Data are simply facts or figures – the “bits”
When data are processed, interpreted, and
organized to make them meaningful, they
are called Information
Knowledge is created when information is
applied and made useful.We create
knowledge, construct knowledge, and apply
knowledge to solve problems.
Assessment applies to learners. We assess
the extent to which students or trainees have
acquired knowledge and skills.
Evaluation usually applies to programs. It is
the process of determining the merit, worth,
or value of something, called the evaluand.
Measurement is how we determine
attributes or dimensions of that which is
The Scale at the
Valid or Reliable?
(knowledge) Miller, 1990, with adaptation in 2016 by Cruess et al.
(development of a
Consistently demonstrates the attitudes, values,
and behaviors expected of one who has come to
“think, act, and feel like a physician”
Consciously demonstrates the behaviors expected of
Demonstrates the behaviors expected of a physician
Knows when individual behaviors are appropriate
Knows the behavioral norms expected of a physician
Three Purposes of Assessment
•To make decisions about learners’
•To evaluate the effectiveness of the
•To PROMOTE LEARNING
Assessment OF Learning or FOR Learning?
Assessment: the process of establishing successful learning
• Assessment OF learning: (Focus on what the FACULTY will
• Assessment FOR learning: (Focus on what the LEARNER
Assessment for Learning:What
does the literature say?
Learning Goals and Objectives
An Assessment System FOR Learning
Goals / Outcomes/Competencies
What do you want your learners to be able to do?
What do you want your learners to know?
Skills/Behaviors Curriculum Assessment
2. How to get there? Does it promote
Essential Foundational Components
Consider the assessment culture, faculty development,
Designing Assessment for Learning
• New Programs
NOVEMBER 6 – CHAPTER 7
NOVEMBER 13 – CHAPTERS 8 AND 9
NOVEMBER 20 – CHAPTERS 10 AND 12
• Simulations and Models