1.Lady-spoke about harmony n peace ,living in balance with nature I want to live in a green planetBetter job-rid of boring jobMother in law-go bak to own house(negative vision)- not called as grown ups but given ups2.High market share-for high profit3.Genuine caring-werppl feel uncomfortable to talk about purpose,feel easy to talk about genuine caring.They talk abtwat they really want to do-energy n enthusiasm4.purpose-general heading v-specificdestination p-abstract v-concrete p-best that I can b v-breaking the 4 min mile5.Material facets-wer v want to live,how much money v want in bankPersonal facets-health,freedom,being true to ourselves
Name belief centersPowerlessness—inability to bring into being all the things we really care about Unworthiness– that we do not deserve to have what we truly desire.Structure conflicting forces: pulling us simultaneously towards and away from what we want.
1.Inadequate strategy.ppl ask-y should I change my behaviour,yshud I change underlyin beliefs2.Broadening awareness,deepenin our understandin3.Power of truth-Seeing reality more n more as it is.
.-world class swimmers hav found that by imagining hands to b twice its size n legs to b webbed-they swim fasterDeveloping subconscious rapport about genuine caring about desired outcome-right goal to inspire
It is a representation of the surrounding world, the relationships between its various parts and a person's intuitive perception about his or her own acts and their consequences. Mental models can help shape behavior and set an approach to solving problems (akin to a personal algorithm) and doing tasks.
Discipline of managing mental models – surfacing, testing, and improving our internal pictures of how the world works holds the key to building learning organizations.Learning skills fall into two broad classes: skills of reflection and skills of inquiry. Most managers are trained to be advocates. In fact, in many companies, what it means to be a competent manager is to figure out what needs to be done, and enlist whatever support is needed to get it done.
It is not possible to wave a magic wand and create a high-performing, self-managed team overnight. A self-managed team needs to develop a culture of lifelong, individual and team learning.
It builds on the discipline of developing a shared vision.Builds on personal mastery, for talented teams are made up of talented individuals.
Dialogue and discussion are potentially complementary, but most teams lack the ability to distinguish between the two and tend to move consciously between them.In dialogue, a group explores complex difficult issues from many points of view. Individuals communicate their assumptions freely. The result is a free exploration that brings to the surface the full depth of people’s experience and thought, and yet can move beyond their individual views.
In dialogue, people become observers of their own thinking. Through dialogue, people can help each other to become aware of the incoherence in each other’s thoughts. In this way, the collective thought becomes more and more coherent.The difference between great teams and mediocre teams lies in how they face conflict and deal with the defensiveness that invariably surrounds conflict. Defensive routines form a sort of protective shell around our deepest assumptions. These routines defend us against pain, but alsokeep us from learning about the causes of the pain.A team committed to learning must be committed not only to telling the truth about what’s going on “out there,” in their business reality, but also about what’s going on “in here,” within the team itself.
The source of defensive routines, is not belief in our views or desire to preserve social relations, as we might tell ourselves, but fear of exposingthe thinking that lies behind our views. The more effective defensive routines are, the moreeffectively they cover up underlying problems, the less effectively these problems are faced, andthe worse the problems tend to become.It is not the absence of defensiveness that characterizes learning teams but the way defensiveness is faced. A team committed to learning must be committed not only to telling the truth about what’s going on “out there,” in their business reality, but also about what’s going on “in here,” within the team itself. To see reality more clearly, we must also see our strategies for obscuring reality.
Questioning: When faced with a problem, a new project or an opportunity, it is a good idea to focus on the nine key success factors which make the difference between a high-performing team and a low-performing team.Valuing Diversity: Diversity of thinking is one of the hallmarks of learning teams. Problems need to be viewed from different angles if the best solutions are to be generated. If everyone looks at problems in the same way then group think can occur. If diversity is allowed and encouraged, then better solutions will result.Communicating: Communication is the essential process that links a team together. Communicating within the team learning discipline is a dynamic process which constantly moves through all seven skills.Pacing is the technique of varying your communication style to match that of other people. Inquiry is listening carefully to what people are saying and asking questions to fill in the gaps. Learning Review: Learning is an iterative process that takes place through feedback.
Conceptual cornerstone that underlies all the learning disciplines
This systems view shows a perpetual cycle of aggression. US responds to perceived threat to Americans by increasing US military activities which increases perceived aggressiveness of the US. This leads to more terrorist recruits and so on. This leads to both sides focusing on the short term goals. But they end up creating danger for everyone.
There is a fundamental mismatch between the nature of reality in complex systems and our predominant ways of thinking about that reality. The first step in correcting that mismatch is to let go of the notion that cause and effect are close in time and space.
Detail complexity: Example: US has a primary intelligence agency CIA, and a NSA. In addition, they have FBI and homeland security. Each of these agencies gather their own intelligence and perceive various level of threats to the nation which force the Government to react militarily. Dynamic Complexity: Example: A king planning to attack warring states in order to conquer them will get flaked when he is actually attacked by the combined forces of the warring states. Understanding dynamic complexity is important while considering Systems thinking. In Systems thinking, we should shed individuality and involve as a group. Everyone shares responsibility.
Reinforcing Feedback: Example – Pygmalion effect – A student does not perform well in the first semester at a new school as she has not adapted to the new environment. The teacher on the contrary, thinks she in not motivated and so the next semester, the teacher pays less attention. Again the student performs poorly. Now she’s caught in her own spirals and pulled down because of being labeled as a non-performer. Small change, large consequence.Balanced Feedback: Example – Managers cutting down on labor to cut costs are end up with an overworked workforce and increased costs as they have to outsource their works to consultants.
The Art of Managing the Team Learning and Peter Senge's Fifth Discipline
Organization skilled at Creating, Acquiring, and
Transferring KNOWLEDGE and Modifying its
BEHAVIOUR to reflect new insights
Without accompanying changes in the way that work
gets done, only the potential for improvement exists
Translate new knowledge into new ways of behaving
Learning as a process..
In a Learning Organization
•Flexibility - core value of organization
•People - appreciated for skills, values and work
•Staff Opinions - sought and treated with respect.
•Exchanging information - sharing ideas and experiences is
•Learn new skills - apply to jobs to enhance services and
•Opportunities exist - creative, learn from mistakes, take risks and
reach new levels of expertise.
•Learning Occur – at individual, group and organization
1. Employees seem unmotivated
or uninterested in their work
2. Workforce lack the skill and
knowledge to adjust to new
3. Workforce simply follow orders
4. Teams argue constantly and
lack real productivity
5. Lack communication between
A company that needs to learn…
Why they fail?
In 1983, a Royal Dutch survey found that one third of the firms
in the Fortune "500" in 1970 had vanished.
Most organizations learn poorly and create fundamental
The seven learning Disabilities
I AM MY
THE ILLUSION OF TAKING
THE PARABLE OF
THE BOILED FROG
THE DELUSION OF
THE MYTH OF THE
THE ENEMY IS
Trained to be loyal to our job and confuse them with our
Tendency to see responsibilities as limited to the boundaries
Eg: American steel company-closing plants-train the
displaced steelworkers-training never happened-acute
identity crises-describe the tasks they perform every day,
not the purpose of the greater enterprise.
Eg: Detroit auto maker
When people in organizations focus only on their position,
they have little sense of responsibility for the results
produced when all positions interact.
I am my Position
The propensity to find someone or something outside
ourselves to blame when things go wrong.
Thou shall always find an external agent to blame.
Marketing blames manufacturing blames engineering
This syndrome is a by-product of "I am my position”.
THE ENEMY IS OUT THERE
Proactiveness is reactiveness in disguise.
Aggressive fighting the ‘enemy out there’ means we are reacting-
True proactiveness comes from seeing how we contribute to our own
THE ILLUSION OF TAKING CHARGE
THE FIXATION ON EVENTS
•Focusing on events distract from seeing the longer-term patterns of change
•Distracts from understanding the cause of those patterns
•Cave men needed to react to events quickly for survival-ability.to
• the cosmos is not required - ability to see the tiger over your left shoulder
is only required.
•Generative learning cannot be sustained in an organization if people's
thinking is dominated by short-term events.
THE PARABLE OF THE BOILED FROG:
We are adept at responding to sudden changes in
We are terrible at assessing slow, gradual changes,
even when they threaten our survival.
The Delusion of Learning from Experience
Practice makes permanent, rather than perfect
Team learning starts with ‘dialogue’= the capacity of members of
a team to suspend assumptions and enter genuine ‘thinking
Allows the group to discover insights not attainable individually
Is a shared vision only when it connects with the personal vision
of people throughout the organization.
Shows group how to recognize the patterns of interaction that
Vision creates the spark; the excitement that lifts an
organization out of the mundane.
Fosters risk taking and experimentation
Encourages building personal vision-personal mastery-the
An organization made up of genuinely compliant people
will be very productive and cost effective contrary to
Brings along energy, passion, and excitement.
Does not play by the “rules of the game” but is responsible
for the game
•“What?” – the
picture of the
future we seek
answer to the
do we exist?”
•“How do we want
to act? A company’s
values describe how
the company wants
life to be on a day-
to-day basis while
pursuing the vision
Governing ideas answer three critical
“What?” “Why?” and “How?”
Political environment-importance who>what.
Two different aspects of openness – participative and
Participative openness - the freedom to speak one’s
mind-focuses purely on the “means” or process of
interacting, not on the “results” of that interaction.
Reflective openness - leads to people looking inward-
involves not just examining our own ideas but examining
each other’s thinking.
An attitude which may accept that “I may be wrong and the
other person may be right”
-“Personal mastery” is the phrase we use for the
discipline of personal growth and learning. People with
high levels of personal mastery are continually expanding
their ability to create the results in life that they truly seek.
Personal vision comes from within
Focuses on the means rather than result.
Real vision cannot be understood in isolation from the idea
But vision is different from purpose
Vision is multifaced.
•Creative Tension is
measured by the
our goals and our
•Relieve the tension by
reducing your goals to
match your current
reality, or change your
perception of your
current reality to be
closer to your goal
When setting goals for your team, follow this game plan:
•Set goals without worrying how you will get there.
•Make an honest assessment of the current reality.
•Relieve some tension by modifying the goals without changing the
honest assessment of the current reality.
“Most of us hold one or more opposing
beliefs that limits our ability to create
what we really want”
Letting our vision erode
Commitment to Truth
• People always want formula, a
technique, something tangible that
can apply to solve problem of
• But Commitment to Truth is far
more powerful than any technique
• Here truth is relentless willingness
to root out the ways we limit or
deceive ourselves from seeing what
is continually broadening our
Using The Subconscious
-you don’t Really Need to Figure it all out
High level of Rapport
In working more productively with the
• Implicit in the practice of personal mastery is another
dimension of the mind.(subconscious)
• Through subconscious that “all of us” deal with complexity.
• We have all mastered a vast repetitive of skills through
“training” the sub conscious.
• Effective way to focus on subconscious is through imagery
It is an explanation of someone's thought process
about how something works in the real world.
Managing Mental Models
Improving our internal pictures
of how the World works
- The learning Curve
Learning eventually results in changes in action, not just
taking in new information and forming new “ideas.”
That is why recognizing the gap between our adopted
theories (what we say) and our “theories-in-use” (the
theories that lay behind our actions) is vital.
Most of our mental models are systematically flawed.
Team learning is the process of working collectively to
achieve common objectives in a group.
In the Learning Organization context, team members
tend to share knowledge and complement each other's
There is the free and creative exploration
of complex and subtle issues, a deep
“listening” to one another and suspension
of one’s own views
Different views are presented and
defended. There is a search for the best
view to support decisions that must be
made at this time.
Thought denies that it is participative
Thought stops tracking reality
Thought establishes its own standard
of reference for fixing problems,
which it contributed to creating in
the first place.
Purpose of Dialogues – reveal
incoherence in our thought
The difference between great teams and mediocre teams lies
in how they face conflict and deal with the defensiveness
that invariably surrounds conflict.
Defensive routines form a sort of protective shell around our
It is not the absence of defensiveness that characterizes
learning teams but the way defensiveness is faced.
Seeing inter-relationships, patterns of change, wholes
What is a system?
US GOVERNMENT VIEWPOINT
NEED TO RESPOND
Correcting the mismatch
Neither incentives nor means to integrate learning
Why SYSTEMS THINKING?
arises when we use advanced procedures to analyze a set of
procedures or data
Too much of analysis leads to various complexities in arriving at
an improper conclusion.
Cause and effect are subtle
Obvious interventions produce non-obvious consequences
Small change builds on itself
It leads to large consequences – better or worse
System that seeks stability
Decision based on balancing end up as errors
Creates instability in the system
Solutions attending symptoms give short term
Root cause has to be found and eliminated for long
Identifying small changes that lead to large benefits is
“Too Much information is the cause for ‘information’