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Managing Teams
 

Managing Teams

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  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Forming: first stage in team, development, characterized by much uncertainty Storming: second stage in team development characterized by intra-team conflict Norming: third stage in team development, characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness Performing: fourth stage in team development, when the team is fully functional Adjourning: final stage in team development for temporary teams, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Use of project teams: Manage problems: reduce cots and improve
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Project Management Most suited for project leadership: 100 percent: INTJ, ENTJ, ISTJ, ESTJ 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ Best suited as followers: 100 percent: INFJ, ISFJ 50 percent: INTP, ENTP, ENFP, ENFJ, ESFJ Not suited for project work: 100 percent: INFP, ISFP, ESFP, ISTP 50 percent: ENFP, ESTP
  • Social Styles Profile People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness: drivers expressive analytical amiable People on opposite corners (drivers and amiable, analytical and expressive) may have difficulty getting along
  • Motivation: Intrinsic motivation Causes people to participate in an activity for their own enjoyment. Eg. Read, Gardening… Extrinsic motivation Causes people to do something for a reward or to avoid a penalty. Eg. Homework
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: (1960’s) Abraham Maslow a highly respect psychologist who rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology in the 1950’s is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. Once physiloogical needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. Once safety needs are satisfied social needs come to the forefront, and so on. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite of the levels above. Eg. In an emergency situation, such as flood or hurricane, are not going to worry about personal growth. Personal survival will be their main motivation. Once a particular need is satisfied, however it no longer serves a a potent motivator of behavior. Notice that each layer in the pyramid is smaller than the previous layer. The issues in each level are of greater value than tissues in the preceding level, which presumably have been satisfied. The needs consisted of: Physiological – includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs. Safety – includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social – includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem – includes internal esteem and ego factors such as self-respect, autonomy and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention. Self-actualization – represented by the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. To motivate project team members, the project manager needs to understand each person’s motivation, especially with regard to social, esteem, and self-actualization or growth needs.
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: (1960’s) Abraham Maslow a highly respect psychologist who rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology in the 1950’s is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. Once safety needs are satisfied social needs come to the forefront, and so on. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite of the levels above. Eg. In an emergency situation, such as flood or hurricane, are not going to worry about personal growth. Personal survival will be their main motivation. Once a particular need is satisfied, however it no longer serves a a potent motivator of behavior. Notice that each layer in the pyramid is smaller than the previous layer. The issues in each level are of greater value than tissues in the preceding level, which presumably have been satisfied. The needs consisted of: Physiological – includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs. Safety – includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social – includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem – includes internal esteem and ego factors such as self-respect, autonomy and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention. Self-actualization – represented by the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. To motivate project team members, the project manager needs to understand each person’s motivation, especially with regard to social, esteem, and self-actualization or growth needs.
  • Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory: Motivation factors Achievement, recognition, the work itself, responsibility, advancement, and growth, which produce job satisfaction Hygiene factors Cause dissatisfaction if not present, but do not motivate workers to do more. Examples include larger salaries, more supervision, and a more attractive work environment In his books and articles, Herzberg explained why attempts to use positive factors such as reducing time spent at work, upward spiraling wages, offering fringe benefits, providing human relations and sensitivity training, and so on did not instill motivation. He argued that people want to actualize themselves. They need stimuli for their growth and advancement needs in accordance with Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.
  • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: (1960’s) Abraham Maslow a highly respect psychologist who rejected the dehumanizing negativism of psychology in the 1950’s is best known for developing a hierarchy of needs. Maslow argued humans possess unique qualities that enable them to make independent choices, thus giving them control of their destiny. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, states that people’s behaviors are guided or motivated by a sequence of needs. At the bottom of the hierarchy are physiological needs. Once physiological needs are satisfied, safety needs guide behavior. Once safety needs are satisfied social needs come to the forefront, and so on. Maslow suggests that each level of the hierarchy is a prerequisite of the levels above. Eg. In an emergency situation, such as flood or hurricane, are not going to worry about personal growth. Personal survival will be their main motivation. Once a particular need is satisfied, however it no longer serves a a potent motivator of behavior. Notice that each layer in the pyramid is smaller than the previous layer. The issues in each level are of greater value than tissues in the preceding level, which presumably have been satisfied. The needs consisted of: Physiological – includes hunger, thirst, shelter, sex and other bodily needs. Safety – includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm. Social – includes affection, belongingness, acceptance and friendship. Esteem – includes internal esteem and ego factors such as self-respect, autonomy and achievement; and external esteem factors such as status, recognition and attention. Self-actualization – represented by the drive to become what one is capable of becoming; includes growth, achieving one’s potential and self-fulfillment. To motivate project team members, the project manager needs to understand each person’s motivation, especially with regard to social, esteem, and self-actualization or growth needs.
  • McClelland’s Acquired-Needs Theory The main categories of acquired needs include achievement, affiliation, and power (normally one or two of these needs will be dominant in individuals) Achievement People with a high need for achievement seek to excel and tend to avoid both low-risk and high-risk situations to improve their chances for achieving something worthwhile. Achievers need regular feedback. Affiliation People with a high need for affiliation desire harmonious relationships with other people and need to feel accepted by others. They tend to conform to the norms of their work group and prefer work that involves significant personal interaction. Power People with a need for power desire either personal power or institutional power. People who need personal power want to direct others and can be seen as bossy. People who need institutional power or social power want to organize others to further the goals of the organization
  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y Theory X: assumes workers dislike and avoid work, so managers must use coercion, threats and various control schemes to get workers to meet objectives. Theory Y: assumes individuals consider work as natural as play or rest and enjoy the satisfaction of esteem and self-actualization needs. Theory Z: introduced in 1981 by William Ouchi and is based on the Japanese approach to motivating workers, emphasizing trust, quality, collective decision making, and cultural values
  • (1970s) Thamhain and Wilemon Many people working on a project do not report directly to project managers, and project managers often do not have control over project staff who report to them. HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemon investigated the approaches project managers use to deal with workers and how those approaches relate to project success. They identified nine influence bases available to project managers; Authority – the legitimate hierarchical right to issue orders Assignment – the project manager’s perceived ability to influence a worker’s later work assignments Budget – the project manager’s perceived ability to authorize others’ use of discretionary funds Promotion – the ability to improve a worker’s position Money – the ability to increase a worker’s pay and benefits Penalty – the project manager’s perceived ability to dispense or cause punishment Work challenge – the ability to assign work that capitalizes on a worker’s enjoyment of doing a particular task, which taps an intrinsic motivational factor Expertise – the project manager’s perceived special knowledge that others deem important Friendship – the ability to establish friendly personal relationships between the project manager and others
  • (1980s) Stephen Covey’s Stephen Covey, author of the 1980 book, The 7 habits of highly effective people , expanded work done by Maslow, Herzberg, and others to develop an approach for helping people and teams become more effective. Project managers can apply Covey’s seven habits to improve effectiveness on projects as follows; Be proactive – Covey like Maslow believes that people have the ability to be proactive and choose their responses to different situations. Project managers must be proactive and anticipate and plan for problems and inevitable changes on projects. Begin with the end in mind – Covey suggests that people focus on their values, what they really want to accomplish, and how they really want to be remembered in their lives. He suggests writing a mission statement to help achieve this habit. Put first things first – Covey developed a time management system and matrix to help people prioritize their time. He suggests that most people need to spend more time doing things that are important, but not urgent. Important but not urgent activities include; planning, reading and exercising. Project managers need to spend a lot of time working on important and not urgent activities such as developing the project plan. Think win/win – Covey presents several paradigms of interdependence, with think win/win being the best choice in most situations. When you use a win/win paradigm, parties in potential conflict work together to develop new solutions that make them all winners. Seek first to understand then to be understood – Empathic listening is listening with the intent to understand. It is even more powerful than active listening because you forget your personal interests and focus on truly understanding the other person. Synergize – In projects, a project team can synergize by creating collaborative products that are much better than a collection of individual efforts. Covey also emphasizes the importance of valuing differences in other to achieve synergy. Eg. Data General researchers created a new 32-bit super minicomputer in the 1970s using synergistic efforts. Sharpen the saw – take time to renew yourself physically, spiritually, mentally and socially.
  • Empathic Listening and Rapport Good project managers are empathic listeners with the intent to understand Before you can communicate with others, you have to have rapport (Mirroring eg. breathing, voice tempo) IT professionals often need to develop empathic listening and other people skills to improve relationships with users and other stakeholders

Managing Teams Managing Teams Presentation Transcript

  • Project Management 7. Managing Teams
  • Week 7
  • Our goal today is to develop and facilitate leadership, team building, performance management, and conflict management skills in the context of an IT environment
  • Main reference: Gray & Larson, 2006,Ch 11.
  • Effective Team CharacteristicsWhy Join Teams?Team DevelopmentKeys to Managing PeopleManaging Project TeamsProject Team ConflictProject Team Pitfalls
  • Effective Team Characteristics
  • What is a Team?
  • A teamis a group of individuals who cooperate and work together to achieve agiven set of objectives or goals (Horodyski, 1995).
  • Teamwork is close cooperation between cross-trained employees who are familiar with a wide range of jobs in their organization
  • Team-buildingis high interaction among group members to increase trust and openness
  • Effective Team Characteristics 1 Project Team Size 2 Common Characteristics
  • Project Team SizePerformance is based on balance of members carrying out roles and meetingsocial and emotional needs
  • Project teams of 5 to 12 members work best
  • There areproblems youencounter as sizeincreases
  • 1. It gets more difficult to interact with and influence the group2. Individuals get less satisfaction from their involvement in the team3. People end up with less commitment to the team goals4. It requires more centralized decision making5. There is lesser feeling as being part of team
  • Project Team Size The Mythical Man-Month
  • Assigning more programmers to a project running behind schedule will makeit even later, due to the time required for the new programmers to learnabout the project, as well as the increased communication overhead. - Fred Brooks
  • Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
  • Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
  • Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
  • Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks The Mythical Man-Month
  • Group Intercommunication Formula n(n − 1) / 2 Examples5 developers -> 5(5 − 1) / 2 = 10 channels of communication10 developers -> 10(10 − 1) / 2 = 45 channels of communication Fred Brooks50 developers -> 50(50 − 1) / 2 = The Mythical Man-Month1225 channels of communication
  • Common Characteristics of High Performing Teams
  • Goals are clearly defined and matched with measurable outcomes
  • Accurate effective 2-way communication
  • Leadership is shared and participation encouraged
  • Effective decision making and problem solving
  • Team identity and cohesiveness
  • Diverse backgrounds and experience
  • Cooperation and collaboration
  • They share a common identity
  • Figure 1 Characteristics or needs of effective teams(Horodyski, 1995, p12)
  • Why Join Teams?
  • Why do people want to join teams?
  • Individual reasonsSecurityStatusSelf-esteemAffiliationPowerGoal achievement
  • Why do teams work well for organizations?
  • Team Development
  • Project teamProject teams usually come together for a projectand then disband. What challenges does thiscreate?
  • Tuckman (1960s) published five stage model of team development
  • Figure 9.1 Stages of Team Development(Robbins et al, 1998, p309)
  • Figure 11.1 The Five-Stage Team Development Model(Gray & Larson, 2006, p345)
  • Implications for teams:A project manager needs to devote initial attention to helping thegroup evolve quickly to the (performing phase).This model provides a framework for the group to understand its owndevelopment.It stresses the importance of the norming phase which contributes tothe level of productivity.
  • Recent studies suggest that there is no standardized pattern of groupdevelopment. What do you think about Tuckman’s model? Does it feel right to you?
  • Punctuated Equilibrium Model(1988) Gersick found that there are natural transition points during thelife of teams in which the group is receptive to change and that such amoment naturally occurs at the scheduled midpoint of a projectBy imposing a series of deadlines, with milestones, it is possible to createmultiple transition points for natural group development
  • Figure 11.2 The Punctuated Equilibrium Model of Group Development(Gray & Larson, 2006, p346)
  • TrainingThe main goal of teamdevelopment is to helppeople work together moreeffectively to improveproject performance.Training can help peopleunderstand themselves and eachother, and understand how towork better in teams.
  • Team building activities include physical challenges and psychological preference indicator tools
  • MBTIWhat are you?
  • e extrovert introvert is sensation intuition nt thinking feeling fj judgement perception p
  • e extrovert e introvert is sensation n intuition nt thinking t feeling fj judgement j perception p me
  • e extrovert i introvert i s sensation n intuition n t thinking feeling f j judgement perception pNTs are attracted to technology fieldsThere is a belief that IT people differ from population in a tendency to notbe extroverted or sensing.
  • The Max Wideman MTBI article “Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”R. Max Wideman, (1998) Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large:Do we have enough of the right kind of people? FPMI, AEW Services, Vancouver, BC, Canada.http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf
  • What is your suitability to Project Work?* Wideman, R. Max. “Project Teamwork, Personality Profiles and the Population at Large: Do we have enough of the right kind of people?”(http://www.maxwideman.com/papers/profiles/profiles.pdf ).
  • Another model Social Styles ProfileAssertiveness People are perceived as behaving primarily in one of four zones, based on their assertiveness and responsiveness Responsiveness
  • Another model Task Analytical DriverResponsiveness Amiable Expressive People Ask Assertiveness Tell
  • Reward and Recognition SystemsTeam-based reward and recognition systems can promote teamworkFocus on rewarding teams for achieving specific goalsAllow time for team members to mentor and help each other to meetproject goals and develop human resources
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/hi-phi/1100036300/
  • Team Development cont’d…Reward and Recognition Systems cont’d… Recognize individual performance? letters of commendation public recognition for outstanding work desirable job assignments increased personal flexibility
  • Keys to Managing People
  • Psychologists and management theorists have devoted much research andthought to the field of managing people at work. Important areas related toproject management include (1)Motivation, (2)Influence and power, and (3)Effectiveness
  • MotivationIntrinsic motivation causes people to Extrinsic motivation causes people toparticipate in an activity for their do something for a reward or toown enjoyment avoid a penaltyeg. read, gardening… eg. homework
  • Motivation Theorists – Maslow’s hierarch of needs – Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene – McClelland’s acquired-needs – McGregor’s X and Y
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs(1960s) Abraham Maslow developed ahierarchy of needs to illustrate his theorythat people’s behaviors are guided by asequence of needsMaslow argued that humans possess uniquequalities that enable them to makeindependent choices, thus giving themcontrol of their destiny
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needshttp://talkingtails.wordpress.com/2007/07/23/maslow-greek-philosophy-indian-mysticism/
  • Hertzberg’s Motivation-HygieneTheoryIn the late 1960s Frederick Herzberg wroteabout worker motivation.He distinguished between motivation factorsand hygiene factors. motivation factors hygiene factors Help motivate workers cause dissatisfaction if directly absent but do not eg. achievement, motivate, recognition, work, eg. Money, working responsibility conditions,
  • http://www.provenmodels.com/21/motivation-hygiene-theory/herzberg-mausner-snyderman
  • (Robbins et al, 1998, p221)
  • McClelland’s Acquired-NeedsTheory(1961) David McClelland proposed anindividual’s specific needs are acquired orlearned over time and shaped by lifeexperiences.Categories: – achievement – affiliation – power
  • McGregor’s Theory X andTheory YIn the 1960’s Douglas McGregor popularizedthe human relations approachTheory X: workers dislike and avoid workTheory Y: work is as natural as play or restTheory Z: emphasizing trust, quality,collective decision making, and culturalvalues
  • http://www.provenmodels.com/20/theory-x-&-y/mcgregor
  • Thamhain and Wilemon’sinfluence bases(1970’s) HJ Thamhain and DL Wilemonidentified nine influence bases availableto project managers 1. authority 2. assignment 3. budget 4. promotion 5. money 6. penalty 7. work challenge 8. expertise 9. friendship
  • Steven Covey’s 7 habitsCa be applied to improve effectivenesson projects 1. Be proactive 2. Begin with the end in mind 3. Put first things first 4. Think win/win 5. Seek first to understand, then to be understood 6. Synergize 7. Sharpen the saw
  • Covey’s Habit 5: Seek first to understand, then to be understood
  • Managing Project Teams
  • Project managers must lead their teams in performing various projectactivities
  • After assessing team performance and related information, the projectmanager must decide: – if changes should be requested to the project – if corrective or preventive actions should be recommended – if updates are needed to the project management plan or organizational process assets
  • Tools and techniques available to assist in managing project teamsinclude: – observation and conversation – project performance appraisals – conflict management – issue logs
  • Develop your team
  • Develop your teamBe patient and kind with your teamFix the problem instead of blaming peopleEstablish regular, effective meetingsAllow time for teams to go through the basic team-building stagesLimit the size of work teams to five to twelve membersPlan some social activities to help project team members and otherstakeholdersStress team identityNurture team members and encourage them to help each otherTake additional actions to work with virtual team members
  • Know the conditions favorable fordevelopment of high performing teamsVoluntary team membershipContinuous service on the teamFull-time assignment to the teamAn organization culture of cooperation and trustMembers report only to the project managerFunctional areas are represented on the teamThe project has a compelling objectiveMembers are in speaking distance of each other
  • Meetings?
  • A brief diversion into Management and Meetings
  • Don’t waste my time
  • Conducting Project Meetings Managing Managing Establishing Subsequent Establishing Subsequent Ground Rules Ground Rules Meetings Meetings Conducting ConductingRelationshipRelationship Planning Planning Decisions Project Project Decisions Decisions Decisions Meetings Meetings Managing Managing Tracking Change Tracking Change Decisions Decisions Decisions Decisions
  • Time Meeting goalsDate AgendaPlace Expected outcomeWho must be there Preparation required
  • Recruiting Project MembersFactors affecting recruiting – importance of the project – management structure used to complete the projectHow to recruit? – ask for volunteersWho to recruit? – problem-solving ability – availability – technological expertise – credibility – political connections – ambition, initiative, and energy
  • Figure 11.32 Creating a High-Performance Project Team(Gray & Larson, 2006, p348)
  • Establishing a Team Identity Effective Use Effective Use of Meetings of Meetings Co-location of Co-location of team members team members Creation of project Creation of project team name team name Team rituals Team rituals
  • Figure 11.4 Requirements for an Effective Project Vision(Gray & Larson, 2006, p357)
  • Orchestrating the Decision-Making ProblemProcess Identification Generating Alternatives Reaching a Decision Follow-up
  • Rejuvenating the Project TeamInformal Techniques – institute new rituals – take an off-site break as a team from the project – view an inspiration message or movie – have the project sponsor give a pep talk
  • Rejuvenating the Project Team Formal Techniques – team building session facilitated by an outsider to clarify ownership issues affecting performance – engage in an outside activity that provides an intense common experience to promote social development of the team
  • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams
  • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing trust exchange of social information set clear roles for each team member
  • Challenges of Managing Virtual Teams Developing effective patterns of communication include face-to-face if at all possible keep team members informed on how the overall project is going don’t let team members vanish establish a code of conduct to avoid delays establish clear norms and protocols for surfacing assumptions and conflicts
  • Figure 11.6 24-Hour Global Clock(Gray & Larson, 2006, p369)
  • Project Team Conflict
  • Managing Conflict in the Project Team
  • Managing Conflict in the Project TeamEncouraging Functional Conflict – encourage dissent by asking tough questions – bring in people with different points of view – designate someone to be a devil’s advocate – ask the team to consider an alternative
  • Managing Conflict in the Project TeamEncouraging Functional Conflict Encouraging Functional Conflict Managing Dysfunctional Conflict Managing Dysfunctional Conflict –– encourage dissent by asking encourage dissent by asking –– mediate the conflict mediate the conflict tough questions tough questions –– arbitrate the conflict arbitrate the conflict –– bring in people with different bring in people with different –– control the conflict control the conflict points of view points of view –– accept the conflict accept the conflict –– designate someone to be a designate someone to be a –– eliminate the conflict eliminate the conflict devil’s advocate devil’s advocate –– ask the team to consider an ask the team to consider an alternative alternative
  • Project Team Pitfalls
  • Figure 11.5 Conflict Intensity over the Project Life Cycle(Gray & Larson, 2006, p363)
  • Project Team Pitfalls Bureaucratic BureaucraticGroupthinkGroupthink Bypass Syndrome Bypass Syndrome Team Spirit Becomes Team Spirit BecomesGoing NativeGoing Native Team Infatuation Team Infatuation
  • Review1. Effective teams have common characteristics such as; size range, purpose, communication, leadership, cohesiveness, identity, diversity, and cooperation.2. Traditional research suggests teams develop in 5-stage process; forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning. Modern approach indicates growth occurs at project transition points.3. Team development can be facilitated through training, personality indicators, social styles profiles, and reward systems.4. PM’s can utilize people handling strategies from motivation theorists and other theorists such as; Maslow, Hertzberg, McClelland, McGregor and Covey …5. Other areas of importance include; recruitment, maintenance, and conflict management of project teams.
  • ReferencesHorodyski, K. (1995). Managing and developing teams. Footscray, Vic.: OpenTraining Services.Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4th ed.). Syd.,NSW: Allyn and Bacon.Robbins, S., et al. (1998). Organisational behaviour (2nd ed.). Sydney:Prentice-Hall
  • BetterProjects.netTitle page pic care of atomicShed & CC @ Flickr
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