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Presented By
Malik Sameeullah

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY,
KURUKSHETRA

1
Content
 Need of Renewable Energy Sector
 Energy Sector In India

 Overview of Renewable Energy Sector in India
 Promotion Policy for RES
 Various Renewable Energy Technique

 Remote Village Electrification Program
 Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission
 Off grid Power Distribution Management Issues
 Future Policy
 Conclusion
Need of renewable sector
 Energy is a prime source of economic, social and









industrial development of country
World energy consumption increase day by day
Still 70 % of world electric generation depend up on
thermal generation
There is lots of social and economical issues with
conventional plant
World economic is looking for sustainable development in
the field of power sector
And it cause the birth of renewable Energy Sector
Energy sector in India: it challenge
 India, one of the fastest under developing country
 Its population is second in world and first in term of density
 In last thirty year, there is boom in power sector with formation







of NTPC, NHPC
2003 ACT, allowing private player to invest in generating sector
change whole picture
70% of electricity generation is depend upon coal
Coal is limited and demand of energy generation rising day by
day
It is need to change the electricity generation pattern.
Nuclear and Hydro generation may come in picture in future
Need to invest in renewable form of energy for sustainable
growth
Renewable Energy Sector
 In 1981, Government of India (GOI) established a







“Commission for Additional Source of Energy” under
the Department of Science and Technology.
It objective to make policy and structure to support R&D
in renewable sector
In 1982, Commission was re formulated with status of
Department called “Department of Non Conventional
Sources”
Again in 1992, it was upgraded and known as “Ministry
of Non Conventional Energy”
Further renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable
Energy (MNRE)
Electricity ACT 2003: Framework
for Renewable Energy
 To prepare National policy for optimal utilization of







energy resources including renewable energy
Formulate policy for standalone system for rural
electrification
Central and state government shall work together to
provide excess to electricity including villages
the Regulatory Commissions are required to specify
percentage of renewable energy out of total
consumption of electricity in the area of distribution
licensee.
Tariff rate is decided by state electricity regulatory
body
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
 Name it self explain the objective of ministry “to work for

exploring and implementation of non conventional and new
form of energy”
 MNRE work in five major area:
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Grid-interactive renewable power ( wind power, Small hydro
power, Urban & industrial waste to energy and solar power)
Distributed renewable power ( Biomass, Biomass gasifier,
waste to energy, Aero generator/ hybrid system)
Rural and Decentralized energy system ( family type biogas
plant, solar street lamp, home lighting system, Solar
Photovoltaic system and wind pump)
Remote village electrification
Other program (energy Park, Akshay urja and hybrid car)
Renewable Energy Development in
India
Estimated Potential
50000
45000
40000
35000
30000
25000
20000
15000
10000
5000
0

Comulative Potential

45195

19930

16881
1770

15000
3740

5000
2390

5000
2210

2700
210

Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
Promotional Policy for RES
 Tariff Policy
 Incentives and Promotion policy
 Specialized Centers/ Institute
Tariff Policy
 National Electricity Policy 2005 set various parameter for





renewable energy promotion
Preferential feed in tariff for renewable energy
procurement by respective SEB
Also there is scheme of cost based feed in tariff
There is no wheeling (transporting electric power ) charge
by SEB
Banking of energy for future use and third party sale
system for renewable energy provider
Incentive and Promotional Policy
 MNRE provide capital subsidy as Central Financial Assistance
 Percentage of subsidy is depend upon type of plant and





location
Fiscal
incentives
such
as
80%
accelerated
depreciation, concessional import duty, excise duty etc.
Purchase of renewable energy is in same proportion across the
state
Renewable Energy Certification Mechanism to sale renewable
energy.
In REC scheme, grid connected renewable plant sale power to
local grid at conventional tariff rate and rest of the money is
recovered by selling “Renewable Energy Certificate”
Specialized Centers for research
For research and development various institute come in
picture like:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

C-WET (Centre of Wind Energy Technology) in1982
Solar Energy Center in 1982
Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (IIT Roorkee) in 1982
Sardar Swaran Singh- National Institute of renewable
energy
Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited
(IREDA)
National Centre of Photovoltaic Research and Education
(NCPRE)
Energy Centre at various IIT and NIT
Wind Power Sector
 One of the most developed renewable sector in term of share






of energy and technology
Southern part of India have abundant capacity of wind
energy due to it physical structure and surrounded by sea
Wind energy assessment is being carried out by Indian
Institute of Tropical Metrology (IITM) and CWET with
establishment of 1150 wind monitoring station
Suzlon is a leading manufacture of wind turbine in India and
fifth leading wind turbine developer in world
Current installed capacity of wind generation is 19.9 GW
Type of Wind Power Plant
 On the basis of Wind Turbine
 On the basis of type of generator
 On the basis of operation
Solar Power Sector
 India lies in a sunny tropical belt (High insolation)
Total approximate potential – annually over 5000
trillion kWh

Jawahar Lal Nehru National
Solar Mission Target

 Over 70% of India’s households experience
significant power cuts every year

On grid PV power of 1000-2000 MW
Off grid PV application 200 MW
Solar collector 7 million sq. meter

 National Solar Mission and other Generation
Based Incentives (GBI) are available through
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)

 JNNSM have a mission to install 22 GW solar PV
plant by 2022
 Cost of PV module, land scarisity
technological barrier is a main restriction.

and

 Current cost of production is `12/KWh and

expected cost is `6/KWh by 2020

2010-2013

2013-2017
On grid PV power of 4000-10000
MW
Off grid PV application 1000 MW
Solar collector 15 million sq. meter
2017-2022
On grid PV power of 22000 MW
Off grid PV application 2000 MW
Solar collector 20 million sq. meter
India Solar Radiation Map
Daily Global Radiation (KJ m-2 per
day)
City

Horizontal Optimum
Radiation Tilt
Radiation

New
Delhi

19.67

21.54

Kolkata

17.47

19.07

Pune

20.40

21.94

Chennai

20.12

20.99
Type of Solar PV System
Solar PV
System

Grid
Connected PV
Large scale
production

Off Grid PV
System

Hybrid PV
System

With Battery
Wind-PV hybrid system

(Without Battery)

(e.g. for houses and
industries)

With Battery

Without Battery

PV-Diesel hybrid System

(Smart Grid concept)

(PV water Pump)

PV based
Utilities
Solar Lamp, Solar
mobile charger
etc.
Biomass Power/ Cogeneration
Program
 Objective is to optimize use of country’s biomass resources

such as bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, soya
husk, de-oiled cakes, wastes, groundnut/coconut shells, saw
dust, etc.
 Have a 21000 MW of potential
 main conversion process is biochemical or thermo
chemical process
Small Hydro Power Program
 Hydro plant of capacity below 25 MW come under this
 It help to provide electricity in remote area and also help to







utilize maximum hydro resources
Database of SHP site potential is on GIS platform with 4096
potential site
Total cumulative potential is of 15386 MW
Himachal Pardesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, North
Eastern state have a enormous capacity of SHP
As there is no need to take license to supply electricity in
rural area, Hydro Power Plant of 1-5 MW is famous and
many company show interest in build and operate
Small Hydro Power…..
Classification Based on Head

Classification Based on Size

Below 3 meters

Ultra low head

Upto 100KW

Less than 40 meter

Low head

101 KW to2001 KW Mini Hydro Plant

Above 40 meter

Medium head

2001 KW to 25 MW Small Hydro Plant

Micro hydro Plant

• Small hydropower has a capital cost of about `50–60 million per
MW, which is slightly higher than wind,
• Energy cost of about `1.50–2.50 per kWh, which is the lowest
among renewable energy technologies in India.
Remote Village Electrification Program
 The RVE scheme aimed at providing basic lighting/electrification to rural

areas through renewable energy sources.
 Financial Assistance
The RVE program is implemented in the States through Central Financial
Assistance of up to 90% of cost of renewable energy generating system from
MNRE. The balance cost of the project can be made available through own
contribution or through financial institutions.

 Activities Eligible for Financial Assistance
The activities eligible for financial assistance under this programe are,
1. Installation
of
power
plants
based
on
small
hydro
power, biomass, wind, biofuels, biogas, etc. for electrification of remote
villages/hamlets.
2. Solar photovoltaic power plants may also be supported if found to be cost
effective.
3.
Hybrid systems and systems based on combination of renewable energy
systems would also receive financial assistance.
4. Where no other renewable energy technology is found to be feasible, solar
home lighting
5. Initial surveys and studies for firming up of State-wise lists of remote unelectrified census villages and hamlets
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar
Mission
 The scheme is focused on promoting off grid and decentralized








systems, including hybrid systems to meet lighting, electricity and
heating/cooling requirements.
Divided in 3 phase to implement
To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of
20,000 MW of solar power by 2022
To create favorable conditions for solar manufacturing capability
To promote program for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by
2017 and 2000 MW by 2022
To achieve 15 million sq. meters solar thermal collector area by 2017
and 20 million by 2022.
To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022
OFF Grid Power Distribution Management Issue
Main management issue:
1. Typical energy consumption pattern and load demand
2. Present energy use pattern and Willingness to pay
3. Single phase verses three phase supply
4. Controlling lighting load
Different Technology Option with the Load Profile
Load Profile

Technology Option

Example

High Load Area (>50 KW)

• Gassifier
• Micro Hydro

• Husk Power System
• DESI Power

Medium Load (10-20 KW)

• Gassifier
• Micro Hydro

• TERI-NTPC pilot project

Low Load (<10 KW)

• SPV
• Micro Hydro
• Gasifier

• Solar home RVE sites
• VESP pilot project
Husk Power System Business Model
 HPS work to provide electricity in rural area using husk
 Generate electricity using husk gasification plant
 HPS has mainly 3 business Models
1. BOOM (Build, Own, Operate and Maintain)
2. BOM (Build, Own and Maintain)
3. BM (Build and Maintain)
 Different pricing method is adopted
 Every household has to paid fixed monthly charge of `45 per

CFL of 15 W
 1 unit charge is approx. `17
 For a typical 32KW HPS plant monthly revenue is `60000
and operating cost is `25000 including manpower works
 It show model is technically and economically feasible
Future Prospective of Renewable
Energy in India

 The Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR), prepared by

the planning commission of India, has recognized renewable
energy sources remain important to Indian’s energy sector
 With a concerted push and a 40 fold increase in their
contribution to the primary energy, renewables may account
for only 5-6% of India’s energy mix by 2031-32
Resources

Upto 10th plan

11th plan

12th -13th plan

Total

Wind Power

7000 MW

10500 MW

22500 MW

40000 MW

SHP

1960 MW

1400 MW

3140 MW

6500 MW

Bio Power

1037 MW

2100 MW

4363 MW

7500 MW

Solar Power

3 MW

1000 MW

20000 MW

22000 MW

Total
Medium Term Deployment Aim 2032
 GOI aims for several medium/long term goals such as 10% grid interactive

renewable power by 2012 and 15 % by 2032
 The other massive plans in various sectors are:
1.
Energy recovery from municipal waste in 423 cities including 107 municipal
corporations where suitable waste is available by 2032.
2. Solar water heating systems: 100% coverage of all prospective users like
hotels, hospitals, etc. by 2032.
3. 100% coverage of street lighting control systems by solar sensors in all cities
by 2012.
4.
Energy recovery from industrial wastes: where suitable waste is available
across the country by 2032
5.
Solar water heating systems: 100% coverage of potential industries by 2032
6.
Cogeneration: 100% coverage of potential sugar and other biomass based
industries by 2032
7.
Provision of lighting/electricity in all remote unelectrified census villages and
remote hamlets of electrified census villages by 2012
8.
Augmentation of cooking, lighting and motive power in electrified villages
by 2032
Conclusion
 India have a huge potential of renewable energy resources

and from past few year due to government involvement
there is sudden growth in Renewable sector
 Prospect of renewable energy are steadily improving in
India with better future
 The strategy for achieving these enhanced goals will
mainly depend on the active participation of all players i.e.
from government agencies to NGO’s, from manufactures
to R&D institutions, from financial institution to
developers and of course a new breed of energy
entrepreneurs
References
1. S. N. Singh, Bharat Singh, Ostergaard, “Renewable Energy

2.
3.
4.
5.

Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future
Prospects”, IEEE, 2009
Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of
India. [Online] Available: http://www.mnes.nic.in/
Ministry of Power, Government of India. [Online] Available:
http://powermin.nic.in/
The Electricity Act 2003
Report on “Policy And Regulatory Interventions To Support
Community Level Off-grid Projects”, ABPS Infrastructure
Advisory Pvt. Ltd., Nov 2011

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Renewable energy in India: Present Status and Policy

  • 1. Presented By Malik Sameeullah NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA 1
  • 2. Content  Need of Renewable Energy Sector  Energy Sector In India  Overview of Renewable Energy Sector in India  Promotion Policy for RES  Various Renewable Energy Technique  Remote Village Electrification Program  Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission  Off grid Power Distribution Management Issues  Future Policy  Conclusion
  • 3. Need of renewable sector  Energy is a prime source of economic, social and      industrial development of country World energy consumption increase day by day Still 70 % of world electric generation depend up on thermal generation There is lots of social and economical issues with conventional plant World economic is looking for sustainable development in the field of power sector And it cause the birth of renewable Energy Sector
  • 4. Energy sector in India: it challenge  India, one of the fastest under developing country  Its population is second in world and first in term of density  In last thirty year, there is boom in power sector with formation       of NTPC, NHPC 2003 ACT, allowing private player to invest in generating sector change whole picture 70% of electricity generation is depend upon coal Coal is limited and demand of energy generation rising day by day It is need to change the electricity generation pattern. Nuclear and Hydro generation may come in picture in future Need to invest in renewable form of energy for sustainable growth
  • 5. Renewable Energy Sector  In 1981, Government of India (GOI) established a     “Commission for Additional Source of Energy” under the Department of Science and Technology. It objective to make policy and structure to support R&D in renewable sector In 1982, Commission was re formulated with status of Department called “Department of Non Conventional Sources” Again in 1992, it was upgraded and known as “Ministry of Non Conventional Energy” Further renamed as Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)
  • 6. Electricity ACT 2003: Framework for Renewable Energy  To prepare National policy for optimal utilization of     energy resources including renewable energy Formulate policy for standalone system for rural electrification Central and state government shall work together to provide excess to electricity including villages the Regulatory Commissions are required to specify percentage of renewable energy out of total consumption of electricity in the area of distribution licensee. Tariff rate is decided by state electricity regulatory body
  • 7. Ministry of New and Renewable Energy  Name it self explain the objective of ministry “to work for exploring and implementation of non conventional and new form of energy”  MNRE work in five major area: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Grid-interactive renewable power ( wind power, Small hydro power, Urban & industrial waste to energy and solar power) Distributed renewable power ( Biomass, Biomass gasifier, waste to energy, Aero generator/ hybrid system) Rural and Decentralized energy system ( family type biogas plant, solar street lamp, home lighting system, Solar Photovoltaic system and wind pump) Remote village electrification Other program (energy Park, Akshay urja and hybrid car)
  • 8. Renewable Energy Development in India Estimated Potential 50000 45000 40000 35000 30000 25000 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 Comulative Potential 45195 19930 16881 1770 15000 3740 5000 2390 5000 2210 2700 210 Source: Ministry of New and Renewable Energy
  • 9. Promotional Policy for RES  Tariff Policy  Incentives and Promotion policy  Specialized Centers/ Institute
  • 10. Tariff Policy  National Electricity Policy 2005 set various parameter for     renewable energy promotion Preferential feed in tariff for renewable energy procurement by respective SEB Also there is scheme of cost based feed in tariff There is no wheeling (transporting electric power ) charge by SEB Banking of energy for future use and third party sale system for renewable energy provider
  • 11. Incentive and Promotional Policy  MNRE provide capital subsidy as Central Financial Assistance  Percentage of subsidy is depend upon type of plant and     location Fiscal incentives such as 80% accelerated depreciation, concessional import duty, excise duty etc. Purchase of renewable energy is in same proportion across the state Renewable Energy Certification Mechanism to sale renewable energy. In REC scheme, grid connected renewable plant sale power to local grid at conventional tariff rate and rest of the money is recovered by selling “Renewable Energy Certificate”
  • 12. Specialized Centers for research For research and development various institute come in picture like: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. C-WET (Centre of Wind Energy Technology) in1982 Solar Energy Center in 1982 Alternate Hydro Energy Centre (IIT Roorkee) in 1982 Sardar Swaran Singh- National Institute of renewable energy Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency Limited (IREDA) National Centre of Photovoltaic Research and Education (NCPRE) Energy Centre at various IIT and NIT
  • 13. Wind Power Sector  One of the most developed renewable sector in term of share     of energy and technology Southern part of India have abundant capacity of wind energy due to it physical structure and surrounded by sea Wind energy assessment is being carried out by Indian Institute of Tropical Metrology (IITM) and CWET with establishment of 1150 wind monitoring station Suzlon is a leading manufacture of wind turbine in India and fifth leading wind turbine developer in world Current installed capacity of wind generation is 19.9 GW
  • 14. Type of Wind Power Plant  On the basis of Wind Turbine  On the basis of type of generator  On the basis of operation
  • 15. Solar Power Sector  India lies in a sunny tropical belt (High insolation) Total approximate potential – annually over 5000 trillion kWh Jawahar Lal Nehru National Solar Mission Target  Over 70% of India’s households experience significant power cuts every year On grid PV power of 1000-2000 MW Off grid PV application 200 MW Solar collector 7 million sq. meter  National Solar Mission and other Generation Based Incentives (GBI) are available through Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE)  JNNSM have a mission to install 22 GW solar PV plant by 2022  Cost of PV module, land scarisity technological barrier is a main restriction. and  Current cost of production is `12/KWh and expected cost is `6/KWh by 2020 2010-2013 2013-2017 On grid PV power of 4000-10000 MW Off grid PV application 1000 MW Solar collector 15 million sq. meter 2017-2022 On grid PV power of 22000 MW Off grid PV application 2000 MW Solar collector 20 million sq. meter
  • 16. India Solar Radiation Map Daily Global Radiation (KJ m-2 per day) City Horizontal Optimum Radiation Tilt Radiation New Delhi 19.67 21.54 Kolkata 17.47 19.07 Pune 20.40 21.94 Chennai 20.12 20.99
  • 17. Type of Solar PV System Solar PV System Grid Connected PV Large scale production Off Grid PV System Hybrid PV System With Battery Wind-PV hybrid system (Without Battery) (e.g. for houses and industries) With Battery Without Battery PV-Diesel hybrid System (Smart Grid concept) (PV water Pump) PV based Utilities Solar Lamp, Solar mobile charger etc.
  • 18. Biomass Power/ Cogeneration Program  Objective is to optimize use of country’s biomass resources such as bagasse, rice husk, straw, cotton stalk, soya husk, de-oiled cakes, wastes, groundnut/coconut shells, saw dust, etc.  Have a 21000 MW of potential  main conversion process is biochemical or thermo chemical process
  • 19. Small Hydro Power Program  Hydro plant of capacity below 25 MW come under this  It help to provide electricity in remote area and also help to     utilize maximum hydro resources Database of SHP site potential is on GIS platform with 4096 potential site Total cumulative potential is of 15386 MW Himachal Pardesh, Jammu & Kashmir, Uttarakhand, North Eastern state have a enormous capacity of SHP As there is no need to take license to supply electricity in rural area, Hydro Power Plant of 1-5 MW is famous and many company show interest in build and operate
  • 20. Small Hydro Power….. Classification Based on Head Classification Based on Size Below 3 meters Ultra low head Upto 100KW Less than 40 meter Low head 101 KW to2001 KW Mini Hydro Plant Above 40 meter Medium head 2001 KW to 25 MW Small Hydro Plant Micro hydro Plant • Small hydropower has a capital cost of about `50–60 million per MW, which is slightly higher than wind, • Energy cost of about `1.50–2.50 per kWh, which is the lowest among renewable energy technologies in India.
  • 21. Remote Village Electrification Program  The RVE scheme aimed at providing basic lighting/electrification to rural areas through renewable energy sources.  Financial Assistance The RVE program is implemented in the States through Central Financial Assistance of up to 90% of cost of renewable energy generating system from MNRE. The balance cost of the project can be made available through own contribution or through financial institutions.  Activities Eligible for Financial Assistance The activities eligible for financial assistance under this programe are, 1. Installation of power plants based on small hydro power, biomass, wind, biofuels, biogas, etc. for electrification of remote villages/hamlets. 2. Solar photovoltaic power plants may also be supported if found to be cost effective. 3. Hybrid systems and systems based on combination of renewable energy systems would also receive financial assistance. 4. Where no other renewable energy technology is found to be feasible, solar home lighting 5. Initial surveys and studies for firming up of State-wise lists of remote unelectrified census villages and hamlets
  • 22. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission  The scheme is focused on promoting off grid and decentralized       systems, including hybrid systems to meet lighting, electricity and heating/cooling requirements. Divided in 3 phase to implement To create an enabling policy framework for the deployment of 20,000 MW of solar power by 2022 To create favorable conditions for solar manufacturing capability To promote program for off grid applications, reaching 1000 MW by 2017 and 2000 MW by 2022 To achieve 15 million sq. meters solar thermal collector area by 2017 and 20 million by 2022. To deploy 20 million solar lighting systems for rural areas by 2022
  • 23. OFF Grid Power Distribution Management Issue Main management issue: 1. Typical energy consumption pattern and load demand 2. Present energy use pattern and Willingness to pay 3. Single phase verses three phase supply 4. Controlling lighting load Different Technology Option with the Load Profile Load Profile Technology Option Example High Load Area (>50 KW) • Gassifier • Micro Hydro • Husk Power System • DESI Power Medium Load (10-20 KW) • Gassifier • Micro Hydro • TERI-NTPC pilot project Low Load (<10 KW) • SPV • Micro Hydro • Gasifier • Solar home RVE sites • VESP pilot project
  • 24. Husk Power System Business Model  HPS work to provide electricity in rural area using husk  Generate electricity using husk gasification plant  HPS has mainly 3 business Models 1. BOOM (Build, Own, Operate and Maintain) 2. BOM (Build, Own and Maintain) 3. BM (Build and Maintain)  Different pricing method is adopted  Every household has to paid fixed monthly charge of `45 per CFL of 15 W  1 unit charge is approx. `17  For a typical 32KW HPS plant monthly revenue is `60000 and operating cost is `25000 including manpower works  It show model is technically and economically feasible
  • 25. Future Prospective of Renewable Energy in India  The Integrated Energy Policy Report (IEPR), prepared by the planning commission of India, has recognized renewable energy sources remain important to Indian’s energy sector  With a concerted push and a 40 fold increase in their contribution to the primary energy, renewables may account for only 5-6% of India’s energy mix by 2031-32 Resources Upto 10th plan 11th plan 12th -13th plan Total Wind Power 7000 MW 10500 MW 22500 MW 40000 MW SHP 1960 MW 1400 MW 3140 MW 6500 MW Bio Power 1037 MW 2100 MW 4363 MW 7500 MW Solar Power 3 MW 1000 MW 20000 MW 22000 MW Total
  • 26. Medium Term Deployment Aim 2032  GOI aims for several medium/long term goals such as 10% grid interactive renewable power by 2012 and 15 % by 2032  The other massive plans in various sectors are: 1. Energy recovery from municipal waste in 423 cities including 107 municipal corporations where suitable waste is available by 2032. 2. Solar water heating systems: 100% coverage of all prospective users like hotels, hospitals, etc. by 2032. 3. 100% coverage of street lighting control systems by solar sensors in all cities by 2012. 4. Energy recovery from industrial wastes: where suitable waste is available across the country by 2032 5. Solar water heating systems: 100% coverage of potential industries by 2032 6. Cogeneration: 100% coverage of potential sugar and other biomass based industries by 2032 7. Provision of lighting/electricity in all remote unelectrified census villages and remote hamlets of electrified census villages by 2012 8. Augmentation of cooking, lighting and motive power in electrified villages by 2032
  • 27. Conclusion  India have a huge potential of renewable energy resources and from past few year due to government involvement there is sudden growth in Renewable sector  Prospect of renewable energy are steadily improving in India with better future  The strategy for achieving these enhanced goals will mainly depend on the active participation of all players i.e. from government agencies to NGO’s, from manufactures to R&D institutions, from financial institution to developers and of course a new breed of energy entrepreneurs
  • 28. References 1. S. N. Singh, Bharat Singh, Ostergaard, “Renewable Energy 2. 3. 4. 5. Generation in India: Present Scenario and Future Prospects”, IEEE, 2009 Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Government of India. [Online] Available: http://www.mnes.nic.in/ Ministry of Power, Government of India. [Online] Available: http://powermin.nic.in/ The Electricity Act 2003 Report on “Policy And Regulatory Interventions To Support Community Level Off-grid Projects”, ABPS Infrastructure Advisory Pvt. Ltd., Nov 2011