Eoct review questions gps 9 and 10 civil war and reconstruction
GPS 9 and 10 (#’s 81 – 98)
• 1857, Dred Scott, a slave in Missouri, went into a free
territory with his owner to live for 4 years; the owner
later returned to Missouri, where he died.
• After his death, Scott sued for his freedom – the
Supreme Court ruled that he had no right to sue b/c as
a slave, he was not a citizen of the U.S.
• It also declared that a slave owner could not be
deprived of his “property” without due process of law.
• The decision struck down the Missouri Compromise
b/c it was a violation of the 5th Amendment to declare
slaves free of their owners without due process.
• It outraged abolitionists and those in favor of popular
sovereignty b/c it suggests slave holders could keep
their slaves in any state.
• The will of the majority.
• According to the Compromise of
1850, UT and NM, and the people
living in these territories would
vote on whether or not to allow
• In 1854, this act allowed the previously free
and unorganized territories of Kansas and
Nebraska to choose whether or not to
permit slavery by popular sovereignty.
• It effectively repealed the Missouri
Compromise and reignited the slavery
• Supporters of slavery and abolitionism
rushed to Kansas to vote, set up rival
gov’ts, and the territory became known as
“Bleeding Kansas” as armed clashed
• It was brutal example of how inflamed
• In Oct., 1859, a group of radical abolitionists
led by John Brown attacked the federal
arsenal at Harpers Ferry, VA.
• They hoped to seize weapons and give
them to slaves, who could then rise up in
• Their plan failed as troops surrounded the
arsenal and Brown was hanged.
• His actions intensified southern resentment
of the abolitionist movement and many saw
it as proof that the South would have to
shed blood to protect its way of life.
• March 1865, Lincoln expressed both
his conviction that slavery was evil
and his hope of reuniting the nation
once the war was over.
• Rather than basking in the glory of
what everyone knew would soon be
a Union victory, Lincoln expressed
his sorrow that so many on both
sides had suffered and
communicated a vision for rebuilding
the South rather than punishing it.
• Four months after the bloodiest
battle of the Civil War, Lincoln gave
his famed speech at a ceremony
dedicating a cemetery at the site of
• Although a relatively short speech, it
was a powerful affirmation of
Lincoln’s desire to see the Union
survive and the nation reunited.
• Lincoln was glad several salve states
decided to stay with the Union but he
realized there were many Confederate
supporters in those states.
• If Maryland joined the CSA, Washington
would be surrounded by CSA territory.
• Concerned that CSA sympathizers
would sway Maryland to secede, Lincoln
declared martial law, suspended habeas
corpus – the guarantee that a person
cannot be imprisoned without being
brought before a judge, and jailed the
strongest supporters of the
• Ulysses Grant: command of entire Union Army in 1864; defeated
the South and accepted Lee’s surrender at Appomattox
Courthouse; 18th president of the U.S.
• Robert E. Lee: Command of Confederacy’s Army of Northern
Virginia; won several impressive victories during the war but did
not have enough men to sustain the war effort past early 1865;
surrendered to Grant.
• “Stonewall” Jackson: CSA general and Lee’s right-hand-man;
noted for ability to use geography to his advantage; move
impressive move was Battle of Chancellorsville – marched troops
12 miles undetected and attacked Union; died 8 days later after
• William T. Sherman: Union General; captured Atlanta in 1864;
Most remembered for his “March to the Sea”, in which he burned
and destroyed Southern cities and railways to disrupt the
Confederate war effort from Atlanta to Savannah
• Jefferson Davis: the first and only President of the Confederate
• Fort Sumter: Union fort at Charleston, SC; Confederate troops
opened fire on the fort after a Union attempt to resupply the
fort – April 12, 1861; VA, NC, AR, TN joined the Confederacy
• Antietam: Sept. 17, 1862; bloodiest single day of battle during
the Civil War; 22,000+ casualties; halted Confederate advance
• Vicksburg: May 15 – July 4, 1863; last CSA obstacle to total
Union control of Mississippi River; Grant laid siege to the city
for nearly 2 months; town surrenders on July 4th
• Gettysburg: key turning point in war for the Union; by defeating
Lee’s army, it ended any hope of successful Southern invasion
of the North; more than 51,000 casualties; bloodiest battle of
the Civil War
• Battle for Atlanta: important Southern railway hub and wanted
to disrupt Confederate supplies by capturing the city –
captured Sept. 2nd, 1864; reignited support for Lincoln in
• Jan. 1, 1863; freed slaves in Confederate
• Lincoln hoped this order would give the war a
moral focus beyond just saving the Union.
• He also hoped to undermine the South’s
reliance on slave labor and ensure support of
England and France.
• It also encouraged free African Americans to
serve in the Union Army – seeing the battle as
one to free their own people from the bonds
• People: the Union had a much larger population = larger
army, more people to produce war goods during the conflict;
Emancipation Proclamation added to both aspects of Northern
• Railroads: The North had more railroads = allowed Union to
move supplies more efficiently and quicker than Confederates
• Leadership: Most of the nation’s military colleges were in the
South; most officers sided with the Confederacy; all the South
had to do was repel a Northern invasion and they were fighting
for their home
• Factories/Industrial Output: The Northern economy had much
more industry and its factories allowed the Union to produce
weapons, ammunition, clothes, blankets, etc. much easier and
in greater number than the South.
• Food: the North produced more than twice as much as the
South; even though the South’s economy was based on
• Presidential Reconstruction
• 1 – Southerners who swore allegiance to the Unions
were pardoned (forgiven of any crimes against the
• 2 – Former Confederate states could hold constitutional
conventions to set up state governments.
• 3 – States had to void (cancel) secession and ratify the
13th Amendment to the Constitution, which ended
slavery throughout the nation.
• 4 – Once the 13th Amendment was ratified, states could
then hold elections and be part of the Union.
• Radical Republican Reconstruction
• 1 – Southern states were put under military
• 2 – Southern states had to hold new
• 3 – African Americans were allowed to vote.
• 4 – Southerners who had supported the
Confederacy were not allowed to vote
• 5 – Southern states had to guarantee equal
rights to African Americans.
• 6 – Southern states had to ratify the 14th
Amendment, which made African Americans
• In an effort to help freed
slaves, Congress created the
Freedman’s Bureau in 1865.
• As the first federal relief agency in U.S.
history, it provided clothes, medical
attention, food, education, and even
land to African Americans coming out of
• It ended in 1869 but during its brief
time, it helped many slaves transition to
• In 1867, a group of ministers joined forces to help found
a school to train African American men to be ministers
• The school eventually became Atlanta Baptist Seminary
and, later, Atlanta Baptist College.
• Finally, in 1913, during the tenure of its first African
American president, John Hope, the institution changed
its name to Morehouse College.
• Morehouse has traditionally been one of the most
prestigious African American colleges in the nation.
• It paved the way for higher education among blacks in
the years following emancipation.
• 13th Amendment: ended slavery throughout the
• 14th Amendment: guaranteed that no
person, regardless of race, would be deprived of
life, liberty, or property without due process of the
• 15th Amendment: guaranteed that no citizen
may be denied the right to vote “by the United
States or any state on the account of
race, color, or previous condition of servitude.”
This amendment had a great impact in the South
by guaranteeing African Americans the right to
vote in elections.
• Black Codes: Passed under Presidential Reconstruction; laws
that limited the rights of freed African Americans so much that
they basically kept them living like slaves – curfews which
made it illegal for them to gather after sunset; could be
whipped or sold into forced labor if convicted of vagrancy;
often restricted to renting land only in rural areas
• Ku Klux Klan (KKK): a secretive organization whose members
often dressed in hooded white robes, the Klan used
violence, murder, and threats to intimidate African Americans
and those who favored giving them equal rights; practiced
“lynchings” – mob initiated murders in which the victim is
kidnapped and murdered.
• Southern resentment of “carpetbaggers” – northerners who
came to the South to do business and profited off
• Scalawags were another hated group; southern Republicans
who supported Reconstruction; Southern newspapers often
• The battle b/t Congress & President
Johnson came to a head in 1868 when
Johnson tried to fire Secretary of War
Edwin Stanton b/c he was closely tied to
• Such a move violated the “Tenure in
Office Act” and led by Radical
Stevens, Congress voted to impeach
• On May 16, 1868, the Senate voted to
spare Johnson’s presidency by one
• After a controversial presidential election in
1876, Democrat finally agreed to give the presidency to
the Republican candidate, Rutherford B. Hayes, in
exchange for Washington loosening its grip on the
• African Americans soon lost whatever political position
they gained in the years following emancipation.
• Southern states passed Jim Crow laws, avoided the 15th
Amendment with literacy tests or poll taxes in order to
vote, and grandfather clauses – clauses that exempted
citizens from restrictions on voting if they, or their
ancestors, had voted in previous elections or served in
the Confederate army or navy.
• Such measures limited the impact of African Americans in
southern politics for decades and helped maintain the