TO COME FROM 50 TO 70000 HA EACH. COMPACT AREAS IN EACH STATE WILL HE FURTHER SUBDIVIDED INTO 2000 HA BLOCKS OF PLANTATION TO FACILITATE SUPPLY OF PLANTING MATERIAL, PROCUREMENT OF SEED AND PRIMARY PROCESSING THROUGH EXPELLERS. EXPECTED OUTPUTS FROM 400,000 HA ARE MEANT TO BE 0.5 MILLION T OF BIO-DIESEL, COMPOST FROM THE PRESS CAKE, AND MASSIVE GENERATION OF EMPLOYMENT (16 MIO DAYS/YEAR) FOR THE POOR. IMPROVE DEGRADED LAND RESOURCES, AND INCOME TO 1.9 MIO POOR FAMILIES AT 4 FAMILIES PER HA, ON A BASE OF 5 RUPEES/KG OF SEED SOLD.
  99. PRESENT STATUS
  100. BIO-MASS TECHNOLOGY
  101. BIO MASS THE WEIGHT OR QUANTITY OF LIVING ORGANIMS OF ONE ANIMAL OR PLANT SPECIES COMMONLY REFFERED TO AS UNIT AREA OR VOLUMEOF THE HABITAT BIOMASS IN AN AREA AT THAT MOMENT IS THE STANDING CROP. THE TOTAL AMT OFORGANIC MATERIAL PRODUCED BY THE LIVING ORGANISMS OF A PARTICULAR AREA WITHIN A SET PERIOD OF TIME IS CALLED THE PRODUCIVITY. MEASURED IN UNITS OF ENERGY AS -GRAM CALORIES PER SQUARE METER PER YEAR. SOURCE BRITANNICA ENCYCLOPEDIA
  102. DEFINATION BIOMASS: INCLUDE WASTES PRODUCED DURING AGRICULTURAL AND FORESTRY OPERATIONS (FOR EXAMPLE STRAWS AND STALKS OR PRODUCED AS A BY-PRODUCT OF PROCESSING OPERATIONS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE (E.G., HUSKS,SHELLS, DEOILED CAKES, ETC WOOD PRODUCED IN DEDICATED ENERGY PLANTATIONS OR RECOVERED FROM WILD BUSHES/WEEDS; AND THE WOOD WASTE PRODUCED IN SOME INDUSTRIAL OPERATIONS. COGENERATION: IT IS THE PROCESS IN WHICH MORE THAN ONE FORM OF ENERGY (SUCH AS STEAMAND ELECTRICITY) IS PRODUCED IN A SEQUENTIAL MANNER BY USE OF BIOWASTE OF A RENEWABLE NATURE, INCLUDING BAGASSE AND RICE HUSK. BAGASSE COGENERATION: COGENERATION IS COMBINED HEAT AND ELECTRICITY (CHP) IN THE SUGAR MILLS USING BAGASSE.
  103. ROAD MAP FOR OILOIL PROD NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  104. TECHNOLOGY OPTIONS THE FOLLOWING TECHNOLOGICAL OPTIONS ARE AVAILABLE FOR SETTING UP OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PROJECTS:  ANAEROBIC DIGESTION/ BIOMETHANATION  COMBUSTION / INCINERATIO  PYROLYSIS / GASIFICATION  LANDFILL GAS RECOVERY  DENSIFICATION/ PELLETIZATION  IN ADDITION TO THE ABOVE TECHNOLOGIES, THERE ARE OTHER EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES SUCH AS PLASMA ARC TECHNOLOGY IS BEING ATTEMPTED FOR ENERGY RECOVERY FROM WASTE.
  105. ADVANTAGES THE MAJOR ADVANTAGES OF SETTING UP OF WASTE-TO- ENERGY PROJECTS ARE: THE QUANTITY OF WASTE GETS REDUCED BY NEARLY 60% TO 90%, DEPENDING UPON THE WASTE COMPOSITION AND THE TECHNOLOGY ADOPTED DEMAND FOR LAND, WHICH IS ALREADY SCARCE IN CITIES, FOR LAND FILLING IS REDUCED THE COST OF TRANSPORTATION OF WASTE TO FAR-AWAY LANDFILL SITES GETS REDUCED THERE IS NET REDUCTION IN ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION APART FROM GENERATING POWER FROM THE WASTE, THE SLURRY PRODUCED FROM BIOMETHANATION TECHNOLOGY ACTS AS A GOOD FERTILIZER
  106. LIMITATIONS/ CONSTRAINTS THE GROWTH OF THIS SECTOR HAS BEEN AFFECTED ON ACCOUNT OF THE FOLLOWING LIMITATIONS/ CONSTRAINTS: WASTE-TO-ENERGY IS STILL A NEW CONCEPT IN THE COUNTRY MOST OF THE PROVEN AND COMMERCIAL TECHNOLOGIES IN RESPECT OF URBAN WASTES ARE REQUIRED TO BE IMPORTED THE COSTS OF THE PROJECTS ESPECIALLY BASED ON BIOMETHANATION TECHNOLOGY ARE HIGH AS CRITICAL EQUIPMENT FOR A PROJECT IS REQUIRED TO BE IMPORTED. IN VIEW OF LOW LEVEL OF COMPLIANCE OF MSW RULES 2000 BY THE MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS/ URBAN LOCAL BODIES, SEGREGATED MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE IS GENERALLY NOT AVAILABLE AT THE PLANT SITE, WHICH MAY LEAD TO NON-AVAILABILITY OF WASTE-TO-ENERGY PLANTS. LACK OF FINANCIAL RESOURCES WITH MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS/URBAN LOCAL BODIES. LACK OF CONDUCIVE POLICY GUIDELINES FROM STATE GOVTS. IN RESPECT OF ALLOTMENT OF LAND, SUPPLY OF GARBAGE AND POWER PURCHASE / EVACUATION FACILITIES.
  107. PRESENT STATUS THE MAIN OBJECTIVES OF THE PROGRAMME ON BIOMASS ENERGY AND CO-GENERATION (NON-BAGASSE) IN INDUSTRY ARE GIVEN BELOW :-  TO ENCOURAGE THE DEPLOYMENT OF BIOMASS ENERGY SYSTEMS IN  INDUSTRY FOR MEETING THERMAL AND ELECTRICAL ENERGY REQUIREMENTS.  TO PROMOTE DECENTRALIZED / DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION THROUGH  SUPPLY OF SURPLUS POWER TO THE GRID.  TO CONSERVE THE USE OF FOSSIL FUELS FOR CAPTIVE REQUIREMENTS IN INDUSTRY.  TO BRING ABOUT REDUCTION IN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS IN INDUSTRY.  TO CREATE AWARENESS ABOUT THE POTENTIAL AND BENEFITS OF ALTERNATIVE MODES OF ENERGY GENERATION IN INDUSTRY
  108. BIOMASS POWER GENERATION BIOMASS POWER GENERATION BASED ON WOODY BIOMASS AND CROP RESIDUES HAS MADE CONSIDERABLE PROGRESS IN INDIA, BASED MAINLY ON DIRECT COMBUSTION, ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE GASIFICATION AND COGENERATION TECHNOLOGIES. IT IS PROPOSED TO SUPPORT RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS TO UPGRADE THE EXISTING TECHNOLOGIES, IMPROVE CAPACITY UTILIZATION, AND DEVELOP MORE EFFICIENT AND COST- EFFECTIVE NEW TECHNOLOGY ROUTES DEVELOPMENT OF BIO ENERGY ENTAILS  DEVELOPMENT OF VARIOUS TECHNOLOGY PACKAGES FOR INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS AND POWER GENERATION  ADVANCED BIOMASS GASIFICATION WHICH AIMS AT DEVELOPMENT OF HIGH PRESSURE GASIFIERS TO BE COUPLED WITH GAS TURBINE ENGINES.
  109. GRID CONNECTED BIOMASS POWER PROJECTS BASED ON DIRECT COMBUSTION HAVE STARTED TO PICK UP IN SEVERAL POTENTIAL STATES. BIOGAS BASED POWER UNITS CAN BE A RELIABLE DECENTRALIZED POWER GENERATION OPTION IN THE COUNTRY. BASED ON THE AVAILABILITY OF LARGE QUANTITY OF ANIMAL WASTES AND WASTES FROM FORESTRY, RURAL BASED INDUSTRIES (AGRO / FOOD PROCESSING), KITCHEN WASTES THE PROJECTS TO BE TAKEN UP BY ANY VILLAGE LEVEL ORGANIZATION, INSTITUTION, PRIVATE ENTREPRENEURS ETC IN RURAL AREAS AS WELL AS AREAS COVERED UNDER THE REMOTE VILLAGE ELECTRIFICATION (RVE) SUFFICIENT FEED MATERIALS FOR BIOGAS PLANTS ARE AVAILABLE ON SUSTAINABLE BASIS
  110. ENERGY RECOVERY FROM URBAN WASTES ENERGY IN THE FORM OF BIOGAS, HEAT OR POWER IS SEEN AS A BONUS, WHICH IMPROVES THE VIABILITY OF SUCH PROJECTS. WHILE INCINERATION AND BIOMETHANATION ARE THE MOST COMMON TECHNOLOGIES, PYROLYSIS AND GASIFICATION ARE ALSO EMERGING AS PREFERRED OPTIONS
  111. SCHEME FOR AN ACCELERATED PROGRAMME ON ENERGYRECOVERY FROM URBAN WASTES TO ACCELERATE THE PROMOTION OF SETTING UP OF PROJECTS FOR RECOVERY OF ENERGY FROM URBAN WASTES; TO CREATE A CONDUCIVE CONDITIONS AND ENVIRONMENT, WITH FISCAL AND FINANCIAL REGIME, TO DEVELOP, DEMONSTRATE AND DISSEMINATE UTILISATION OF WASTES FOR RECOVERY OF ENERGY; AND TO HARNESS THE AVAILABLE POTENTIAL OF MSW-TO-ENERGY BY THE YEAR 2017;
  112. ADVANTAGES OF BIO-DIESEL FUEL DIRECTLY IN ANY THE CONVENTIONAL COMPRESSION-IGNITION DIESEL ENGINES OF TODAY WITHOUT ANY MODIFICATION. ENGINE LIFE IS INCREASED WITH THE USE OF BIODIESEL FUEL. BENIGN ON MARINE ENVIRONMENTS A USER FRIENDLY FUEL WITH NO NOTICEABLE EXHAUST ODORS. EXTRACTED FROM NATURALLY GROWING PLANTS. SAFER, CLEANER ALTERNATIVE TO PETROLEUM DIESEL. PRODUCES 80% LESS CARBON DIOXIDE AND 100% LESS SULFUR DIOXIDE EMISSIONS. A 90% LESS REDUCTION IN CANCER RISKS. REDUCES EMISSIONS AND CARCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS. IDEAL FOR TACKLING THE POLLUTION PROBLEM. BIODEGRADABLE AND DOES NOT PRODUCE ECOLOGICAL WASTE.
  113. ROAD MAP FOR OIL COAL RESOIL PROD NEAR MID LONG TODAY TERM TERM TERM
  114. PART FOURRENEWABLE ENERGY
  115. RENEWABLE ENERGY IS THE ENERGY WHICH IS USED &RENEWED. ITS SOURCES COULD BE DERIVED FROM SUN, WIND,WATER ETC. THERE IS NO DEARTH OF ITS SOURCES. SUNLIGHTFALLING ON THE UNITED STATE IN ONE DAY CONTAINS MORETHEN TWICE THE ENERGY WE CONSUME IN AN ENTIRE YEAR.CALIFORNIA HAS ENOUGH WIND GUSTS TO PRODUCE 11% OFWORLDS WIND ELECTRICITY.
  116. RENEWABLE EN
  117. RENEWABLE ENERGY:BETTER OPTION RENEWABLE ENERGY (RE) IS A PREFERRED OPTION FOR INDIA  LARGE UNTAPPED RE POTENTIAL  VAST LAND RESOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF BIOMASS & BIO-FUELS  ABUNDANT SUNSHINE  INCR IN POPULATION AND GROWING CONSUMPTION  PLENTIFUL SITES FOR HARNESSING WIND ENERGY AND SMALL HYDRO WHY RENEWABLE ENERGY IS PARTICULARLY RELEVANT FOR RURAL INDIA  NO ACCESS TO ON GRID SYS FOR RURAL POPULATION.  VISION 2012
  118. IMPORTANCE OF STAND-ALONE RE SYSTEMS STAND-ALONE RE SYSTEMS ARE ECONOMICALLY VIABLE STANDALONE RE SYSTEMS SHALL :  AVOID THE HIGH COSTS INVOLVED IN TRANSMISSION CAPEX.  􀂾 AVOID DISTRIBUTION LOSSES – TECHNICAL & OTHERWISE  􀂾 AVOID RECURRING FUEL COST  􀂾 BOOST THE RURAL ECONOMY  􀂾 ENCOURAGE SELF HELP GROUPS & SELF DEPENDENCE  􀂾 ENABLE VILLAGE CO-OPERATIVES TO SUPPLY AND / OR MONITOR DISTRIBUTION  􀂾 MAKE AVAILABLE MUCH NEEDED ENERGY FOR BASIC NEEDS AT THE DOORSTEP AT AFFORDABLE PRICES.  BRINGS GAIN FOR INDIAN ECONOMY.
  119. ADVANTAGES OF RENEWABLE RESOURCES AVAILABLE WITHIN THE COUNTRY GOVERNMENT & REGULATOR FRIENDLY AFFORDABLE COST MAINTENANCE FREE ECO FRIENDLY LESS CONSUMPTION OF NON RENEWABLE ENERGY
  120. DRAWBACK OF RENEWABLE ENERGY REQUIRES HUGE SPACE LIMITED TO PARTICULAR LOCATIONS EFFECTS HABITAT EFFECTS NATURAL SITES INITIAL INVESTMENT IS MORE
  121. TYPES OF RENEWABLE ENERGY  SOLAR ENERGY  WIND ENERY  HYDEL ENERGY  TIDAL ENERGY  GEOTHERMAL ENERGY
  122. TECHNOLOGY OF SOLAR ENERGY SUN BEING OUR MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY SHOULD BE UTILISED MORE. SOLAR POWER IS BECOMING INCREASINGLY CHEAPER THAN IN THE PAST. SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY AS SOLAR ENERGY. SOLAR ARCHITECTURE.
  123. SOLAR POWER PROGRAMME EARLIEST SOURCE OF ENERGY KNOWN TO THE MANKIND. SALIENT FEATURES – WIDE-SPREAD DISTRIBUTION, ENVIRONMENT FRIENDLY, AND VIRTUALLY INEXHAUSTIBLE SUPPLY INDIA RECEIVES SOLAR ENERGY EQUIVALENT TO OVER 5000 TRILLION KWH/YEAR.
  124. ROAD MAP FOR RE, SOLARTODAY NEAR MID LONG TERM TERM TERM
  125. SOLAR BUILDINGSSOLAR PASSIVE BUILDING OF PUNJAB ENERGY DEVELOPMENT AGENCY, CHANDIGARH
  126. SOLAR AIR HEATING SYSTEM FOR CORIANDER DRYING IN A FACTORY IN TAMILNADU
  127. AKSHAY URJA SHOPS
  128. SOLAR STEAM COOKING SYSTEM AT TALETI, NEAR MOUNT ABU, RAJASTHAN
  129. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION
  130. SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC PRODUCTS AND DEVICES SPV TRAFIC SIGNAL SPV STREET LGHT
  131. 120,000 LPD CAPACITY SOLAR WATER HEATING SYSTEM ATGODAVARI FERTILISERS & CHEMICALS LTD., ANDHRA PRADESH
  132. SOLAR HOT WATER SYSTEMSINSTALLED IN A HOUSING COMPLEX IN PUNE
  133. WIND ENERGYWE HAVE USED THE WIND AS ENERGY SOURCE FORA LONG TIME. CHINEESE WERE USING IT TO PUMPWATER FOR IRRIGATING CROPS 4000 YRS AGO. INEUROPE WIND POWER WAS USED IN MIDDLE AGESTO GRIND CORN, WHICH IS WHERE THE TERM “WINDMILL” COMES FROM.
  134. WIND ENERGY POWER GENERATION FROM WIND HAS EMERGED AS ONE OF THE MOST SUCCESSFUL PROGRAMS WIND POWER INSTALLATIONS WORLDWIDE HAVE CROSSED 8500 MW PRODUCING ABOUT 14 BILLION KWH OF ENERGY ANNUALLY. A TOTAL CAPACITY OF ABOUT 5500 MW HAS BEEN INSTALLED IN EUROPE, 1700 MW IN USA, AND 992 MW IN INDIA. INDIA IS NOW THE FOURTH LARGEST WIND POWER GENERATOR IN THE WORLD AFTER GERMANY, USA AND DENMARK INDIA AS WIND SUPER POWER
  135. WIND ENERGY
  136. ROAD MAP FOR WIND ENERGYTODAY NEAR MID LONG TERM TERM TERM
  137. HYDEL ENERGYWE HAVE USED RUNNING WATER AS ENERGY SOURCE FORTHOUSAND OF YEARS FOR GRINDING CORN. THE FIRSTHOUSE IN THE WORLD TO BE LIT BY HYDRO ELECTRICITYWAS CRAGSIDE HOUSE IN ENGLAND IN 1878
  138. TECHNOLOGY OF HYDEL ENERGY ELECTRICITY GENERATED BY USING THE ENERGY OF WATER. THE WATER BEHIND THE DAM FLOWS THROUGH INTAKE INTO A PIPE CALLED A PENSTOCK. THE WATER PUSHES AGAINST BLADES IN A TURBINE CAUSING THEM TO TURN. THE TURBINE SPINS A GENERATOR TO PRODUCE ELECTRICITY.
  139. ROAD MAP FOR HYDEL ENERGY WATER MILLS TODAY NEAR MID LONG TERM TERM TERM
  140. TIDAL ENERGY TIDAL ENERGY IS PRODUCED BY USING THE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE TIDES. IN ORDER TO PRODUCE SOME PRACTICAL AMOUNTS OF POWER (ELECTRICITY), A SMALL DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE HIGH AND LOW TIDES OF AT LEAST SAY FIVE METRES IN REQUIRED. DAM IS BUILT ACROSS A RIVER ESTUARY. WHEN THE TIDES GOES IN AND OUT, THE WATER FLOWS THROUGH TUNNELS IN THE DAM. POWER IS GENERATED AS HYDRO ELECTRIC POWER.
  141. ROAD MAP FOR TIDAL ENERGYTODAY NEAR MID LONG TERM TERM TERM
  142. TIDAL ENERGY AT A GLANCE EXPOLITATION OF TIDAL ENERGY IS IN INITIAL STAGE, NO PROJECT INSTALLED SO FAR. THE MAIN POTENTIAL SITES FOR TIDAL POWER GENERATION IN INDIA ARE THE GULF OF KUTCH AND THE GULF OF KHAMBAT (CAMBAY) AND THE GANGETIC DELTA IN THE SUNDARBANS AREA OF WEST BENGAL. SALIENT FEATURES:-  ONCE BUILT, TIDAL POWER IS FREE  IT NEEDS NO FUEL  NOT EXPENSIVE TO MAINTAIN  TIDES ARE TOTALLY PERDICTABLE  BUILDING A DAM ACROSS IN ESTUARY IS EXPENSIVE  EFFECT THE HABITAT OF BIRDS AND FISH AS IT ALTER TIDAL CURRENT  CAN PROVIDE POWER FOR AROUND 10 HRS/DAY
  143. TIDAL POWER INDIA: TIDAL ENERGY POTENTIAL IN EXCESS OF 15 GIGAWATTS IN A WRITTEN REPLY INDIAS MINISTER OF STATE FOR NON- CONVENTIONAL ENERGY SOURCES ESTIMATED THAT OVER 15,000 MW OF TIDAL POWER POTENTIAL HAS BEEN ESTIMATED IN THE COUNTRY
  144. ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED COMMUNITIES: THE TIDE-ENERGY PROJECT NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE AMAZON Rural residents with a 6-blade helical turbine
  145. THE TIDE-ENERGY PROJECT NEAR THE MOUTH OF THE AMAZON: A SIMPLE GENERATING PACKAGE (b) Pulley and (c) Automotive belt alternator (a) 6-blade helical turbine
  146. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY DERIVED FROM GREEK WORD “GEO” MEANS EARTH AND “THERMAL” MEANS HEAT WORKING PRICIPLE  HOT ROCKS, UNDERGROUND HEAT, WATER TO PRODUCE STEAM.  HOLES ARE DRILLED DOWN TO THE HOT REGION, STEAM COMES UP, IS PURIFIED AND USED TO DRIVE TURBINES, WHICH DRIVE ELECTRIC GENERATORS.  IF THERE IS NO NATURAL “GROUND WATER” IN THE HOT ROCKS, MORE HOLES ARE DRILLED AND WATER IS PUMPED DOWN TO THEM.
  147. ROAD MAP FOR GEO THERMAL ENERGYTODAY NEAR MID LONG TERM TERM TERM
  148. PRESENT STATUS GEOTHERMAL ENERGY BASED POWER PRODUCTION OVER THE WORLD HAS GONE UP FROM 5800 MW TO 8400 MW FROM 1998 TO 1999. IN INDIA IT IS IN INITIAL STAGE, NO GEOTHERMAL POWER PROJECT INSTALLED. ONGOING PROJECTS:  TATTAPANI GEOTHERMAL AREA IN MADHYA PRADESH  PUGA GEOTHERMAL AREA IN LADAKH MORE THAN 300 GEOTHERMAL POTENTIAL SITES
  149. THRUST AREAS CREATION OF GEOTHERMAL DATA BASE. GEOTHERMAL RESOURCE AND MANPOWER DEVP ITS APPLICATION FOR POWER GENERATION.
  150. CONCLUSION

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