Introduction to
Facilitation
ADLT 675
TiME Program
Increasing effectiveness as a
facilitator is NOT

New strategies and techniques
Instead, it involves internal work
to explore the core values and
assumptions that guide our
actions
Developing Skills as a Group Facilitator
What is group facilitation?
Choosing Among Facilitator Roles
Key Features of the Skilled Facilitator
Approach
A Group
Effectiveness
Model
Mental Models
Rules Governing Theories-in-Use
From the work
of Chris
Argyris &
Donald
Schön, 1974
Model I Behaviors (unilateral control)
Model II Behaviors (mutual learning)
Nine Ground Rules for Effective Groups
ADVOCACY

Te
llin

High

g

Testing:

Low

“Here’s what I say,
“What do you think
of it?”

Asserting:

“Here’s what I say
...
ADVOCACY

High

Clarifying: “What is the
question we are trying to
answer?”

Interviewing:
Exploring others’ points of
vie...
ADVOCACY

High

Bystanding: Making
comments which pertain
to the group process, but
not to content.

Sensing: Watching the...
ADVOCACY

g
tin

INQUIRY

er a

Low

Genuinely curious,
makes reasoning
explicit, asks
others about
assumptions

n
Ge

Hig...
Dysfunctional Forms of Advocacy and Inquiry
Dictating: “Here’s
what I say, and never
mind why.”

ADVOCACY

(Dysfunctional)...
ng
lli
e
T

Asserting
Explaining

Skillful
Dialogue
(Balancing
Advocacy and
Inquiry)

Dialogue

Bystanding

Clarifying

Se...
Ladder of Inference


Take action base on belief



Adopt beliefs



Draw conclusions



Make assumptions



Add mean...
How Do You Apply the Ladder of Inference
by Using Advocacy and inquiry?
Walk “Down” the Ladder
Writing a Left-Hand Column
Case
Describe the situation in one short
paragraph
 Create two columns on a page
 Reflect on ...
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Introduction to facilitative skills nov 11, 2013 adlt 675

  1. 1. Introduction to Facilitation ADLT 675 TiME Program
  2. 2. Increasing effectiveness as a facilitator is NOT New strategies and techniques
  3. 3. Instead, it involves internal work to explore the core values and assumptions that guide our actions
  4. 4. Developing Skills as a Group Facilitator
  5. 5. What is group facilitation?
  6. 6. Choosing Among Facilitator Roles
  7. 7. Key Features of the Skilled Facilitator Approach
  8. 8. A Group Effectiveness Model
  9. 9. Mental Models
  10. 10. Rules Governing Theories-in-Use From the work of Chris Argyris & Donald Schön, 1974
  11. 11. Model I Behaviors (unilateral control)
  12. 12. Model II Behaviors (mutual learning)
  13. 13. Nine Ground Rules for Effective Groups
  14. 14. ADVOCACY Te llin High g Testing: Low “Here’s what I say, “What do you think of it?” Asserting: “Here’s what I say and here’s why I say it.” An artist’s pallet of Advocacy and Inquiry Explaining: “here’s how the world works and why I can see it that way.” INQUIRY High
  15. 15. ADVOCACY High Clarifying: “What is the question we are trying to answer?” Interviewing: Exploring others’ points of view, and the reasons behind them Low INQUIRY As i ng k High
  16. 16. ADVOCACY High Bystanding: Making comments which pertain to the group process, but not to content. Sensing: Watching the s Ob conversation flow without saying much, but keenly aware of all that transpires er g vin Low INQUIRY High
  17. 17. ADVOCACY g tin INQUIRY er a Low Genuinely curious, makes reasoning explicit, asks others about assumptions n Ge High Skillful Dialogue (Balancing Advocacy and Inquiry): Dialogue: Suspend all Assumptions, creating a “container” in which collective thinking can emerge. High
  18. 18. Dysfunctional Forms of Advocacy and Inquiry Dictating: “Here’s what I say, and never mind why.” ADVOCACY (Dysfunctional) Politicking: Giving the impression of balancing advocacy and inquiry, while being close-minded (Dysfunctional) Withdrawing: Mentally Checking out of the room, and not paying attention (Dysfunctional) INQUIRY Interrogating: “Why can’t you see that your point of view is wrong?” (Dysfunctional)
  19. 19. ng lli e T Asserting Explaining Skillful Dialogue (Balancing Advocacy and Inquiry) Dialogue Bystanding Clarifying Sensing s Ob Interviewing ing sk A er vin g Low i ng at er ADVOCACY Testing n Ge High INQUIRY High
  20. 20. Ladder of Inference  Take action base on belief  Adopt beliefs  Draw conclusions  Make assumptions  Add meanings  Select data  Observable data and experience
  21. 21. How Do You Apply the Ladder of Inference by Using Advocacy and inquiry? Walk “Down” the Ladder
  22. 22. Writing a Left-Hand Column Case Describe the situation in one short paragraph  Create two columns on a page  Reflect on the What was said What I thought in the but did not say case study conversation  Share it with a reviewer 
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