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Renewable energy scenario in india opportunities and challenges

Surjeet Randhir Singh Dhaka
Surjeet Randhir Singh Dhaka
Surjeet Randhir Singh DhakaSenior Research Fellow (ICAR-NIAP, New Delhi) at IABM, SKRAU, BIKANER

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Renewable energy scenario in india opportunities and challenges

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Renewable Energy Scenario in 
India: Opportunities 
and Challenges 
P R E S E N T E D B Y: 
S U R J E E T R A N D H I R S I N G H D H A K A 
T E A C H I N G A S S O C I AT E & P H . D . S C H O L A R 
I A BM 
S . K . R . A . U . 
B I K A N E R
1. INTRODUCTION 
 India is now the eleventh largest economy in the world, 
fourth in terms of purchasing power. 
 In recent years, India has emerged as one of the leading 
destinations for investors from developed countries. This 
attraction is partially due to the lower cost of manpower and 
good quality production. 
 This sector only represents a small portion of the total 
population. The remaining population still lives in very poor 
conditions.
 Despite the global financial crisis, India’s energy 
demand continues to rise. India consumes its 
maximum energy in residential, commercial and 
agricultural purposes in comparison to China, Japan, 
Russia, EU-27 and US
Renewable energy scenario in india opportunities and challenges
Figure 2: Energy consumption by sector, India 
compared to China, Japan, Russia, EU 27 and US
2. PRESENT POWER SCENARIO IN THE 
COUNTRY 
Figure 3 All India Installed Capacity (as on 31st December, 2011)
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Renewable energy scenario in india opportunities and challenges

  • 1. Renewable Energy Scenario in India: Opportunities and Challenges P R E S E N T E D B Y: S U R J E E T R A N D H I R S I N G H D H A K A T E A C H I N G A S S O C I AT E & P H . D . S C H O L A R I A BM S . K . R . A . U . B I K A N E R
  • 2. 1. INTRODUCTION  India is now the eleventh largest economy in the world, fourth in terms of purchasing power.  In recent years, India has emerged as one of the leading destinations for investors from developed countries. This attraction is partially due to the lower cost of manpower and good quality production.  This sector only represents a small portion of the total population. The remaining population still lives in very poor conditions.
  • 3.  Despite the global financial crisis, India’s energy demand continues to rise. India consumes its maximum energy in residential, commercial and agricultural purposes in comparison to China, Japan, Russia, EU-27 and US
  • 5. Figure 2: Energy consumption by sector, India compared to China, Japan, Russia, EU 27 and US
  • 6. 2. PRESENT POWER SCENARIO IN THE COUNTRY Figure 3 All India Installed Capacity (as on 31st December, 2011)
  • 7. 3. RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES IN INDIA  Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly.  In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth.  Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, bio fuels and hydrogen derived from renewable resources.
  • 9. 4. OVERVIEW: RENEWABLE ENERGY  The country has significant potential of generation from renewable energy sources. All efforts are being taken by Government of India to harness this potential.  The Installed capacity as on 31st December, 2011 from renewable energy sources is 20,162 MW which comprises of 3225.92 MW in the State sector and 16936.32 MW in the Private sector.  The Total Renewable Installed Capacity comprises of  Wind: 14104.62 MW  Small Hydro Plants 3120.83 MW  Biomass & Gasifiers 2787.63 MW  Solar power & Urban & Industrial waste. 149.16 MW  India ranks fifth in the world in terms of installed capacity of wind turbine power plants.
  • 11. Biomass and Biogas Energy  The potential to generate power from biomass, as an alternative source of energy in India is to the extent of more than 50% of the total requirement.  India is predominantly an agricultural economy, having huge quantity of biomass available in the form of husk, straw, bagasse, jute, cotton, shells of coconuts wild bushes, cattle dung etc.  Biomass is produced in nature through photosynthesis achieved by solar energy conversion.  Biomass means organic matter. In simplest form, the process of photosynthesis is in the presence of solar radiation.  Biomass energy co-generation program is being implemented with the main objective of promoting technologies for optimum use of biomass resources of India.
  • 12. Wind Energy  Energy of wind can be economically used to generate electrical energy.  Wind can also be used to provide mechanical power such as for water pumping.  In India generally wind speeds obtainable are in the lower ranges. Therefore, attempts are on the development of low cost, low speed mills for irrigation of small and marginal farms for providing drinking water in rural area.  The developments are being mainly concentrated on water pumping wind mill suitable for operation in a wind speed range of 8 to 36 kmph.  In India high wind speeds are obtainable in coastal areas of Saurashtra, western Rajasthan and some parts of central India..
  • 13. Small Hydropower  Hydropower Energy from small hydro is the oldest. It is most reliable of all renewable energy sources. The development of small scale hydropower in India started almost in the pace with the world’s first hydroelectric installation in 1882 at Appleton USA.  The 130 KW installations in Sidrapong (Darjeeling) in the year 1897 was the first installation in India. The other installations were Shivasamundram at Mysore (2000 kW), and Bhoorisingh in Chamba (40 kW) in 1902, Galogi at Mussoorie (3000 kW) in 1907, Jubbal (50 kW) in 1911 and Chhaba (1750 kW) at Shimla in 1913.  These plants were used primarily for lighting in important towns and are still working.
  • 14. Solar Energy  Solar energy has the greatest potential of all the sources of renewable energy. If only a small amount of this form of energy could be used, it will be one of the most important supplies of energy.  The solar power where sun hits atmosphere is 1017 W.  The solar power on the surface of earth is 1016W.  The total worldwide power demand of all needs of civilization is 1013 W.  Therefore, the sun gives us 1000 times more power than we need. If we can use 5% of this energy, it will be 50 times what the world will require.
  • 15. Ocean Thermal Energy  This is also an indirect method of utilizing solar energy.  A large amount of solar energy is collected and stored in tropical oceans.  The surface of the water acts as the collector for solar heat, while the upper layer of the sea constitutes infinite heat storage reservoir.  The basis of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) systems.
  • 16. Tidal Energy  The tides in the sea are the result of the universal gravitational effect of heavenly bodies like sun and moon on the earth.  Due to fluidity of water mass, the effect of this force becomes apparent in the motion of water. It shows a periodic rise and fall in levels.  It is in synthesis with the daily cycle of rising and setting of sun and moon. This periodic rise and fall of the water level of sea is called tide.  It is called, “Tidal Energy”.  When the water is above the mean sea level, it is called, “Flood Tide”. When the level is below the mean sea level, it is called, “Ebb Tide”.
  • 17. Geo Thermal Energy Two ways of electric power production from geothermal energy has been suggested.  1. Heat energy is transferred to a working fluid which operates the power cycle. This may be particularly useful at places of fresh volcanic activity, where the molten interior mass of earth comes to the surface through fissures and substantially high temperatures, such as between 450 to 5500C can be found. By embedding coil of pipes and sending water through them can be raised.
  • 18. Geo Thermal Energy 2. Hot geothermal water and or steam is used to operate the turbines directly. Presently only steam coming out of the ground is used to generate electrical energy. The hot water is discarded because it contains as much as 30% dissolved salts and minerals. These cause serious rust damage to the turbine.
  • 19. Hydrogen Energy and Fuel Cells  In recent years hydrogen has been receiving worldwide attention as a clean and efficient energy carrier with a potential to replace liquid fossil fuels.  Hydrogen has high energy content, when burnt, it produces only water as a byproduct.  Therefore, it is environmentally benign. At present hydrogen is available as a by-product from several chemical processes, plants or industries.
  • 20. Summary  There is an urgent need for transition from petroleum-based energy systems to one based on renewable resources to decrease reliance on depleting reserves of fossil fuels and to mitigate climate change. 1. Innovative financing 2. Mainstreaming of renewables is very essential. 3. Energy security, economic growth and environment protection are the national energy policy drivers of any country of the world. 4. There is a need to boost the efforts for further development and promotion of renewable energy sources. 5. Promoting renewable energy technologies as a way to address concerns about energy security and economic growth. 6. Specific action included promoting deployment, innovation and basic research in renewable energy Technologies.