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Presented By
Malik Sameeullah

NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA

1
Contents













Energy
Conventional source of energy
Energy and economics
Commercial form of energy
Global Energy Consumption
Need to reform in energy sector
Global Energy Crises
Kyoto Protocol
Energy Scenario in India
Electricity Act 2003
Energy Conservation Act 2001
Future energy resource
2
Contents
 Renewable energy and sustainable development
 Renewable Energy in India
 Renewable Energy Policy Framework
 research organization

 Conclusion

3
Energy
 It is a ‘capacity to do work’
 In modern era people depend upon energy

 Fossil fuel like coal, oil & natural gas are main source

of energy
 Energy can be classified into several types based on
the following criteria:
Primary and Secondary energy
2. Commercial and Non commercial energy
3. Renewable and Non-Renewable energy
1.

4
Energy

Primary Energy World Consumption (courtesy BP 2013)
(Million tonnes oil equivalent)

5
Energy

Primary energy regional consumption pattern 2012 (courtesy BP 2013)
(Percentage)
6
Conventional Source of Energy
 Coal, oil and natural gas are the major source of energy







from longtime
Still 80% energy requirement is fulfill by fossil fuel
Coal play a major role to run thermal power plant
Due to rapid industrialization, consumption increase
manifold
Oil and gas decide the economic condition of country
These resources are limited and must be conserve
Main cause of air pollution and global warming

7
Energy and Economics
 Energy is essential for Economic growth
 Economics growth is essential for country like India
 Ratio of energy demand and GDP is useful indicator for

Economics growth
 Per Capita Energy Consumption of USA 13246 kwh/Year
 India Per capita consumption is about 684kwh/Year
 Economic growth of country is depend upon rate of
improvement in per capita energy consumption

8
Oil Consumption Per Capita 2012
Tonnes

9
Commercial form of Energy
 Energy resource which is economical and technically






acceptable is known as commercial fuel
i.e. , after the invention of IC engine, oil become a
commercial fuel
Coal, oil and gas are used.
For sustainable growth, people look forward for new
available form of energy
Nuclear and hydro energy is one of the clean fuel and
have a future

10
Coal Consumption Per Capita 2012
Tonnes oil equivalent

11
Nuclear Energy Consumption Per Capita 2012
Million tonnes oil equivalent

12
Global Energy Consumption
 There is uneven pattern of





energy consumption in

different country
Developed country have a population of 10%, use
approx. 90% of the available resources
One the other side, there is country where people
depend on wood as a form of energy
From last 20 year developing country focus on energy
sector
Rate of growth in energy sector in developed country is
1% to 2%, but in developing country growth rate is 7 to
8%.
13
Per Capita Energy Consumption (kWh)
United Arab Emirates

9389

Sweden

14030

USA

13246

Australia

10720

Japan

7848

Germany

Per Capita Energy
Consumption (kWh)

7081

China

3298

Indonesia

680

India

684
0

5000

10000

15000

Source: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC
14
Need to reform in Energy sector
 Developing countries require substantial investments






in their power sectors to sustain economic growth and
reduce poverty
Fossil fuels are depleted and need proper care
Global pollution level increase and there is threat of
global warming
Oil & gas crisis in 1980
Kyoto Protocol sign by country to reduce carbon
emission

15
Global Energy Crises
 Global Energy requirement increases continuously
 Fuel resources are depleted
 Oil price increase continuously
 It put pressure on country economic
 Oil war start (developed country pressurized oil rich

country)
 It is estimated that in next 50-60 year oil & gas
resources are consumed

16
Kyoto Protocol
 First









legal international agreement on climate
protection
It aim to reduce the level of Green House Gas emission
Annex-B country must limit there emissions of
GHG, most notably CO2 from fossil fuel combustion
Annex-B country reduce GHG emission by 5.2% on
1990 average (achieve goal by 2012)
There is system for carbon credit
It lack economic and environmental policy objective
Developing country are not much interested in kyoto
protocol
17
Energy Scenario in India
 India is a seventh largest country and have a population

of 1.2 billion people
 To maintain growth rate, need rapid growth in energy
sector
 41% of electricity generation from thermal power plant

18
Energy scenario in India
 By 2016-2017, total domestic energy production of 670

million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE). This meet only
71% of the expected demand.
 As per the 2011 Census, 55.3% rural households had
access to electricity
 Still most of the rural area have limited supply hours of
electricity
 India ready to exploit renewable energy resources

19
Electricity ACT 2003
 Role of Government : National Electricity Policy and











tariff policy
Rural electrification
Splitting the structure: Genco, Transco and Discos
Consumer protection
Trading and market development
Formation of Central Electricity Authority (CEA)
Restructuring of State Electricity Board (SEB)
Measures against theft of electricity
Renewable energy utilization
20
Energy Conservation Act 2001
 much-needed

legal framework and institutional
arrangement for embarking on an energy efficiency drive

 Energy auditing for designated consumer like energy

intensive industry, railway, commercial building, Power
Plant etc.
 Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)

 Role of BEE: standard and labels of appliances, undertake

promotional activity, prepare building codes, maintain
central energy conservation fund etc.
21
Future Energy Resources
 Current rate of fossil fuel usage will lead to an energy






crisis this century
Energy industry start inventing new ways to extract
energy from renewable sources
Due to lack of technology and economic
consideration, total shift toward renewable energy is
not possible
Nuclear energy have a future
Solar thermal plant, solar PV plant, wind energy play a
crucial role to satisfy the energy demand
22
Renewable Energy and Sustainable
Development
 Sustainable Development: “to meets the needs of the










present without compromising the ability of future”
Effect of conventional source of energy: air pollution, acid
precipitation, ozone depletion, forest destruction, and
emission of radioactive substances
There is shortage of energy in near future
more use of renewable energy sources and technologies is
one of the solution
Renewable energy is a direct or indirect form of solar energy
Research is going on to make renewable energy economical
Once technology develop in renewable energy field, it help
in national sustainable economic growth
23
Renewable Energy in India
 Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) come

in picture in 2006
 It work to increase the share of renewable energy
Output in GW
25

19.93

20

15
10
5
0

3.74

1.77

2.39

0.21

2.21

(Cumulative deployment of renewable energy as on 31.10.2013)
:Source MNRE
24
Wind Energy
 India have a wind potential of 50 GW at 50m height
 Costal region in southern part of India is one of the





best site of wind energy
India is a fifth largest wind power producer in world
Wind energy sector is one of the fastest growing
renewable energy sector
Assessment of wind energy resource is done by C-WET
(Centre for Wind Energy Technology)
R&D and testing is done by C-WET

25
Biomass Power Programme
 Objective of harnessing grid quality power from

biomass
 Biomass material like bagasse, rice husk, cotton and
jute waste, de oiled cakes etc. are used to produce
energy
 Bagasse based cogeneration in sugar mill have a
potential of 5000 MW
 Biogas based generation in village using animal waste

26
Small Hydro Plant
 Hydro plant of capacity less than 25 MW
 Estimated potential of small hydro plant is 20 GW
 It help to provide electricity in remote area
 Government plant to electrify boarder village of

Arunachal Pradesh using small hydro plant
 AHEC (Alternative Hydro Energy Centre),IIT Roorkee
is work to design international level R&D and testing
facility

27
Solar Power
 With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India have





abundant solar potential
Daily average solar energy incident over India varies
from 4 to 7 kWh/m2
Technology advancement and drop in price of PV
module make solar PV plant a good choice
National Solar Mission launch to encourage solar
energy
Solar PV plant type:
1.
2.

Grid connected solar PV plant
Off grid (StandAlone) PV plant
28
Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar
Mission
 Launched on 11 January 2010
 It aim:
1. Deployment of 20000 MW of grid connected solar
plant by 2022
2. 2000 MW of off grid solar application including 20
million solar lights by 2022
3. 20 million sq. meter of solar thermal collector area
4. R&D and capacity building activities to achieve grid
parity by 2022

29
Renewable Energy Policy Framework
 Budgetary support for research, development and

demonstration of technologies
 Financial Incentives, including for renewable energy
applications in rural areas
 Promoting private investment through fiscal
incentives, tax holidays, depreciation allowance and
remunerative returns for power fed into the grid.
 Finance for renewable energy: IREDA

30
Research ORGANIZATION
 Solar Energy Centre
 Centre of Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)
 AHEC (Alternative Hydro Energy Centre)
 IREDA ( Indian Renewable Energy Development

Agency)
 SECI (Solar Energy Corporation of India)
 NCPRE (National Centre for Photovoltaic Research
and Education), IIT Bombay
 Renewable energy centre in various IIT and NIT
31
Conclusion
 India, one of the stable economic country depend







upon thermal power plant to meet 45 % demand
To make future brighter India gear up to utilize
renewable resources
Still the share of renewable energy is not significant
Various renewable energy mission launch by
government of India
Growth of renewable sector show that still in future
thermal plant is a main source of energy.
Nuclear plant and large hydro plant replace thermal
power plant in future
32
THANK YOU

?
33

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Energy scenario in India

  • 1. Presented By Malik Sameeullah NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, KURUKSHETRA 1
  • 2. Contents             Energy Conventional source of energy Energy and economics Commercial form of energy Global Energy Consumption Need to reform in energy sector Global Energy Crises Kyoto Protocol Energy Scenario in India Electricity Act 2003 Energy Conservation Act 2001 Future energy resource 2
  • 3. Contents  Renewable energy and sustainable development  Renewable Energy in India  Renewable Energy Policy Framework  research organization  Conclusion 3
  • 4. Energy  It is a ‘capacity to do work’  In modern era people depend upon energy  Fossil fuel like coal, oil & natural gas are main source of energy  Energy can be classified into several types based on the following criteria: Primary and Secondary energy 2. Commercial and Non commercial energy 3. Renewable and Non-Renewable energy 1. 4
  • 5. Energy Primary Energy World Consumption (courtesy BP 2013) (Million tonnes oil equivalent) 5
  • 6. Energy Primary energy regional consumption pattern 2012 (courtesy BP 2013) (Percentage) 6
  • 7. Conventional Source of Energy  Coal, oil and natural gas are the major source of energy       from longtime Still 80% energy requirement is fulfill by fossil fuel Coal play a major role to run thermal power plant Due to rapid industrialization, consumption increase manifold Oil and gas decide the economic condition of country These resources are limited and must be conserve Main cause of air pollution and global warming 7
  • 8. Energy and Economics  Energy is essential for Economic growth  Economics growth is essential for country like India  Ratio of energy demand and GDP is useful indicator for Economics growth  Per Capita Energy Consumption of USA 13246 kwh/Year  India Per capita consumption is about 684kwh/Year  Economic growth of country is depend upon rate of improvement in per capita energy consumption 8
  • 9. Oil Consumption Per Capita 2012 Tonnes 9
  • 10. Commercial form of Energy  Energy resource which is economical and technically     acceptable is known as commercial fuel i.e. , after the invention of IC engine, oil become a commercial fuel Coal, oil and gas are used. For sustainable growth, people look forward for new available form of energy Nuclear and hydro energy is one of the clean fuel and have a future 10
  • 11. Coal Consumption Per Capita 2012 Tonnes oil equivalent 11
  • 12. Nuclear Energy Consumption Per Capita 2012 Million tonnes oil equivalent 12
  • 13. Global Energy Consumption  There is uneven pattern of     energy consumption in different country Developed country have a population of 10%, use approx. 90% of the available resources One the other side, there is country where people depend on wood as a form of energy From last 20 year developing country focus on energy sector Rate of growth in energy sector in developed country is 1% to 2%, but in developing country growth rate is 7 to 8%. 13
  • 14. Per Capita Energy Consumption (kWh) United Arab Emirates 9389 Sweden 14030 USA 13246 Australia 10720 Japan 7848 Germany Per Capita Energy Consumption (kWh) 7081 China 3298 Indonesia 680 India 684 0 5000 10000 15000 Source: http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/EG.USE.ELEC.KH.PC 14
  • 15. Need to reform in Energy sector  Developing countries require substantial investments     in their power sectors to sustain economic growth and reduce poverty Fossil fuels are depleted and need proper care Global pollution level increase and there is threat of global warming Oil & gas crisis in 1980 Kyoto Protocol sign by country to reduce carbon emission 15
  • 16. Global Energy Crises  Global Energy requirement increases continuously  Fuel resources are depleted  Oil price increase continuously  It put pressure on country economic  Oil war start (developed country pressurized oil rich country)  It is estimated that in next 50-60 year oil & gas resources are consumed 16
  • 17. Kyoto Protocol  First       legal international agreement on climate protection It aim to reduce the level of Green House Gas emission Annex-B country must limit there emissions of GHG, most notably CO2 from fossil fuel combustion Annex-B country reduce GHG emission by 5.2% on 1990 average (achieve goal by 2012) There is system for carbon credit It lack economic and environmental policy objective Developing country are not much interested in kyoto protocol 17
  • 18. Energy Scenario in India  India is a seventh largest country and have a population of 1.2 billion people  To maintain growth rate, need rapid growth in energy sector  41% of electricity generation from thermal power plant 18
  • 19. Energy scenario in India  By 2016-2017, total domestic energy production of 670 million tons of oil equivalent (MTOE). This meet only 71% of the expected demand.  As per the 2011 Census, 55.3% rural households had access to electricity  Still most of the rural area have limited supply hours of electricity  India ready to exploit renewable energy resources 19
  • 20. Electricity ACT 2003  Role of Government : National Electricity Policy and         tariff policy Rural electrification Splitting the structure: Genco, Transco and Discos Consumer protection Trading and market development Formation of Central Electricity Authority (CEA) Restructuring of State Electricity Board (SEB) Measures against theft of electricity Renewable energy utilization 20
  • 21. Energy Conservation Act 2001  much-needed legal framework and institutional arrangement for embarking on an energy efficiency drive  Energy auditing for designated consumer like energy intensive industry, railway, commercial building, Power Plant etc.  Establishment of Bureau of Energy Efficiency (BEE)  Role of BEE: standard and labels of appliances, undertake promotional activity, prepare building codes, maintain central energy conservation fund etc. 21
  • 22. Future Energy Resources  Current rate of fossil fuel usage will lead to an energy     crisis this century Energy industry start inventing new ways to extract energy from renewable sources Due to lack of technology and economic consideration, total shift toward renewable energy is not possible Nuclear energy have a future Solar thermal plant, solar PV plant, wind energy play a crucial role to satisfy the energy demand 22
  • 23. Renewable Energy and Sustainable Development  Sustainable Development: “to meets the needs of the       present without compromising the ability of future” Effect of conventional source of energy: air pollution, acid precipitation, ozone depletion, forest destruction, and emission of radioactive substances There is shortage of energy in near future more use of renewable energy sources and technologies is one of the solution Renewable energy is a direct or indirect form of solar energy Research is going on to make renewable energy economical Once technology develop in renewable energy field, it help in national sustainable economic growth 23
  • 24. Renewable Energy in India  Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE) come in picture in 2006  It work to increase the share of renewable energy Output in GW 25 19.93 20 15 10 5 0 3.74 1.77 2.39 0.21 2.21 (Cumulative deployment of renewable energy as on 31.10.2013) :Source MNRE 24
  • 25. Wind Energy  India have a wind potential of 50 GW at 50m height  Costal region in southern part of India is one of the     best site of wind energy India is a fifth largest wind power producer in world Wind energy sector is one of the fastest growing renewable energy sector Assessment of wind energy resource is done by C-WET (Centre for Wind Energy Technology) R&D and testing is done by C-WET 25
  • 26. Biomass Power Programme  Objective of harnessing grid quality power from biomass  Biomass material like bagasse, rice husk, cotton and jute waste, de oiled cakes etc. are used to produce energy  Bagasse based cogeneration in sugar mill have a potential of 5000 MW  Biogas based generation in village using animal waste 26
  • 27. Small Hydro Plant  Hydro plant of capacity less than 25 MW  Estimated potential of small hydro plant is 20 GW  It help to provide electricity in remote area  Government plant to electrify boarder village of Arunachal Pradesh using small hydro plant  AHEC (Alternative Hydro Energy Centre),IIT Roorkee is work to design international level R&D and testing facility 27
  • 28. Solar Power  With about 300 clear, sunny days in a year, India have     abundant solar potential Daily average solar energy incident over India varies from 4 to 7 kWh/m2 Technology advancement and drop in price of PV module make solar PV plant a good choice National Solar Mission launch to encourage solar energy Solar PV plant type: 1. 2. Grid connected solar PV plant Off grid (StandAlone) PV plant 28
  • 29. Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission  Launched on 11 January 2010  It aim: 1. Deployment of 20000 MW of grid connected solar plant by 2022 2. 2000 MW of off grid solar application including 20 million solar lights by 2022 3. 20 million sq. meter of solar thermal collector area 4. R&D and capacity building activities to achieve grid parity by 2022 29
  • 30. Renewable Energy Policy Framework  Budgetary support for research, development and demonstration of technologies  Financial Incentives, including for renewable energy applications in rural areas  Promoting private investment through fiscal incentives, tax holidays, depreciation allowance and remunerative returns for power fed into the grid.  Finance for renewable energy: IREDA 30
  • 31. Research ORGANIZATION  Solar Energy Centre  Centre of Wind Energy Technology (C-WET)  AHEC (Alternative Hydro Energy Centre)  IREDA ( Indian Renewable Energy Development Agency)  SECI (Solar Energy Corporation of India)  NCPRE (National Centre for Photovoltaic Research and Education), IIT Bombay  Renewable energy centre in various IIT and NIT 31
  • 32. Conclusion  India, one of the stable economic country depend      upon thermal power plant to meet 45 % demand To make future brighter India gear up to utilize renewable resources Still the share of renewable energy is not significant Various renewable energy mission launch by government of India Growth of renewable sector show that still in future thermal plant is a main source of energy. Nuclear plant and large hydro plant replace thermal power plant in future 32