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PSY 126 Week 8: Motivating Performance

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Motivating Performance
Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D.
Week 8: Psychology for Business & Industry
Defining Motivation
• Daniel Pink TED talk
• MOTIVATION = the internal process leading to
behavior to satisfy needs (the R...

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PSY 126 Week 8: Motivating Performance

  1. 1. Motivating Performance Matthew L. Eisenhard, Psy.D. Week 8: Psychology for Business & Industry
  2. 2. Defining Motivation • Daniel Pink TED talk • MOTIVATION = the internal process leading to behavior to satisfy needs (the REASON you do anything). ▫ Q = Why do people do what they do? ▫ A = To meet their needs & wants. ▫ It is a process – and a continuous one.  Need > Motive > Behavior > Satisfy/or Not • IMPORTANCE = being able to motivate yourself and others is critical to your career success (and life over-all).
  3. 3. Performance Formula Emotions > Behavior > Performance The Formula: Performance = Ability X Motivation X Resources All 3 factors need to be HIGH. If any one is weak = performance will suffer. When people’s needs are not met – generally they become dissatisfied and low performers. Theories for Motivation help us understand and Techniques for Application help us implement them.
  4. 4. Theories of Motivation • Content Theories • Process Theories • Reinforcement Theories
  5. 5. Content Theories of Motivation Content Theories = focus on identifying people’s needs in order to understand what motivates them. ◦ Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs ◦ ERG Theory (Existence – Relatedness – Growth) ◦ Two-Factor Theory ◦ Manifest Needs Theory
  6. 6. Maslow’s Hierarchy Shown in a Pyramid (Exhibit 8.1)  Needs are in order – from basic to more complex.  You cannot meet higher needs until basic ones are attained. Five Basic Needs 1. PHYSICAL – food, water, shelter, sex. 2. SAFETY – safe working conditions, security. 3. SOCIAL – love, friendship, affection, acceptance. 4. ESTEEM – ego, status, self-respect, recognition (titles, raises, promotions, etc). 5. SELF-ACTUALIZATION – your full potential.
  7. 7. ERG Theory Classification of needs is highly debatable. Some say only 2 – others say 7. ERG is a well-known simplification. Alderfer reorganized Maslow’s into 3 categories that correlate. ◦ Existence = physical & safety needs ◦ Relatedness = social needs ◦ Growth = esteem & self-actualization needs
  8. 8. How to Motivate Using Hierarchy & ERG Theories • General rule of thumb: meet lower-level needs so people can work on upper-levels. • With ERG ask: ▫ What are this persons needs? ▫ What needs have been met? ▫ What are the lowest ones that haven’t been met? ▫ Have any higher needs been frustrated & how? ▫ Is the person refocusing on lower levels? ▫ How can the unmet needs be attained?
  9. 9. Two-Factor Theory • Herzberg’s (1950’s) Classification of Needs
  10. 10. Motivators & Hygienes Self-assessment exercise 8.1. ◦ HYGIENES (lower level needs).  Physical, Safety, Social  a.k.a. EXtrinsic - external to job itself.  Pay, job security, job titles, etc.  Keep people from being dissatisfied – but do not motivate them. ◦ MOTIVATORS (higher level needs).  Esteem, Growth, Self-Actualization.  a.k.a. INtrinsic – internal to individual.  Achievement, recognition, challenge, etc.  To be truly motivated and satisfied you must seek and attain INTERNAL REWARDS – your job must have meaning to you beyond $$ and titles.
  11. 11. Manifest Needs Theory • McClelland’s Classification Of Needs. ▫ PERSONALITY based approach to motivation. • Self-assessment exercise 8.2. • Three needs. ▫ ACHIEVEMENT. ▫ POWER. ▫ AFFILIATION.
  12. 12. Need for Achievement • High = problem solvers – goal-oriented – like challenges – strive for excellence – realistic risk takers – hard workers – high performers. • To Motivate = give non- routine challenging tasks – lots of feedback and often – increasing responsibilities.
  13. 13. Need for Power • High = want to control – are competitive – don’t like loosing – willing to confront others – low need for affiliation. • To Motivate = give lots of autonomy – include in decision making – work alone rather than in teams – give them the whole task, not just a part of it.
  14. 14. Need for Affiliation • High = like close relationships – need to be liked – enjoy socializing – like to belong to groups and organizations – tend to be low Power people – prefer to follow instead of lead. • To Motive = work as part of a team – give lots of praise and recognition – let them train new people on the job – great mentors.
  15. 15. Content Theories
  16. 16. Process Motivation Theories • Attempt to understand How And Why people are motivated. • Focus more on behavior than need. ▫ Expectancy Theory ▫ Equity Theory
  17. 17. Expectancy Theory • Vroom’s Formula ▫ Motivation = Expectancy X Valence  Depends on how much someone wants something. • Expectancy ▫ A person’s perception of their own ability & what they foresee as outcomes. ▫ Higher expectations = higher motivation. • Valence ▫ The value placed on the outcome or reward. ▫ Higher value = higher motivation.
  18. 18. Expectancy Theory How To Motivate Using This Theory ◦ Give clear precise goals. ◦ Tie performance to rewards. ◦ Make sure the reward is of value to the person (remember what one person values another may not). ◦ Make sure people believe you will give them the reward.
  19. 19. Equity Theory Based on the perception of inputs and outputs. “Does what I put into this job equal what I get out of it?” “Am I getting what I deserve for the work I do?” “Am I getting paid equally in comparison to others doing the same work I am doing? People must perceive they are being treated equal to others. If they perceive they are not - then trouble comes knocking. When people think they are being treated with equity they are more motivated to perform. Most people tend to inflate their own efforts and performance over others – and also overestimate what others earn.
  20. 20. Motivating with Equity Theory Be aware equity is based on perception. ◦ Perceptions can be right or wrong. ◦ Some managers have favorites – inequity. Rewards need to be fair. ◦ If people think they are not being treated fairly then resentment and retaliation can occur. High performance needs rewarding. ◦ Must have clear understanding of what they need to do (input) to get reward (output). How people feel is what counts most. ◦ What people “know” isn’t as important as how they “feel.” ◦ Inequity makes for high emotionality.
  21. 21. Reinforcement Theory • B.F. Skinner = behavior can be controlled through the use of positive or negative consequences. • A.K.A. Behavior Modification or Operant Conditioning. • Three Components: ▫ STIMULUS – the event/ something that happens. ▫ RESPONSE – behavior/ performance. ▫ CONSEQUENCES – reinforcement – positive/ negative.
  22. 22. Types of Reinforcement POSITIVE ◦ Rewarding desired behavior. ◦ Increases possibility of repeated behavior. NEGATIVE (Avoidance) ◦ Removal of something unpleasant. ◦ Increases possibility of repeated behavior. EXTINCTION ◦ When reinforcers are not given. ◦ The desired behaviors disappear. PUNISHMENT ◦ Least effective method of controlling behaviors. ◦ Lowers morale, productivity. ◦ Encourages acts of sabotage, theft, etc.
  23. 23. Schedules of Reinforcement CONTINUOUS = Every Time. INTERMITTENT: ◦ FIXED INTERVAL  Reinforcement after set time.  Weekly pay check. ◦ VARIABLE INTERVAL  Reinforcement after a unpredictable time lapse.  Fishing. ◦ FIXED RATIO  Reinforcement after a set number of events occur.  Piecework. ◦ VARIABLE RATIO (HIGHEST PREDICTOR )  Reinforcement after an average or variable or unpredictable number of events occur.  Slot machines.
  24. 24. Motivating with Reinforcement • Make expectations and objectives clear. • Use appropriate rewards. • Use the right reinforcement schedule. • Never reward undesired behaviors. • Focus on positives – reward them. • Never go a day without praising. • Do things FOR people not TO them.
  25. 25. Motivation Techniques • Praise • Objectives and Management By Objectives (MBO) • Job Enrichment • Job Design
  26. 26. Praise • Research since 1940’s show appreciation and recognition motivate more than anything else • Even $$$!
  27. 27. Objectives ◦ State what is to be accomplished within a Certain Time Frame (goals with deadlines) – should be written. ◦ It Is a Plan for Success.  Criteria For Objectives (Goals)  Difficult But Doable.  Challenging but not impossible.  Observable And Measurable  Ability to see and evaluate (keeping score).  Specific – Target Dates  Know exactly what and when .  Participative (When Possible)  Employee input = better performance.  Accepted  Employees must accept and be willing – buy in.
  28. 28. Motivation Techniques • Management By Objectives (MBO) ▫ The process where managers and employees Jointly Set Objectives for the employee. ▫ Three Steps:  Set Individual Objectives and Plans.  Give Feedback and Evaluate Performance (frequently).  Reward According to Performance.
  29. 29. Motivation Techniques JOB ENRICHMENT ◦ Process of building motivators into the job itself by making it more interesting and challenging.  Ways To Do That:  Delegate More Variety And Responsibility.  Learn new skills – relieves boredom.  Form Natural Work Groups.  Allowing teams to work together instead of in separate offices – tear down the cubicles?  Make Employees Responsible For Their Own Identifiable Work.  Put the worker’s name on the label!  Give Employees More Autonomy.  Flexibility to plan and organize your own job.
  30. 30. Motivation Techniques Job Design ◦ The employee’s system for transforming inputs into outputs. ◦ The more effective the method – the productive the employee. ◦ Job Simplification:  ELIMINATE  If something isn’t productive – quit doing it just because that’s the way it’s always been done.  COMBINE  Some tasks can be done at the same time as others – good time management.  CHANGE SEQUENCE  Just changing the order in which things get done sometimes makes a huge difference in saving time.  Do the dreaded task first and get it over with!
  31. 31. Self Motivation • Feeling bored…or trapped? • Try these techniques (Model 8.3). ▫ Set Objectives  Decide what you want – get a destination. ▫ Develop Plans – Willpower Alone Fails  Make a step-by-step plan – prioritize it. ▫ Measure Results  Get feedback – compare performance to goal. ▫ Reinforce Results  Reward yourself for successes – and if you slip start again!
  32. 32. Motivation Around the Globe Cross-Cultural Differences in Motivation ◦ Hierarchy Needs  Countries at risk may place Security high.  Countries that value relationships over possessions may place Social Needs higher.  Obviously higher-level needs are more relevant to wealthy societies than to poor ones. ◦ Achievement Needs  High quantity of life countries value high performance.  High quality of life countries are not as interested in performance.  Individualist societies focus on self-accomplishments.  Collective societies focus on group-accomplishments.
  33. 33. Motivation Around the Globe Cross-Cultural Differences in Motivation ◦ Individualistic –v- Collective  Equity is more of a motivator in Individualistic cultures – with higher producers earning more.  But even in U.S. (Individualistic) – Worker Unions (including teachers) tend to prefer equal pay as opposed to merit pay. ◦ Expectations  This motivation is flexible and works well within a variety of countries because it is all relative. ◦ Goal Setting  Not as important in countries where quality of life is valued over quantity of life issues.
  34. 34. Chapter Review • Motivation Process & Performance • Motivation Theories ▫ Content Theories ▫ Process Theories ▫ Reinforcement Theories • Motivation Techniques

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