Ch 21 section 3

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Ch 21 section 3

  1. 1. Americans at War
  2. 2.  As U.S. prepared • U-boats continued assault on supplies ships  844 Allied ships sunk  Protecting Allied Shipping • Convoy system developed  Large group of merchant vessels sailing together • Light & fast Allied destroyers accompanied convoy
  3. 3.  John J. Pershing • Commander of American Expeditionary Force • Wanted Americans to fight in separate units under American command  June 1917 • American troops reached Europe  Not ready to combat; meant to increase French moral; symbolized American commitment to the war
  4. 4.  1917 • Allies waited for more American troops • Western Front: British offensive slowed in Belgium • Central Powers: major victory over Italians at Caporetto  Russia Makes Peace • New gov’t struggled w/ war effort • 2 million soldiers deserted front lines • German troops drove deep into Russia
  5. 5.  Vladimir Lenin • Leader of Bolsheviks; seized power on Nov. 7, 1917 • Wanted communism • Embraced ideas of German thinker Karl Marx  Workers around the world would unite to overthrow the ruling class  March 1918 • Russia & Germany sign peace treaty  Treaty of Brest-Litovsk  30% of Russia’s territory to Germany  Setback • Peace in the east  40 divisions of German army now re-focused to Western Front
  6. 6.  March 21, 1918 • Series of daring attacks  Goal: defeat allies quickly & bring peace on German terms  Pershing • Pledged U.S. troops would now fight under French command  “Infantry, artillery, aviation, all that we have are yours”, “Use them as you wish”  2 months before significant contributions made  Germans • Broke through Allied line in Belgium & France  Reached Chateau Thierry (50 miles from Paris) • U.S. troops arrived to reinforce the Allies
  7. 7.  American & French counterattacked Germans near Chateau-Thierry • Americans: evict Germans from Belleau Wood  Filled w/ barbed wire, artillery, & machine guns  Suffered heavy casualties, but were successful  2nd battle of Marne • Germans second attempt to reach Paris • Gained ground, but stalled • Allies counterattacked
  8. 8.  German troops • Became weakened by influenza & deprived of supplies; started losing will to fight  September 1918 • Allied forces pushed forward from North Sea to Verdun • 1 million Americans advanced towards Meuse River & Argonne Forest  Advanced slow at first; by November German defense crumbled under unrelenting assault
  9. 9.  Cause was lost • Realized by military & political leaders of Germany  No reserves left  Sought an armistice or halt in fighting  Germans • Knew French & British wanted harsh settlement • Germans wanted peace on Wilson’s “14 Points”  October 16, Germans requested armistice based on 14-Points, but Wilson was reluctant
  10. 10.  France & Britain • Dictated terms of armistice • Germany: pull back forces on Western Front, cancel Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, & hand over fleet of U-boats • Other Central Powers: also wanted armistice; in no position to resist Allied demands  Wilson • Insisted Kaiser (absolute monarch of Germany) step down • Kaiser Wilhelm II fled to Holland & soon gave up the throne & Germany became a republic
  11. 11.  Armistice • Took effect 11 a.m. on November 11  11 day of 11 month of 1918  10 million military personnel died  Millions of other soldiers were blinded, lost limbs, suffered permanent lung damage, or experienced psychological problems  Unknown civilian deaths

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