Leadership Styles

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Presentation to management about different styles of leadership.

Leadership Styles

  1. 1. Leadership Concepts<br />Are you <br />Born a leader <br />or are you <br />Made a leader?<br />
  2. 2. Leadership Concepts<br />Are leaders born or made?<br />Thomas Carlyle suggested the “great man” theory, that is, that leaders are born with innate qualities or traits that set them apart from other “mere men”<br />Researchers since have found that there is not one set of traits that makes someone a leader<br />Traits that are found in leaders are also found in followers<br />Trait theories did not show leaders were successful in different situations using very different methods<br />As the limitations of early explanations for leadership development became clear, researchers turned to other areas for investigation<br />
  3. 3. Leadership Concepts<br />Areas that researched turned to in order to explain what makes a good leader<br />Behavioral Theories<br />Situational Theories<br />Contingency Theories<br />
  4. 4. Behavioral Theories<br />1940 saw a shift in belief towards that which supported the idea that Leadership could be taught.<br />Anyone could become a leader with the right information<br />Not based on personality traits<br />Based on what the leader did to make people follow them<br />Two aspects of behavior became apparent in the research<br />
  5. 5. Behavior Theory<br />Two Aspects of Behavior<br />Behavior focused on the structural elements of the job<br />Establishing rules and guidelines for employees<br />Behavior that considered the needs of the employees<br />Standing up for employees<br />Explaining decisions<br />There were leadership characteristics that were not explained by behavioral theories<br />How or why one behavioral aspect worked in one situation but not another<br />
  6. 6. Situational Theories<br />Seeks to explain leadership effectiveness in different situations<br />Elements that are considered <br />How the leaders and followers interact<br />How the work is structured<br />There are three main situational theories<br />Blake-Mouton managerial grid, 1968<br />Path-goal theory, 1971<br />Hersey-Blanchard theory, 1977<br />
  7. 7. Blake-Mouton Managerial grid<br />Considers two aspects<br />Concern for people<br />Concern for production<br />Uses 9 levels to measure each aspect<br />Leaders on the lowest (1,1) level show no concern for people or production<br />Leaders on the highest extreme show maximum concern for both people and production<br />Leaders scoring (9,9) are the most effective leaders<br />
  8. 8. Path-goal Theory<br />Proposes that a leader can impact the behavior of a group by establishing goals and providing direction on reaching those goals<br />Four leadership styles may be used to accomplish this<br />Directive<br />Supportive<br />Participative<br />Achievement<br />
  9. 9. Path-goal Theory<br />Directive<br />Specifics what is to be done<br />Supportive<br />Leader provides encouragement for the group members<br />Participative<br />Leader involves the group in decision making process<br />Achievement<br />Leader establishes a difficult goal and encourages the group to accomplish it<br />
  10. 10. Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Describe leadership in terms of maturity level of the followers<br />Two types of maturity<br />Psychological maturity (motivation)<br />Job task maturity (level of experience)<br />This model provides four styles of leadership appropriate in different circumstances<br />Telling<br />Selling<br />Participating<br />Delegating<br />
  11. 11. Hersey-Blanchard Theory<br />Telling<br />With an immature team member base the leader must be direct in providing guidance and defining roles<br />Selling<br />With some experience, leader is directing in a more general sense; Encouraging motivated followers with lack of experience<br />Participating<br />Followers may lack necessary motivation and require support and encouragement to act on their own<br />Delegation<br />Followers have the maturity to accomplish their tasks, leader identifies the goal and the followers are accountable to produce the results<br />
  12. 12. Contingency Theories<br />Begins with an assessment of leader’s style<br />Uses the “least preferred co-worker” scale<br />Indentify the co-worker (past or present) with whom you had the most difficulty working and rate this person on a scale of 1 to 8 on a series of measures such as level of cooperation and friendliness<br />The result is know as the Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) <br />A high score indicates the leaders has a greater concern for people than tasks<br />A low score indicates a greater concern for tasks<br />LPC score could predict the situation in which the leader would have a better chance of success <br />
  13. 13. Contingency Theory<br />Describes situations in terms of three aspects<br />Leader-member relations<br />Relationship between the leaders and members of the group are the key factor in determining the level of influence the leader will have within the group<br />Task Structure<br />Jobs that are highly structured provide a leader with greater influence than those that require little structure<br />Position Power<br />Situations in which the leader has the discretion to assign tasks or to reward or punish members of the group provide the leader with a greater chance of success<br />
  14. 14. Leadership Styles<br />What kind of leader are you?<br />
  15. 15. Leadership Styles<br />There are many different types of leadership styles that are appropriate and effective in different situations. <br />We have all experienced different types of leadership styles<br />What type of leader are you?<br />
  16. 16. Leadership Styles<br />Authoritarian or Directive<br />Democratic<br />Laissez-Faire<br />Coaching<br />Transactional<br />Transformative<br />
  17. 17. Authoritarian or Directive<br />Effective in situations requiring immediate actions<br />Effective in situations that are life threatening<br />Can be the best style when productivity is the highest concern<br />
  18. 18. Democratic<br />Most effective in environments of highly skilled professional employees<br />Good style for individuals who are self motivated and accomplish tasks on their own<br />Most effective style when relationships in the work environment are of primary concern<br />
  19. 19. Laissez-faire<br />Allows group members to operate on their own<br />Provides no direction or guidance<br />Can lead to chaos if members lack confidence in their abilities<br />May be an acceptable style for those who are highly motivated and can work independently<br />In general it results in lower levels of productivity<br />
  20. 20. Coaching<br />Coaches work with the group members to develop skills and abilities so that they will be able to operate independently<br />
  21. 21. Transactional<br />Focus on getting the job done<br />Offering a reward in exchange for accomplishing goals<br />Manage by exception<br />Seeking out areas where rules are not being followed and making corrections<br />Taking action when a goal is not met<br />
  22. 22. Transformation<br />Focuses on the relationships in the group<br />Building relationships to achieve organizational goals<br />Set the ideal for the group and act as a role model<br />Inspire Excellence within the group<br />Stimulate new ideas and perspectives<br />Transformative leaders are coaches who work with individuals to develop their skills and abilities and improve their performance<br />
  23. 23. Leadership Styles<br />Authoritative or Directive<br />Democratic<br />Laissez-faire<br />Coaching<br />Transactional<br />Transformative<br />
  24. 24. LEADERSHIP STYLES<br />How many leadership styles do you embody?<br />

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