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Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
Ch 21 section 2
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Ch 21 section 2

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  • 1. Supporting the War Effort
  • 2.  U.S.  Had large navy  World’s 16th largest army (125,000 men)  Would have to mobilize quickly to contribute  Selective Service  Declaration of War = eager young men volunteering for military service  Not enough to expand army  Wilson wanted draft established  Selective Service Act passed  All young men between 21-30 to register for the military draft
  • 3.  Not subject to draft  30,000 volunteered  Most served in Army & Navy Nurse Corps  Others preformed clerical work  Women were divided on war topic  Some favored war, others opposed it  Jane Addams  Cofounded Women’s Peace Party in 1915  Jeannette Rankin of Montana  1st women elected to Congress  Voted against Wilson’s war resolution  Carrie Chapman Catt  Urged women to support war effort  Hoped it would gain women the right to vote
  • 4.  Reflected diversity within the U.S.  1 in 5 recruits had been born in foreign lands  Philippines, Mexico, Italy, etc.  Native Americans, who were not U.S. citizens, fought in WWI
  • 5.  38,000 served  Opportunities restricted  Encouraged to support the war effort by W.E.B. Du Bois  Faced discrimination in military  Placed in all black units  10% sent to combat  Most unloaded ships, worked in kitchens, or constructed barracks  Some served w/ French units  Harlem hell Fighters received France’s highest medal for bravery, the cross of war
  • 6.  1 in 4 draftees were illiterate  Some from poor rural areas not use to eating daily meals, taking regular baths, or using indoor plumbing  Military taught men how to fight & read  Also learned about nutrition, personal hygiene, & patriotism
  • 7.  Managing food supplies:  Herbert Hoover lead Food Administration  Job was to assure adequate food supplies to civilians & troops  Americans urged to conserve: “wheatless Mondays” “meatless Tuesdays”  Producing for War  American industry demands increased  War Industries Board set up  Oversaw shift to war production  Had limited power at 1st  w/ new head WIB had power to tell industries what to produce, how much to charge, & how to use scarce resources
  • 8.  Labor shortage w/ war  Millions of men joined military  Decline in immigration  Business owners turned to 2 sources  Women: took on roles denied to them before the war  African Americans: left rural South to work in factories
  • 9.  Calling for Patriotism  Committee on Public Information  75,000 “Four-Minute Men” recruited  Delivered brief patriotic speeches  Artists  Produced pro-war cartoons & posters  Liberty Bonds  Issued to help finance war
  • 10.  Measures take to suppress critics of the war  Espionage Act of 1917 & Sedition Act of 1918  Newspapers closes & individuals jailed for expressing antiwar views  War fever often collided with personal freedoms  Private organizations started that encouraged people to spy on their neighbors  American Protective League  2000,000 members  Opened peoples mail, tapped phones, & pried into medical records
  • 11.  German Americans  Shunned, harassed, & assaulted across the country  Some tarred & feathered  Schools stopped teaching German language  Also affected language  Sauerkraut became “liberty cabbage”  German measles became “liberty measles”

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