Chapter 19<br />Political Reform & the Progressive Era<br />
Section 1<br />The Gilded Age & Progressive Reform<br />
Reform in the Gilded Age<br />Gilded Age<br />Period after Civil War<br />Lasted from 1870s through 1890s<br />Age of seri...
Taming the Spoils System<br />Source of corruption was Spoils System<br />Practice of rewarding political supporters w/ go...
Controlling Big Business<br />Late 1800s<br />Big business influenced politics, often  w/ bribery<br />Americans demanded ...
1890<br />President Benjamin Harrison signed Sherman Antitrust Act<br />Prohibited businesses from trying to limit or dest...
Corruption in the Cities<br />Expansion of cities led to expansion of sewers, garbage collection, & roads<br />City politi...
William “Boss” Tweed<br />1860s & 1870s he cheated NY City out of $100 million<br />His crimes were exposed by journalists...
Progressives & Political Reform<br />Progressive Movement<br />Corruption led to rise<br />Progressives: diverse group of ...
More Power to Voters<br />Recall<br />A process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office<br />Ea...
Two Constitutional Amendments<br />Progressive Reformers<br />Backed graduated income tax (method of taxation that taxes p...
The Muckrakers<br />Press play important role in exposing corruption<br />President Theodore Roosevelt <br />Compared thes...
Jacob Riis Photographs<br />
1906<br />Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle <br />Grisly details about the meatpacking industry<br />Described how packers...
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C:\Fakepath\Chapter 19 Section 1

  1. 1. Chapter 19<br />Political Reform & the Progressive Era<br />
  2. 2. Section 1<br />The Gilded Age & Progressive Reform<br />
  3. 3. Reform in the Gilded Age<br />Gilded Age<br />Period after Civil War<br />Lasted from 1870s through 1890s<br />Age of serious problems hiding under shiny surface<br />Political Concerns<br />Americans feared industrialists & wealthy men were enriching themselves at expense of public<br />Corruption/Dishonesty in government<br />Bribery & voter fraud appeared widespread<br />
  4. 4. Taming the Spoils System<br />Source of corruption was Spoils System<br />Practice of rewarding political supporters w/ gov’t jobs<br />W/ election of new President, people swarmed to Washington looking for jobs in rewards for their political support<br />1881<br />James Garfield elected President<br />4 months later was shot by disappointed office seeker<br />Sparked efforts to end spoils system<br />Vice President Chester A. Arthur became President<br />Owed his rise to spoils system<br />1883<br />Pendleton Act signed<br />Created Civil Service Commission<br />A system that includes most gov’t jobs, except elected positions, the judiciary, & the military<br />Aim was to fill jobs on basis of merit<br />Jobs went to those who scored highest on civil services examinations<br />
  5. 5. Controlling Big Business<br />Late 1800s<br />Big business influenced politics, often w/ bribery<br />Americans demanded limiting power of railroads & monopolies<br />Congress<br />Under Constitution has power to regulate interstate commerce<br />1887<br />President Grover Cleveland signed Interstate Commerce Act<br />Forbade practices such as rebates & set up Interstate Commerce Commission to oversee railroads<br />
  6. 6. 1890<br />President Benjamin Harrison signed Sherman Antitrust Act<br />Prohibited businesses from trying to limit or destroy competition<br />Difficult to enforce<br />Judges often ruled in favor of trusts & the Sherman Act was used to limit the power of labor unions (strikers blocked free trade & threatened competition)<br />
  7. 7. Corruption in the Cities<br />Expansion of cities led to expansion of sewers, garbage collection, & roads<br />City politicians often excepted money to award jobs to friends<br />Powerful politicians (bosses) controlled work done locally & wanted payoffs from businesses<br />Popular w/ poor<br />Gave turkeys & coal <br />Poor voted for them in return<br />
  8. 8. William “Boss” Tweed<br />1860s & 1870s he cheated NY City out of $100 million<br />His crimes were exposed by journalists, before being arrested he fled to Spain<br />He was arrested in Spain & died in jail in 1878<br />
  9. 9. Progressives & Political Reform<br />Progressive Movement<br />Corruption led to rise<br />Progressives: diverse group of reformers united by a belief in the public interest<br />Not sacrificed to greed of huge trusts & city bosses<br />Wisconsin idea<br />1st to adopt Progressive reforms<br />Governor Robert La Follette “Battling Bob”<br />Opposed political bosses<br />Appointed commissions of experts to solve problems<br />Railroad commission recommended lowering railroad rates; as rates decreased, rail traffic increased<br />1903 Wisconsin was 1st state to adopt a primary run by state gov’t officials<br />1917 all but 4 states joined<br />
  10. 10. More Power to Voters<br />Recall<br />A process by which people may vote to remove an elected official from office<br />Easier to remove corrupt officials<br />Initiative<br />Process that allows voters to put a bill before a state legislature<br />Voters must collect a certain # of signatures on a petition<br />Referendum: way for people to vote directly on a proposed new law<br />
  11. 11. Two Constitutional Amendments<br />Progressive Reformers<br />Backed graduated income tax (method of taxation that taxes people at different rates depending on income)<br />Wealthy pay higher taxes than poor<br />Supreme Court ruled this was unconstitutional<br />16th Amendment (gives Congress the power to pass an income tax) was ratified in 1913<br />1789<br />U.S. senators were elected by state legislatures<br />Bribery was a problem<br />Progressives wanted people to vote for senators<br />1913<br />17th Amendment was ratified to require the direct election of senators<br />
  12. 12. The Muckrakers<br />Press play important role in exposing corruption<br />President Theodore Roosevelt <br />Compared these reporters to men who raked up dirt/muck in stables<br />Muckraker became a term for a crusading journalist<br />Ida Tarbell<br />Targeted big business<br />Work led to demands for more controls on trusts<br />Accused oil baron John D. Rockefeller of unfair business methods<br />Other reporters described how corruption had led to inadequate fire, police, & sanitation services<br />Jacob Riis<br />
  13. 13. Jacob Riis Photographs<br />
  14. 14. 1906<br />Upton Sinclair’s novel The Jungle <br />Grisly details about the meatpacking industry<br />Described how packers used meat from sick animals & how rats often got group up in the meat<br />

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