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Section 3


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Section 3

  1. 1. Section 3 The Golden Age of Athens
  2. 2. The Persian Wars  499 B.C.  Persian armies set out to conquer Egypt & surrounding lands  More land = more power  Captured Africa & Asia Minor (Greek colonies)  Greek colonies revolted, but failed  490 B.C.  Darius I, Persian king, sent soldiers towards Athens  Athens had helped colonies fight Persians  Athenians w/ fewer soldiers defeated the Persians at Marathon  A messenger ran to Athens from Marathon to tell of the victory  How long distance race the marathon got its name  485 B.C. Darius died  480 B.C. Darius’s son Xerxes sent 2,000 soldiers & 800 ships to attack Greece  Greek city states of Athens, Sparta, & other united  Defeated Persians in a sea battle near Salamis  After the wars the Greeks banded together to form leagues (groups of allies) for protection  Peloponnesian League: led by Sparta  Delian League: led by Athens
  3. 3. The Golden Age  479 to 431 B.C.  Greek pride in victory over Persians led to a time of achievement know as the Golden Age  Especially the Athenians  Led by aristocracy name Pericles  Advise was not to overdo anything  Ruled w/ assembly of thousands of men  Members could speak in assembly & vote  Council of 500 chose what would be discussed at each meeting; council, government offices & juries were chosen every year by drawing names from a bowl
  4. 4.  Pericles supported idea of democracy  Believed it could be better  Felt every citizen, not just wealthy, should have a right to take part in gov’t  Ordered public officials & jurors be paid  Made up for money lost by not being able to go to regular jobs
  5. 5. Achievements of the Golden Age  Gov’t of Athens made stronger  Easier to work in the arts & sciences Gov’t supported them now  Architects & builders made Athens more beautiful  New temples, gymnasiums, theaters, & other public buildings were built  Decorated with murals of Athens’s history  Writers like Herodotus recorded Athens past Sophocles wrote tragedies (serious plays)  Aristophanes wrote comedies (humorous plays)  Scholars were paid to study nature & human life  Greatest scientist of time was Hippocrates  Showed illness cam from natural causes, not from gods
  6. 6. The End of the Golden Age  Athens & Sparta were unsatisfied & wanted more land & to get rid of the influences of the other city state  Peloponnesian League supported Sparta & Delian League supported Athens  431 B.C. Peloponnesian War  Lasted 27 years  Sparta attacked Attica causing people to move from the countryside into Athens, leading to overcrowding & diseases causing ¼ of Athenian army to die from diseases; including Pericles
  7. 7.  Without Pericles, assembly began following bad leaders called demagogues  They made promises they couldn’t keep & led assembly into making foolish decisions  Athens surrendered to Sparta in 404 B.C.  Assembly was replaced with a Spartan oligarchy  After the war great thinkers & teachers were not paid for their work  Socrates: taught by asking questions & making students think rather than simply telling them information  Used criticism to try to return Athens into its early greatness  399 B.C. Athenian court convicted Socrates of teaching dangerous ideas  Sentenced to end his own life by drinking poison
  8. 8.  Plato  Student of Socrates’  Disappointed in leaders of Athens  Believed leaders should be a good person because good people are just and wise  Possible to do so by studying hard & loving wisdom  385 B.C.  Plato started the Academy where philosophers could learn the lessons they would need to govern well  Plato ideas of citizens  Should think, feel, & then take action  Right & responsibility to take part in public life  Important to be informed, to understand others viewpoints, & responsible for own actions  Aristotle  Student of Plato  Interested in how things were instead of how he would like them  Search for knowledge covered subjects of law, economics, astronomy, & sports