GUIDANCE AND COUNSELLING
Guidance and counselling have, in all places,
been a vital aspects of higher education. One of
the purposes of education is to help the individual
in becoming a useful member of society. If an
individual receives education without proper
guidance and counseling, he is not able to develop
his personality fully.
MEANING OF GUIDANCE
1.Some form of help and assistance given to an
individual to solve their problems.
2.Guidance as the promotion of the growth of
the individual in self-direction.
3.Guidance helps the individuals to adjust to the
1.Guidance as a process through which an
individual is able to solve their problems and
pursue a path suited to their abilities and
2.Guidance is a continuous process of helping the
individual development in the maximum of their
capacity in the direction most beneficial to
himself and to society
- Stoops and wahlquist.
3.Guidance is an educational service designed to
help students make more effective use of the
schools training programme.
- Educational point of view
NEEDS FOR GUIDANCE
Guidance based upon the fact, human being
needs help. Every one needs assistance at
sometime in his life, some will need it
constantly while others used in only at rare.
These reasons are of the following three
A. PSYCHOLOGICAL REASONS
1. Individual Differences
2. Guidance Needs at Different Stage of
3. Development of Health Personality
4. Making the Most of Available Opportunities
B. SOCIOLOGICAL REASONS
1) Guidance is need for Proper Use of Human
2) Guide and changes in religious and moral belief
3) Guidance and extension of democracy
4) Lack of Guidance at home
To help in traditional of student
To help in proper choice of courses
To help in proper choice of careers
To minimize wastage
To help exceptional children
ELEMENTS OF GUIDANCE
It focus our attention on the individual and not the
Guidance leads to the discovery of abilities of an
Guidance is based upon the assets and limitations of
Guidance leads to self- development and selfdirections.
Guidance helps the individual to plan wisely for the
present and the future.
Guidance assists the individual to become adjusted
to the environment.
Guidance assists to achieve success and happiness.
CHARACTERISTICS OF GUIDANCE
1.It helps every individual to help himself to
recognize and use his inner resources,
To set goals
To make plans
To work out his own problems of
2.It is a continuous process
3.Choice and problem points are the distinctive
concerns of guidance.
4. It is assistance to the individual in the process
Aim: To develop the capacity for
5.Guidance is a service meant for all: It is a
regular service, which is required at every
stage for every student.
6. It is both generalized and a specialized
7.It enables the individuals to take decisions to
TYPES OF GUIDANCE
GUIDACE GIVEN BY FOLLOWING PERSONNEL
5. Library staff
6. Medical staff
8. Liasion officer
9. Physical education instructor
MEANING OF COUNSELLING
Counseling is a specialized service of guidance, and
it is an enabling process designed to help through
learning to take responsibility and to make
decisions for himself / herself.
It is a helping relationship which includes Someone seeking help
Someone willing to give help
Capable or trained to help
In a setting that permits, help to be given and
‘Counselling’ denotes, “Giving of advice”.
“Counselling is a method that helps the client to
use a problem- solving process to recognize and
manage stress and that facilitates interpersonal
relationships among client, family and health
BASIC COMPONENT OF COUNSELLING
4.Change in feeling and expressions
5.Planning of counseling interview
NEED OF COUNSELLING
Bragdon has mentioned the following
situations where counselling is required.
• When a pupil requires not only reliable
interpretation of those information which can
solve his personal difficulties.
• When a pupil needs intelligent listener who has
more experience than the pupil, to whom he
can recite his difficulties.
• When the pupil has some problem but he is
unaware of that problem, he is to be made
aware of that problem.
• When the pupil suffers the main maladjustment problem or some handicap which
is temporary and which needs careful long
due to diagnosis by an expert.
LEVELS OF COUNSELLING
There are three levels of counselling
2.Non – specialist counselling
ELEMENTS OF COUNSELLING
According to cattle
1.Rapport with the counselee.
2.Communication between the counselor and the
3.Counselor's through background of the
4.Counsellee’s changes in the feelings as
counselling proceeds and progresses through
5.Structured counselling interview.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COUNSELLING
It is a purposeful learning experience for the
It is the purposeful oriented and private interview
between the counselor and counsellee
Based on mutual confidence satisfactory
relationship will be establish
Counselling process is structured around the felt
needs of the counsellee.
Main emphasis in the counselling process is on the
counsellee’s self-direction and self acceptance.
It is only one aspect of guidance
MEDIA OF COUNSELLING
1) Regional centers
2) Study centers
3) Face to face contact
9) Broad cast
Williamson and Darley have mention six steps
of counselling procedure.
6. Follow up
TYPES OF COUNSELLING
1. Directive Counselling
2. Non Directive Counselling / client centred
3. Short Term Counselling
4. Long Term Counselling
5. Psychological counselling
6. Clinical Counselling
7. Student Counselling
8. Placement Counselling
18)Problem solving counselling
21)Moral, religious and social counselling
22)Counselling in leisure time
23)Self help group counselling
24)peer group counselling
TECHNIQUES OF COUNSELLING
Williamson described the Techniques of
couselling under the following five headings.
2.Cultivating self understanding
3.Advising and planning a programme of action
a) Direct Advising
b) Persuasive method
5.Referral to other personnel workers
PHASES OF COUNSELLING
The counselling divided in five phases
QUALITIES OF A COUNSELLOR
1. Interpersonal relationship
• Friendly nature
• Ability to maintain confidentiality
• Respect clients abilities
• Attentive listener
• Speaks in client language
• Capacity for being trusted by others.
• Show matured behavior
• Maintain emotional stability
• Flexibility and adaptability
• Aware of one’s limitations.
• Able to accept criticism
• Mentally sound
• Knowledge of self
3.Scholastic potentiality and educational
• Should be motivated and committed.
• Aware of polices, beliefs, and misconceptions
existing with in the local community.
• Highly cultured social interests
• Capacity for work
• Intelligent to tackle the situations effectively
• Positive interest
• He will have master degree in the essential
area of guidance programme
• Ability to work with people.
4.Health and personal appearance
• Pleasing voice
• Pleasing appearance
• Freedom from annoying mannerisms.
• Ability to lead other
• Reinforce important information
• Guidence the counsellee to choose
appropriate method for problem solving.
6.Philosophy of life
• Good character
• Positive philosophy of life
• Integrated personality
• Faith in human value
• Show significant spiritual and religious values.
• Possess vocation interest and interest in
• Show loyalty, enthusiasm to provide service for
• Willing to work beyond call of duty.
THE ORGANIZED SETUP
1. for constituent college on the campus:
• If 1000 students on rolls - Counseling officer
• If less than 1000 student - liaison officer
• If more than 1000 student - Assistant counseling
Officer with counseling
2. At university:
Deans are assisted by HOD of psychology, and
Education – Guidance committee, counseling
officer, can plan the program and implement the
ORGANIZING GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
PROG. IN NSG. EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
To help individuals through temporary crisis
To identify signs of disturbed
To refer cases needing specialist treatment
To facilitate communication with in and
between the nursing school, home and the
To support tutors who are helping individuals.
Any successful counseling programme cannot
just depend upon a counsellor alone but has to
involve other member like librarian, medical
1. Principal / Tutor/ medical superintendent
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING
It is a comprehensive process
It is an integral part of guidance.
It can be in individual as well as in group
Counseling of one individual is possible at a
educational, It usually helps in solving the problems of
vocational and others problem along mental health and emotions.
with personal problem
Any person can provide through the In
magazines, books and correspondence