Managing Groups & Teams


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An insight on groups and team building.

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Managing Groups & Teams

  1. 1. Managing Groups and Teams Chapter 12 Ready Notes For in-class note taking, choose Handouts or Notes Pages from the print options, with three slides per page.
  2. 2. Chapter Objectives <ul><li>Define the term group , and explain the significance of cohesiveness, roles, norms, and ostracism in regard to the behavior of group members. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and briefly describe the six stages of group development. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the relevant research insights about organizational politics, and explain how groupthink can lead to blind conformity. </li></ul><ul><li>Define and discuss the management of virtual teams . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter Objectives (cont’d) <ul><li>Discuss the criteria and determinants of team effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>Explain why trust is a key ingredient of teamwork and discuss what management can do to build trust. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Fundamental Group Dynamics <ul><li>What Is a Group? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two or more freely interacting individuals who share a common identity and purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Types of Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Informal groups: a collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal groups: a collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 12.1 What Does It Take to Make a Group?
  6. 6. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) <ul><li>Attraction to Groups </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attractiveness of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cohesiveness of the group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socially determined ways of behaving in a specific position. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A set of expectations concerning what a person must, must not, or may do in a position. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The actual behavior of a person who occupies the position. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) <ul><li>Norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The standards (degrees of acceptability and unacceptability) for conduct that help individuals judge what is right or good or bad in a given social setting. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are culturally derived and vary from one culture to another. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Are usually unwritten, yet have a strong influence on individual behavior. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May go above and beyond formal rules and written policies. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Fundamental Group Dynamics (cont’d) <ul><li>Reasons that groups enforce norms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To facilitate the survival of the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To simplify or clarify role expectations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To help group members avoid embarrassing situations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To express key group values and enhance the group’s unique identity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ostracism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rejection by the group for violation of its norms. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Group Development <ul><li>Characteristics of a Mature Group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members are aware of each other’s assets and liabilities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual differences are accepted. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The group’s authority and interpersonal relationships are recognized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Group decisions are made through rational discussion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict is over group issues, not emotional issues. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members are aware of the group’s processes and their own roles in them. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Six Stages of Group Development <ul><li>Stage 1: Orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty about most everything is high. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 2: Conflict and change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subgroups struggle for control; roles are undefined. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 3: Cohesion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consensus on leadership, structure, and procedures is reached. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 4: Delusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Members misperceive that the group has reached maturity. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Six Stages of Group Development (cont’d) <ul><li>Stage 5: Disillusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subgroups form; disenchantment, diminished cohesiveness and commitment to the group. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage 6: Acceptance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A trusted and influential group member steps forward and moves the group from conflict to cohesion so that it becomes highly effective and efficient. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Member expectations are more realistic. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Organizational Politics <ul><li>What Does Organizational Politics Involve? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The pursuit of self-interest at work in the face of real or imagined opposition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impression management: trying to influence how others perceive you. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political infighting is a primary impediment that slows down change in organizations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political maneuvering: all self-serving behavior above and beyond competence, hard work, and luck. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Organizational Politics (cont’d) <ul><li>Positive Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exchanging favors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Touching bases” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forming coalitions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seeking sponsors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overcoming internal barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hinders organizational and individual effectiveness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is an irritant to employees. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can have significant ethical implications. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Politics (cont’d) <ul><li>Research on Organizational Politics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The perception that the higher the level of management, the greater amount of politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The larger the organization, the greater the politics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff personnel are more political than line managers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing people are the most political; production people were considered the least political. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>61% of employees believed organizational politics helps advance one’s career. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>45% of employees believed that organizational politics detracts from organizational goals. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Organizational Politics (cont’d) <ul><li>Political Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Posturing: “One upmanship” and taking credit for others work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Empire building: gaining control over human and material resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Making the supervisor look good: engaging in “apple polishing.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collecting and using social IOUs: exchanging reciprocal political favors by making someone look good or covering up their mistakes. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organizational Politics (cont’d) <ul><li>Political Tactics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creating power and loyalty cliques: facing superiors as a cohesive group rather than alone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engaging in destructive competition: sabotaging the work of others through character assassination. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Organizational Politics (cont’d) <ul><li>Antidotes to Political Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive for a climate of openness and trust. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measure performance results rather than personalities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encourage top management to refrain from political behaviors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strive to integrate individual and organizational goals through meaningful work and career planning. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice job rotation to encourage broader perspectives and understanding of the problems of others. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Groupthink <ul><li>Groupthink (Irving Janis) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group, when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of Groupthink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excessive optimism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An assumption of inherent morality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppression of dissent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A desperate quest for unanimity </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Groupthink (cont’d) <ul><li>Preventing Groupthink </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid using of groups as rubberstamps. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urge each group member to think independently. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action. </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Team, Teamwork, and Trust <ul><li>Cross-Functional Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task groups staffed with a mix of specialists from various organizational areas who are focused on a common objective. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not be self-managed. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Membership is assigned, not voluntary. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Challenge is getting specialists to be boundary spanners. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) <ul><li>Virtual Teams </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Task groups with members who are physically dispersed yet linked electronically to accomplish a common goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Face-to-face contact is minimal or nonexistent. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Primary forms of communication are electronic interchanges (e-mail, voice mail, web-based project software, and videoconferences). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) <ul><li>Building a Virtual Team </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify the team’s sponsors, stakeholders, and champions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a team charter that includes its purpose, mission, and goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select team members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contact team members and introduce them to each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct a team orientation session. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a team process. </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) <ul><li>What Makes Workplace Teams Effective? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovative ideas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals accomplished </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptability to change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High person/team commitment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Being rated highly by upper management </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) <ul><li>Trust: A Key to Team Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust: a belief in the integrity, character, or ability of others. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The primary responsibility for creating a climate of trust falls on the manager. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust is the key to establishing productive interpersonal relationships. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust encourages self-control, reduces the need for direct supervision, and expands managerial control. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Team, Teamwork, and Trust (cont’d) <ul><li>Six Ways to Build Trust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication: keep people informed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Support: be an approachable person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respect: delegate important duties and listen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fairness: evaluate fairly and objectively. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predictability: be dependable and consistent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence: be a good role model. </li></ul></ul>