SCENARIO OF INDIA…
Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering &
Technology(Deemed University & Established by
govt. of India)Longowal, Distt-Sangrur (Punjab),
India is presently the world’s fourth largest economy as far as
Purchasing Power Parity (PPP) terms as concerned (the GDP in PPP
terms is estimated at approximately USD 3.2 trillion) and the fifth large
energy consumer in the world. However, due to its high population of
approximately 1.1 billion, the per-capita consumption of most energy
related products is extremely low. The per capita energy consumption is
estimated to be a very modest 530 Kg of Oil Equivalent (kgoe), while
the world average is approximately 1800 kgoe.
Planning Commission Report
by the year 2020, oil and natural gas will meet 44 per
cent of India’s energy requirement compared to 50 per
cent by coal
Nuclear and hydel energy would form 2.5 per cent and
3.5 per cent, respectively
Natural Gas may form 14 per cent of our energy needs
in 2020 compared to 8.6 per cent today.
Renewable Energy Sources
Biogas / Biomass
Energy from wastes
India has a total hydro energy potential of about 1.5
lakh MW of which about 20 % is installed
Small hydro plant potential is about 15000 MW and
most of it is in the northern and eastern hilly regions.
The film ‘Swades’ is a perfect example of how power
starved villages could realize their sources in to power.
The wind power potential of India is about 45,000 MW
out of which capacity of 8748 MW has been installed
India is one of the leading countries in generating the
power through wind energy.
Gujarat, AP, Karnataka, MP and Rajasthan are states
having more than 5000 MW potential each.
These potentials could be improved if the technology
of putting turbines in sea is embraced. There are wind
farms on sea generating as high as 160 MW of power.
Biogas / Biomass
Biomass is the oldest means of energy used by humans
along with solar energy.
Biomass is converted into gas through a gasifier after
combustion. The biomass could be used to generate steam
or power or used as a fuel.
There are various examples of gasifier power plants in
India. Power is generated using rice husk in Andhra
Pradesh, while several bagasse based plants are there.
India has a potential of 3500 MW from bagasse.
Other fast growing plants could be planned over a huge
area, so that it provides biomass for generating power.
The oldest source of energy to be used on earth! Even today, this is used
to dry tons of material – mostly in rural areas.
According to estimates, 35 MW of power could be generated from 1 sq
km. With such potential, solar is going to be the future. The startup
cost is the biggest limitation which has led to the low realization of the
potential it has. For solar energy to become one of the front runners, it
will require lot of research, cheap technology and low capital.
There are various technologies coming up around the world, which
could be up scaled or replicated to use solar energy. Cooking, lighting,
water heating and open air drying applications are common now-a-
days, using solar energy. There are other applications like solar vehicles,
desalination, agriculture, etc. which are coming up. It will take time to
catch up because of the high cost involved in it. The two main methods
of converting solar energy in to power are: i) Photovoltaic cells ii)
Concentrated solar power and any operating
Energy from wastes
Tons of wastes are generated daily in Mumbai alone.
Such huge quantity of wastes generated all over India,
are a huge opportunity to be tapped.
Sorting is required to be done for organic and
inorganic and there is a good quantity for energy
needs. Some of these are converted into fuel briquettes
China, Germany, Italy and India were among the nations that most
successfully attracted private investments, according to new research
released by The Pew Charitable Trusts.
India stands third tied with Germany behind China and the United
States of America, in Ernst & Young’s Country Attractiveness Indices
for the world renewables market.
Indian solar market has benefited from an amended RPO and other
financial support. Interestingly, India scores better than China and
Germany in the solar index only behind USA standing second.
Panchabuta was the first to report on the Solar PV and thermal
developers shortlisted for the first phase of the Solar Mission. 37
developers for a aggregated capacity of 620MW have been shortlisted
and PPA’s signed.
NATIONAL SOLAR MISSION
An ambitious programme launched by GoI.
Aims at ultimate capacity of 20,000 MW by year 2020.
* Capacity enhancement targeted in three phases
o 1300 MW by March, 2013(Phase–1)
+ 1100 MW grid connected and 200 MW off-grid (Phase-2)
o 4000 MW or more by year 2017- (Phase-3)
* Several off-grid applications, which are already
commercially viable or near viability to be scaled up:
o Solar thermal water heaters
o Solar lighting system for remote and in-accessible areas
India targets renewable
INDIA COULD be the next hotspot for solar power developments,
as it strives to boost green energy capacity to help overcome severe
power constraints and cut pollution. The country is primed to build
Asia’s maiden solar park as part of its wider goal to quadruple
generating capacity from renewable sources to 72.4 gigawatts (GW),
or nearly 16% of total capacity by 2022.
The government hopes the expansion of solar and other green
energy sources will fill a huge supply gap, which sees some 50% of
the population having limited or no access to commercial energy.
Gujarat state will invest more than $2.3bn to build Asia’s first solar
park, which will provide infrastructure for 500 megawatts (MW) of
capacity. Electricity from the facility, which expects 330 sunny days
a year, will be sold to the state government, which has agreed to buy
power from as much as 933 MW of new capacity.
In December, India auctioned 620 MW of solar projects to 37 companies, an early step in
the programme that aims to have 20 GW of solar capacity by 2022. Achieving this goal
would see India outpace many nations in solar power – including the US, which the
International Energy Agency predicts will have 17 GW of capacity by 2020.
India aims to add about 35 GW of renewable generating capacity by 2015, with the private
sector expected to invest some $55bn, according to the Indian Renewable Energy
Development Agency. It says renewable investments in the country hit $3bn during the
past fiscal year, ending March 2010, and are likely to rise by 15% by the end of March 2011.
During the 2009-10 period, 2.33 GW of renewable capacity was added, included 1.57 GW
of wind. And the Ministry of New & Renewable Energy expects to reach its target of 9
GW of wind capacity by March 2012.
In addition, India is yet to realise its geothermal potential. Estimated at 10.6 GW,
geothermal capacity could provide energy to remote off-grid areas within the country.
Private-sector investors are examining development opportunities, but getting projects
moving will largely depend on government incentives that, as yet, do not exist.
2020 20GW Indian Solar
Energy Plan: Enviro News
India intends to implement a comprehensive and rigorous
renewable energy plan, it emerged on August 4th 2009.
Through harnessing the power of the sun, India’ plan is to
have electricity from solar energy feeding 20 GW
(gigawatts) into the national grid by 2020.
20 GW represents a huge amount of electricity. To put it
into perspective, the IEA (International Energy Agency)
envisages that, by 2020, total worldwide capacity from solar
energy will be around 27 gigawatts. On this basis, then,
India’s solar electricity will represent approximately three-
quarters of this.
Other energy resources are-
India has huge coal reserves, at least 84,396 million tonnes
of proven recoverable reserves.
This amounts to almost 8.6% of the world reserves and it
may last for about 230 years at the current Reserve to
Production (R/P) ratio.
In contrast, the world's proven coal reserves are expected to
last only for 192 years at the current R/P ratio. India is the
fourth largest producer of coal and lignite in the world.
Coal production is concentrated in these states (Andhra
Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh,
Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand, West Bengal).
Oil accounts for about 36 % of India's total energy
India today is one of the top ten oil-guzzling nations in
the world and will soon overtake Korea as the third
largest consumer of oil in Asia after China and Japan.
The country's annual crude oil production is peaked at
about 32 million tonne as against the current peak
demand of about 110 million tonne.
Natural gas accounts for about 8.9 per cent of energy
consumption in the country
The current demand for natural gas is about 96 million
cubic metres per day (mcmd) as against availability of
Natural gas reserves are estimated at 660 billion cubic
Nuclear Power contributes to about 2.4 per cent of
electricity generated in India.
India has 19 nuclear power reactors at 6 nuclear power
stations producing electricity.
Some of these which are presently in working are-
Finally we can conclude that we are on peak of using
our energy resources. and this is very much clear from
previous discussions that our non-renewable resources
are on peak of their use and one day ultimately they
will vanish of their existence from world.
so we need to develop our renewable energy resources
more and more if we want to enjoy a peaceful and
satisfactory life in today’s energy hungry world….