Our goal today is to develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in the context of an IT environment
Main reference: Gray & Larson, 2006,Ch 11.
Effective Team CharacteristicsWhy Join Teams?Team DevelopmentKeys to Managing PeopleManaging Project TeamsProject Team ConflictProject Team Pitfalls
Effective Team Characteristics
What is a Team?
A teamis a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve agiven set of objectives or goals (Horodyski, 1995).
Teamwork is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization
Team-buildingis high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness
Effective Team Characteristics 1 Project Team Size 2 Common Characteristics
Project Team SizePerformance is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meetingsocial and emotional needs
Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best
There areproblems youencounter as sizeincreases
1. It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group2. Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team3. People end up with less commitment to the team goals4. It requires more centralized decision making5. There is lesser feeling as being part of team
Project Team Size The Mythical Man-Month
Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will makeit even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learnabout the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. - Fred Brooks
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = The Mythical Man-Month1225 channels of communication
Common Characteristics of High Performing Teams
Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes
Accurate effective 2-way communication
Leadership is shared and participation encouraged
Effective decision making and problem solving
Team identity and cohesiveness
Diverse backgrounds and experience
Cooperation and collaboration
They share a common identity
Figure 1 Characteristics or needs of effective teams(Horodyski, 1995, p12)
Project teamProject teams usually come together for a projectand then disband. What challenges does thiscreate?
Tuckman (1960s) published five stage model of team development
Figure 9.1 Stages of Team Development(Robbins et al, 1998, p309)
Figure 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model(Gray & Larson, 2006, p345)
Implications for teams:A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping thegroup evolve quickly to the (performing phase).This model provides a framework for the group to understand its owndevelopment.It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes tothe level of productivity.
Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of groupdevelopment. What do you think about Tuckman’s model? Does it feel right to you?
Punctuated Equilibrium Model(1988) Gersick found that there are natural transition points during thelife of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such amoment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a projectBy imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to createmultiple transition points for natural group development
Figure 11.2 The Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Group Development(Gray & Larson, 2006, p346)
TrainingThe main goal of teamdevelopment is to helppeople work together moreeffectively to improveproject performance.Training can help peopleunderstand themselves and eachother, and understand how towork better in teams.
Team building activities include physical challenges and psychological preference indicator tools
MBTIWhat are you?
e extrovert introvert is sensation intuition nt thinking feeling fj judgement perception p
e extrovert e introvert is sensation n intuition nt thinking t feeling fj judgement j perception p me
e extrovert i introvert i s sensation n intuition n t thinking feeling f j judgement perception pNTs are attracted to technology fieldsThere is a belief that IT people differ from population in a tendency to notbe extroverted or sensing.
The Max Wideman MTBI article “Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”R. Max Wideman, (1998) Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large:Do we have enough of the right kind of people? FPMI, AEW Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada.http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf
What is your suitability to Project Work?* Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”(http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf ).
Another model Social Styles ProfileAssertiveness People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness Responsiveness
Another model Task Analytical DriverResponsiveness Amiable Expressive People Ask Assertiveness Tell
Reward and Recognition SystemsTeam-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamworkFocus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goalsAllow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meetproject goals and develop human resources
Team Development cont’d…Reward and Recognition Systems cont’d… Recognize individual performance? letters of commendation public recognition for outstanding work desirable job assignments increased personal flexibility
Keys to Managing People
Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research andthought to the field of managing people at work. Important areas related toproject management include (1)Motivation, (2)Influence and power, and (3)Effectiveness
MotivationIntrinsic motivation causes people to Extrinsic motivation causes people toparticipate in an activity for their do something for a reward or toown enjoyment avoid a penaltyeg. read, gardening… eg. homework
Motivation Theorists – Maslow’s hierarch of needs – Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene – McClelland’s acquired-needs – McGregor’s X and Y
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs(1960s) Abraham Maslow developed ahierarchy of needs to illustrate his theorythat people’s behaviors are guided by asequence of needsMaslow argued that humans possess uniquequalities that enable them to makeindependent choices, thus giving themcontrol of their destiny
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needshttp://talkingtails.wordpress.com/2007/07/23/maslow-greek-philosophy-indian-mysticism/
Hertzberg’s Motivation-HygieneTheoryIn the late 1960s Frederick Herzberg wroteabout worker motivation.He distinguished between motivation factorsand hygiene factors. motivation factors hygiene factors Help motivate workers cause dissatisfaction if directly absent but do not eg. achievement, motivate, recognition, work, eg. Money, working responsibility conditions,
McClelland’s Acquired-NeedsTheory(1961) David McClelland proposed anindividual’s specific needs are acquired orlearned over time and shaped by lifeexperiences.Categories: – achievement – affiliation – power
McGregor’s Theory X andTheory YIn the 1960’s Douglas McGregor popularizedthe human relations approachTheory X: workers dislike and avoid workTheory Y: work is as natural as play or restTheory Z: emphasizing trust, quality,collective decision making, and culturalvalues
Thamhain and Wilemon’sinfluence bases(1970’s) HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemonidentified nine influence bases availableto project managers 1. authority 2. assignment 3. budget 4. promotion 5. money 6. penalty 7. work challenge 8. expertise 9. friendship
Steven Covey’s 7 habitsCa be applied to improve effectivenesson projects 1. Be proactive 2. Begin with the end in mind 3. Put first things first 4. Think win/win 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6. Synergize 7. Sharpen the saw
Covey’s Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
Managing Project Teams
Project managers must lead their teams in performing various projectactivities
After assessing team performance and related information, the projectmanager must decide: – if changes should be requested to the project – if corrective or preventive actions should be recommended – if updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational process assets
Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teamsinclude: – observation and conversation – project performance appraisals – conflict management – issue logs
Develop your team
Develop your teamBe patient and kind with your teamFix the problem instead of blaming peopleEstablish regular, effective meetingsAllow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stagesLimit the size of work teams to five to twelve membersPlan some social activities to help project team members and otherstakeholdersStress team identityNurture team members and encourage them to help each otherTake additional actions to work with virtual team members
Know the conditions favorable fordevelopment of high performing teamsVoluntary team membershipContinuous service on the teamFull-time assignment to the teamAn organization culture of cooperation and trustMembers report only to the project managerFunctional areas are represented on the teamThe project has a compelling objectiveMembers are in speaking distance of each other
Time Meeting goalsDate AgendaPlace Expected outcomeWho must be there Preparation required
Recruiting Project MembersFactors affecting recruiting – importance of the project – management structure used to complete the projectHow to recruit? – ask for volunteersWho to recruit? – problem-solving ability – availability – technological expertise – credibility – political connections – ambition, initiative, and energy
Establishing a Team Identity Effective Use Effective Use of Meetings of Meetings Co-location of Co-location of team members team members Creation of project Creation of project team name team name Team rituals Team rituals
Figure 11.4 Requirements for an Effective Project Vision(Gray & Larson, 2006, p357)
Orchestrating the Decision-Making ProblemProcess Identification Generating Alternatives Reaching a Decision Follow-up
Rejuvenating the Project TeamInformal Techniques – institute new rituals – take an off-site break as a team from the project – view an inspiration message or movie – have the project sponsor give a pep talk
Rejuvenating the Project Team Formal Techniques – team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance – engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing trust exchange of social information set clear roles for each team member
Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing effective patterns of communication include face-to-face if at all possible keep team members informed on how the overall project is going don’t let team members vanish establish a code of conduct to avoid delays establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
Figure 11.6 24-Hour Global Clock(Gray & Larson, 2006, p369)
Project Team Conflict
Managing Conflict in the Project Team
Managing Conflict in the Project TeamEncouraging Functional Conflict – encourage dissent by asking tough questions – bring in people with different points of view – designate someone to be a devil’s advocate – ask the team to consider an alternative
Managing Conflict in the Project TeamEncouraging Functional Conflict Encouraging Functional Conflict Managing Dysfunctional Conflict Managing Dysfunctional Conflict –– encourage dissent by asking encourage dissent by asking –– mediate the conflict mediate the conflict tough questions tough questions –– arbitrate the conflict arbitrate the conflict –– bring in people with different bring in people with different –– control the conflict control the conflict points of view points of view –– accept the conflict accept the conflict –– designate someone to be a designate someone to be a –– eliminate the conflict eliminate the conflict devil’s advocate devil’s advocate –– ask the team to consider an ask the team to consider an alternative alternative
Project Team Pitfalls
Figure 11.5 Conflict Intensity over the Project Life Cycle(Gray & Larson, 2006, p363)
Project Team Pitfalls Bureaucratic BureaucraticGroupthinkGroupthink Bypass Syndrome Bypass Syndrome Team Spirit Becomes Team Spirit BecomesGoing NativeGoing Native Team Infatuation Team Infatuation
Review1. Effective teams have common characteristics such as; size range, purpose, communication, leadership, cohesiveness, identity, diversity, and cooperation.2. Traditional research suggests teams develop in 5-stage process; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Modern approach indicates growth occurs at project transition points.3. Team development can be facilitated through training, personality indicators, social styles profiles, and reward systems.4. PM’s can utilize people handling strategies from motivation theorists and other theorists such as; Maslow, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor and Covey …5. Other areas of importance include; recruitment, maintenance, and conflict management of project teams.
ReferencesHorodyski, K. (1995). Managing and developing teams. Footscray, Vic.: OpenTraining Services.Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4th ed.). Syd.,NSW: Allyn and Bacon.Robbins, S., et al. (1998). Organisational behaviour (2nd ed.). Sydney:Prentice-Hall
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