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Managing Work Groups and Teams
Learning Objectives
1. Define and identify types of groups and teams in
organizations, discuss reasons why people join groups
and teams, and list the stages of group and team
development.
2. Identify and discuss four essential characteristics of
groups and teams.
3. Discuss interpersonal and intergroup conflict in
organizations.
4. Describe how organizations manage conflict.
22–2
GROUPS AND TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS
22–3
• Group
• Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal.
• Types of Groups and Teams
• Functional groups
• Informal or interest groups
• Task groups
TEAMS
22–4
• Team
• An interdependent group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no
supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities.
• Types of Teams
• Self-managed teams
• Cross-functional teams
• High performance teams.
Type of Team Purpose of Team
Problem-solving team Most popular type of team; comprises knowledge
workers who gather to solve a specific problem and
then disband
Management team Consists mainly of managers from various functions like
sales and production; coordinates work among other
teams
Work team An increasingly popular type of team; work teams are
responsible for the daily work of the organization; when
empowered, they are self-managed teams
Virtual team A newer type of work team whose members interact in a
virtual arena; members enter and leave the network as
needed and may take turns serving as leader
Quality circle Declining in popularity, quality circles, comprising
workers and supervisors, meet intermittently to discuss
workplace problems
22–5
22.1 Types of Teams
TEAMS (CONT’D)
22–6
• Benefits of Teams
• Give more responsibility for task performance to workers who do the
tasks.
• Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision-
making freedom.
• Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of
their workers.
• Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote
flexibility and responsiveness.
WHY PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS AND TEAMS
22–7
• Interpersonal attraction
• Group activities
• Group goals
• Need satisfaction
• Instrumental benefits
Slow
evolution
to next
stage
Slow
evolution
to next
stage
Burst of
activity
to next
stage
Forming
Members get acquainted
test interpersonal behaviors
Storming
Members develop group
structure and patterns of
interaction
Performing
Members enact roles, direct
effort toward goal attainment
and performance
Norming
Members share acceptance
of roles, sense of unity
22–8
22.2 Stages of Group Development
GROUPS AND TEAMS
22–9
CohesivenessNorms
Role
structure
Characteristics of
Groups and Teams
Informal
leadership
GROUP AND TEAM ROLES
22–10
• Role
• Is the part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals.
• Task-specialist role
• Socioemotional role
• Role Structures
• Is the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or
team members define and accept.
• Result from role episodes in which the expected role is translated into the enacted
role by an individual.
22–11
22.3 The Development of a Role
DISRUPTIONS IN ROLES
22–12
• Role Ambiguity
• Occurs when the sent role is unclear.
• Role Conflict
• Occurs when messages and cues of the sent role are clear but contradictory or
mutually exclusive.
• Interrole conflict  Intrarole conflict
• Intrasender conflict Person-role conflict
• Role overload
• Occurs when role expectations exceed
an individual’s capacities.
BEHAVIORAL NORMS
22–13
• Norms
• Are standards of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors that a group sets for its
members.
• Norm generalization (external)
• Norm variation (internal)
• Norm Conformity by Individuals
• Socialization in fully adopting group norms.
• Obeying the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality.
• Ignoring the norms
GROUP BEHAVIORAL NORMS
22–14
Individual
Traits
External
Stimulus
Group and Team
Pressure
Sources of
Norm Conformity
Situational
Factors
TEAM AND GROUP COHESION
22–15
• Cohesiveness
• The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of
mutual attractiveness within the group.
• Consequences of Cohesiveness
• The interaction between cohesiveness and performance norms
• The best situation: high cohesiveness with high performance
• The worst situation: high cohesiveness and low performance
Factors That Increase
Cohesiveness
Factors That Reduce
Cohesiveness
Intergroup competition Group size
Personal attraction Disagreement on goals
Favorable evaluation Intragroup competition
Agreement on goals Domination
Interaction Unpleasant experiences
22–16
22.2 Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness
22–17
22.4 The Interaction Between Cohesiveness
and Performance Norms
FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEADERSHIP
22–18
• Formal Leaders
• Have been elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by
the group members or have been formally appointed or recognized by
the organization as the leader for the group.
• Informal Leaders
• Engage in leadership activities but their right to do so is not formally
recognized by the organization or group.
• May also be the formal leader for the group or may supplement the
formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles.
• Draw on referent or expert power to establish themselves as leaders.
INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP CONFLICT
22–19
• The Nature of Conflict
• Conflict
• A disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations.
• Optimal level of conflict in an organization:
• Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and
lacking in innovation and underperforms.
• Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non-
cooperation predominate, and suffers from low performance.
• A moderate level of conflict in an organization fosters motivation, creativity,
innovation, and initiative and can raise performance.
• Interpersonal Conflict
• Personality clash
• Differing beliefs or perceptions
• Competitiveness
• Intergroup Conflict
• Interdependence
• Different goals
• Competition for scarce
resources
• Conflict Between an
Organization and its
Environment
• Conflict with competition
• Conflict with consumer
groups
• Conflict with employees
CAUSES OF CONFLICT
22–20
Managerial Action Method
Stimulating Conflict Increase competition among individuals and teams.
Hire outsiders to shake things up.
Change established procedures.
Controlling Conflict Expand resource base.
Enhance coordination of interdependence.
Set superordinate goals.
Match personalities and work habits of employees.
Resolving and
Eliminating Conflict
Avoid conflict.
Convince conflicting parties to compromise.
Bring conflicting parties together to confront and
negotiate conflict.
22–21
22.3 Methods for Managing Conflict
CONFLICT RESOLUTION
22–22
• Negotiation
• The process in which two or more parties (people or groups) reach agreement on an
issue even though they have different preferences regarding that issue.
Psychological
Individual
differences
Contextual
Situational
characteristics
Mathematical
Game
theory
Behavioral
Cognitive
approaches
Approaches to Negotiation
• group
• functional group
• informal or interest group
• task groups
• role structure
• role ambiguity
• role conflict
• role overload
• cohesiveness
• norms
• socialization
• informal leader
• conflict
KEY TERMS
22–23

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Managing work groups and teams

  • 2. Learning Objectives 1. Define and identify types of groups and teams in organizations, discuss reasons why people join groups and teams, and list the stages of group and team development. 2. Identify and discuss four essential characteristics of groups and teams. 3. Discuss interpersonal and intergroup conflict in organizations. 4. Describe how organizations manage conflict. 22–2
  • 3. GROUPS AND TEAMS IN ORGANIZATIONS 22–3 • Group • Two or more people who interact regularly to accomplish a common purpose or goal. • Types of Groups and Teams • Functional groups • Informal or interest groups • Task groups
  • 4. TEAMS 22–4 • Team • An interdependent group of workers who function as a unit, often with little or no supervision, to carry out work-related tasks, functions, and activities. • Types of Teams • Self-managed teams • Cross-functional teams • High performance teams.
  • 5. Type of Team Purpose of Team Problem-solving team Most popular type of team; comprises knowledge workers who gather to solve a specific problem and then disband Management team Consists mainly of managers from various functions like sales and production; coordinates work among other teams Work team An increasingly popular type of team; work teams are responsible for the daily work of the organization; when empowered, they are self-managed teams Virtual team A newer type of work team whose members interact in a virtual arena; members enter and leave the network as needed and may take turns serving as leader Quality circle Declining in popularity, quality circles, comprising workers and supervisors, meet intermittently to discuss workplace problems 22–5 22.1 Types of Teams
  • 6. TEAMS (CONT’D) 22–6 • Benefits of Teams • Give more responsibility for task performance to workers who do the tasks. • Empower workers by giving them greater authority and decision- making freedom. • Allow organizations to capitalize on the knowledge and motivation of their workers. • Enable the organization to shed its bureaucracy and to promote flexibility and responsiveness.
  • 7. WHY PEOPLE JOIN GROUPS AND TEAMS 22–7 • Interpersonal attraction • Group activities • Group goals • Need satisfaction • Instrumental benefits
  • 8. Slow evolution to next stage Slow evolution to next stage Burst of activity to next stage Forming Members get acquainted test interpersonal behaviors Storming Members develop group structure and patterns of interaction Performing Members enact roles, direct effort toward goal attainment and performance Norming Members share acceptance of roles, sense of unity 22–8 22.2 Stages of Group Development
  • 10. GROUP AND TEAM ROLES 22–10 • Role • Is the part an individual plays in helping the group reach its goals. • Task-specialist role • Socioemotional role • Role Structures • Is the set of defined roles and interrelationships among those roles that the group or team members define and accept. • Result from role episodes in which the expected role is translated into the enacted role by an individual.
  • 12. DISRUPTIONS IN ROLES 22–12 • Role Ambiguity • Occurs when the sent role is unclear. • Role Conflict • Occurs when messages and cues of the sent role are clear but contradictory or mutually exclusive. • Interrole conflict  Intrarole conflict • Intrasender conflict Person-role conflict • Role overload • Occurs when role expectations exceed an individual’s capacities.
  • 13. BEHAVIORAL NORMS 22–13 • Norms • Are standards of acceptable and unacceptable behaviors that a group sets for its members. • Norm generalization (external) • Norm variation (internal) • Norm Conformity by Individuals • Socialization in fully adopting group norms. • Obeying the “spirit” of the norms while retaining individuality. • Ignoring the norms
  • 14. GROUP BEHAVIORAL NORMS 22–14 Individual Traits External Stimulus Group and Team Pressure Sources of Norm Conformity Situational Factors
  • 15. TEAM AND GROUP COHESION 22–15 • Cohesiveness • The extent to which members are loyal and committed to the group; the degree of mutual attractiveness within the group. • Consequences of Cohesiveness • The interaction between cohesiveness and performance norms • The best situation: high cohesiveness with high performance • The worst situation: high cohesiveness and low performance
  • 16. Factors That Increase Cohesiveness Factors That Reduce Cohesiveness Intergroup competition Group size Personal attraction Disagreement on goals Favorable evaluation Intragroup competition Agreement on goals Domination Interaction Unpleasant experiences 22–16 22.2 Factors That Influence Group Cohesiveness
  • 17. 22–17 22.4 The Interaction Between Cohesiveness and Performance Norms
  • 18. FORMAL AND INFORMAL LEADERSHIP 22–18 • Formal Leaders • Have been elected or designated to engage in leadership activities by the group members or have been formally appointed or recognized by the organization as the leader for the group. • Informal Leaders • Engage in leadership activities but their right to do so is not formally recognized by the organization or group. • May also be the formal leader for the group or may supplement the formal leader in fulfilling leadership roles. • Draw on referent or expert power to establish themselves as leaders.
  • 19. INTERPERSONAL AND INTERGROUP CONFLICT 22–19 • The Nature of Conflict • Conflict • A disagreement between two or more individuals, groups, or organizations. • Optimal level of conflict in an organization: • Too little conflict and the organization becomes complacent and apathetic, and lacking in innovation and underperforms. • Too much conflict creates a dysfunctional organization where hostility and non- cooperation predominate, and suffers from low performance. • A moderate level of conflict in an organization fosters motivation, creativity, innovation, and initiative and can raise performance.
  • 20. • Interpersonal Conflict • Personality clash • Differing beliefs or perceptions • Competitiveness • Intergroup Conflict • Interdependence • Different goals • Competition for scarce resources • Conflict Between an Organization and its Environment • Conflict with competition • Conflict with consumer groups • Conflict with employees CAUSES OF CONFLICT 22–20
  • 21. Managerial Action Method Stimulating Conflict Increase competition among individuals and teams. Hire outsiders to shake things up. Change established procedures. Controlling Conflict Expand resource base. Enhance coordination of interdependence. Set superordinate goals. Match personalities and work habits of employees. Resolving and Eliminating Conflict Avoid conflict. Convince conflicting parties to compromise. Bring conflicting parties together to confront and negotiate conflict. 22–21 22.3 Methods for Managing Conflict
  • 22. CONFLICT RESOLUTION 22–22 • Negotiation • The process in which two or more parties (people or groups) reach agreement on an issue even though they have different preferences regarding that issue. Psychological Individual differences Contextual Situational characteristics Mathematical Game theory Behavioral Cognitive approaches Approaches to Negotiation
  • 23. • group • functional group • informal or interest group • task groups • role structure • role ambiguity • role conflict • role overload • cohesiveness • norms • socialization • informal leader • conflict KEY TERMS 22–23