Curriculum development


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Curriculum development

  1. 1. Surendra Sharma Asisst. Professor Amity University, Gurgoan,India
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Education aims the behavior modification of learners. Behavior modification is achieved through a series of activities curriculum is concerned with guiding the teachers and students in the educative process. Therefore curriculum for the preparation of a teacher, nurse and student who can carryout these professional functions humanely and competently must be developed.
  3. 3. MEANING AND DEFINITION OF CURRICULUM The term curriculum is derived from the Latin word “currere” which means, “run”. Thus, curriculum is a runway of attaining the goal of education. Curriculum may be considered as a blueprint of an educational program. According to Cunningham, “curriculum” is the tool in the hands of an artist to mould his material, according to his ideals in his studio”. In this definition, artist is the teacher, material is the student ideals are objectives and studio is the educational institute.
  4. 4. COMPONENTS OF NURSING CURRICULUM Curriculum invariably contains • The statement of philosophy of the educational program • The statement of the objectives of educational program • Total duration of educational programme • Detailed course plan for each course. • Program of evaluation such as type of examinations, various grades according to results, percentage meant for internal assessment in university examinations etc.
  5. 5. CURRICULUM PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT  A process in which participants at many levels make decisions about the purposes of leaningteaching situation.  It is the process of gathering, starting, selecting balancing and synthesizing relevant information from many resources in order to design those experiences that will assist learners in attaining the goals of curriculum.  It is the orderly study and improvement of schooling in light of stated objectives.
  6. 6.     CHARACTERISTICS It is a continuous process It takes place at many levels It involves many groups, decisions about a variety of planning and issues. It is ultimately concerned with the experiences of learners
  7. 7. • • • • • • • • BASIC PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION Principle of conservation Principle of selectivity Principle of forward looking The creative principle Activity and experience curriculum Principle of preparation of life Principle of linking with life Child centered curriculum contd…..
  8. 8.  Principle of maturity  Principle of individual difference  Vertical and horizontal articulation  Principle of comprehensiveness and balance  Principle of loyalties  Principle of flexibility and need baseness  Principle of common subjects/core subjects  Principle of leisure  Principle of sensitivity
  9. 9. CURRICULUM COMMITTEE It is a committee consisting of members who actively participate in the development or construction of curriculum for their school/college. • • • • • • • • Curriculum administrator Principal School boards Communities Law makers Educational researchers Teacher educators Publishers contd….
  10. 10. • • • • • • • • • • • State department of education Parents Students Non school educators Project directors Authors Testers Accreditors Polisters Lobbyists Philanthropists
  11. 11. STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT According to Ralph Tyler, there are four main steps or tasks in curriculum development  Formation of educational objectives  Selection of learning experiences  Effective and efficient organization of leaning experiences  Evaluation of the curriculum
  12. 12. A). Formation of Educational Objectives Educational objectives are the statements of those desired changes in behavior as a result of specific teaching learning activities or specific teacher-learner activity. Philosophical statement of the institute Social health needs of the society Needs of the students Resources available in the society Entry criteria or level of students Specification of positions to the held by the students on the completion of program as staff nurses, nursing autor etc. • Future trends in nursing • Criteria to be fulfilled in order to appear for internationally reputed qualifying examinations like CGFNS. • • • • • •
  13. 13.      Steps in the formulation of educational objectives According to Ralph Tyler there are nine essential tasks or steps in the formulation of education objectives Identify the needs of society Identity the needs of society Study the suggestions of experts Formulate the philosophy] State the objectives gathered from various sources
  14. 14.  Formulate a theory of learning  Screen the objectives through educational philosophy and educational psychology helps to determine the methods of teaching, principles of teaching, methods of learning etc.]  Define the objectives clearly n terms of content  State the educational objectives in terms of behavioral outcomes or changes.
  15. 15. 2. Selection of Learning Experiences Learning experience It is defined as deliberately planned experiences in selected situations where students’ activity participate, interact and which results in desirable changes of behavior in the students.
  16. 16.         Characteristics of good learning experiences Learning experiences should allow the student learning by doing Learning experience should create motivation and interest among students. Learning experiences should be challenging to the students Should satisfy the needs of the time Should bring out multiple outcomes in students Should help students to acquire needed knowledge skill and attitude Should be helpful in hunting or gathering information Should be helpful to the students in attaining the educational objectives
  17. 17. Criteria for the selection of learning experiences      Learning experiences selected should be Consistent with the philosophy of the institute & lead to attainment of objectives of objectives of program Varied and flexible enough Given opportunity to practice the kind of behavior implied in the objectives Provide opportunity for the development of independent thinking and decision making sound judgmental, intellectual resourcefulness, self discipline and sound integrity of purpose.
  18. 18.  Adapted to the needs of students  Arranged in manner that provide, continuity, correlation and integration of theory and proactive  Planned and evaluated co-operatively by teacher & students  Selected and arranged to give appropriate and emphasis and weightage according to the relative importance of various learning experiences and contents.
  19. 19. 3). Organization of Learning Experiences Continuity, sequence and integration has to be followed while organizing the learning experiences. Continuity is achieved through building each experience one after another. Sequence refers to building of learning experience are over another more deeply and broadly. Integration is relating the learning experiences in such a way that the learner gets a unified view of while learning
  20. 20. Elements of organizing the learning experiences Elements to be considered while organizing the learning experiences are,  Grouping learning under subject headings  Preparation of master plan for curriculum  Placement of learning experiences in the total curriculum  Preparation of correlation chart  Organization of clinical experience  Teaching practice systems have to be followed
  21. 21.        4). Evaluation of the Curriculum Curriculum evaluation involves An assessment of the philosophy of the institution Program goals of the institution Nursing content taught in each course Course objectives Teaching learning methods Course evaluation methods and The relationship of non-nursing courses to the overall plan study.
  22. 22.  A. Men whether curriculum has been organized and     implemented properly by the faculty members and other personnel involved B. Money whether money meant for curriculum development is utilized properly C. Materials evaluation of text books, literature and the like used for the development and implementation of curriculum D. Methods whether teaching learning methods which are planned in curriculum are appropriate E. Minutes whether adequate time is given for theory and practical in each course like medical surgical nursing, mental health nursing etc.
  24. 24. PATTERNS OF CURRICULUM ORGANIZATION     1. Student centered curriculum Co-operation, common interests, working together are under lying elements brings about growth in life related skills. Learners are active partners in the curriculum pupil’s interest individual’s needs are essential ingredients of curriculum Flexibility should be brought in the content, areas of learning use of instructional materials. Suitable resources have to be collected reference books, newspapers, journals, excursions, libraries, films, audiotapes and TV etc.
  25. 25. 2. Correlated curriculum Two or more subjects often exists in a school side by side with no apparent connection. In some cases, these points are ‘natural’. For example, mathematical formulate needed for solving problems in physics or chemistry.
  26. 26. 3. Integrated or fused curriculum It means ‘blended together’. A bouring together of subjects and students might provide a stronger base for learning for example; post basic (N) program, all the subjects which basic students learned in four years, will be studied with in tow years as they had preliminary training in diploma course and post basic (N) will become base for learning
  27. 27. 4. Core curriculum According to John Dewey’s “philosophy of experimentalism gave concepts of core curriculum  Focus of learning upon fundamental human activities  Learning viewed of continuous reconstruction of experience  Problem solving  Basic democratic values and dynamic changes in political and social ideas, cultural factors.  Acceptance of cognitive theories of learning. It is a dynamic, organic process