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Conflict Management


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Conflict Management

  2. 2. What is Conflict? A disagreement between people that may be the result of different: – Ideas – Perspectives – Priorities – Preferences – Beliefs – Values – Goals – Organizational structures
  3. 3. Organizational Conflict <ul><li>Organizational Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The discord that arises when goals, interests or values of different individuals or groups are incompatible and those people block or thwart each other’s efforts to achieve their objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict is inevitable given the wide range of goals for the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>different stakeholder in the organization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of conflict signals that management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>emphasizes conformity and stifles innovation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict is good for organizational performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>although excessive conflict causes managers to </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>spend too much time achieving their own ends. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Conflict Can cause organizational distress • Low morale • Complaints and bickering • Minimum creativity • Lack of team spirit • Absenteeism and turnover
  5. 5. The Effect of Conflict on Organization Performance
  6. 6. Sources of Conflict
  7. 7. Sources of Conflict • Ambiguous jurisdictions: “ I don’t know who has the sign off on that issue.” • Conflict of interest: “ Doesn’t she belong to the College too?” • Communication barriers: “ They never return phone calls.” • Unresolved prior conflicts: “ We always have a problem with the Feds about the final report.” • Over dependency of one party: “ We will have to wait until the Budget is announced.”
  8. 8. Misconceptions about Conflict <ul><li>Harmony is “normal” </li></ul><ul><li>• Conflict is “abnormal” </li></ul><ul><li>• Conflicts and disagreements are the same </li></ul><ul><li>• Conflict is the result of “personality problems” </li></ul><ul><li>• Conflict and anger are the same </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Interpersonal Conflict </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between individuals due to differences in their goals or values. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intragroup Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict within a group or team. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intergroup Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict between two or more teams or groups. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Managers play a key role in resolution of this conflict </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interorganizational Conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict that arises across organizations. </li></ul></ul></ul>Types of Conflict
  10. 10. Understanding Conflict <ul><li>Stage </li></ul><ul><li>Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Individual Thought or </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Blocked from satisfying </li></ul><ul><li>goals </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the problem </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Behavior is based on beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>The conflict is resolved in one </li></ul><ul><li>of </li></ul><ul><li>three ways: </li></ul><ul><li>- win/lose, </li></ul><ul><li>- lose/lose, </li></ul><ul><li>- win/win </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conflict Management <ul><li>Constructive Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Growth occurs </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Problems are resolved </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Unifies a group </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Enhances productivity </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Increases commitment </li></ul><ul><li>Destructive Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Leads to negativism </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Diminished resolutions </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Group division </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Decreases productivity </li></ul><ul><li>􀂄 Lessens satisfaction </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conflict is destructive when it • Takes attention from important activities • Undermines morale or self-esteem • Polarizes people and groups • Jeopardizes teamwork • Leads to negative behavior • Creates stress
  13. 13. Conflict is constructive when it • Identifies and clarifies important issues • Solves problems • Results in “something for everyone” • Causes authentic communication • Leads to sharing information • Encourages cooperation • Builds/strengthens interpersonal skills
  14. 14. Conflict Manifestation <ul><li>Phase One </li></ul><ul><li>– Frustration </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase Two </li></ul><ul><li>– Conceptualization of cause </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase Three </li></ul><ul><li>– Behavior directed at cause </li></ul><ul><li>• Phase Four </li></ul><ul><li>– Outcome as a result of the behavior </li></ul>
  15. 15. Defensive Coping <ul><li>Assumes that the problem is caused </li></ul><ul><li>by the other person. </li></ul><ul><li>Develops a private diagnosis and </li></ul><ul><li>solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Tries to get other person to change </li></ul><ul><li>by using </li></ul><ul><li>logic, indirect influence, or critique. </li></ul><ul><li>If other person resists, that confirms #1. </li></ul><ul><li>Responds to resistance through intensifying pressure, protecting, or rejecting the other person. </li></ul><ul><li>If efforts are unsuccessful, it’s the other person’s fault. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Going Beyond Defensive Coping <ul><li>Begin with communication </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on active listening techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Separate the problem from the person </li></ul><ul><li>Use “I” statements </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conflict Resolution
  18. 18. Phases of Conflict Management <ul><li>Collect data: know the cause and remain objective. </li></ul><ul><li>Probe: ask open-ended questions and listen actively. </li></ul><ul><li>Save face: work toward a win/win result. </li></ul><ul><li>Common interests: redefine the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>Reinforce: give support to common ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiate: suggest partial solutions or compromises. </li></ul><ul><li>Solidify adjustments: review agreements/resolutions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. How Do You Cope With Conflict? Five strategies exist for coping with conflict <ul><li>Avoidance </li></ul><ul><li>Competition </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  20. 20. Five Modes for Handling Conflict <ul><li>Avoidance: steering clear of and denying the </li></ul><ul><li>existence of the conflict and disagreement. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodate: letting the other person decide </li></ul><ul><li>totally what the resolve is to be. </li></ul><ul><li>Compete: aggressively pursuing ways to win from </li></ul><ul><li>my own perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise: looking after both parties interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborate: assertively looking after my interests but equally concerned </li></ul><ul><li>with the interests of the other person. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Coping With Conflict Avoidance. <ul><li>Most preferred strategy during initial stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals fail to address the conflict. </li></ul><ul><li>-Nothing to lose. </li></ul><ul><li>-Lack of time. </li></ul><ul><li>-Inappropriate time or place. </li></ul><ul><li>-Individuals are angry. </li></ul><ul><li>-Emotional involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Postponing a resolution hinders group progress. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Competition. <ul><li>A power-oriented strategy. </li></ul><ul><li>One party pursues his/her own concerns. </li></ul><ul><li>- Results in one winner and one loser. </li></ul><ul><li>- Usually based on limited resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The resolution decreases cooperation within </li></ul><ul><li>the group. </li></ul><ul><li>Competition should be based on whether winning the </li></ul><ul><li>conflict is beneficial to individuals or the group. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Accommodation. <ul><li>A strategy for resolving immediate needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Contains an element of self-sacrifice. </li></ul><ul><li>- The issue is more important to the other party. </li></ul><ul><li>- You discover that you were wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>- Preserving harmony is important. </li></ul><ul><li>Accommodation emphasizes common interests </li></ul><ul><li>and deemphasizes differences in the group. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Compromise. <ul><li>A strategy for finding an expedient solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution is mutually acceptable for all parties. </li></ul><ul><li>- A temporary settlement for complex issues. </li></ul><ul><li>- Group goals outweigh assertive strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>- Individuals of equal status are equally committed. </li></ul><ul><li>Compromise works towards partially satisfying both </li></ul><ul><li>parties, but each party must honor the resolution for </li></ul><ul><li>continued satisfaction. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Collaboration. <ul><li>A strategy that fully satisfies both parties. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages teamwork and cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>- There must be a high level of trust. </li></ul><ul><li>- A need to gain commitment from others. </li></ul><ul><li>- A need to work through hard feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>The best decisions are made with collaboration, given </li></ul><ul><li>the presence of trust, respect, and communication </li></ul><ul><li>among group members. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Three Assumptions in Disagreement <ul><li>Lose-Lose: everyone loses when people try to </li></ul><ul><li>work out their disagreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Win-Lose: someone wins and someone loses; the </li></ul><ul><li>best that can be hoped for in disagreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Win-Win: everyone can win. </li></ul>
  27. 27. High Low High You Others Lose/Lose Win/ Win Win /Lose Lose/ Win Outcome of Conflict
  28. 28. ASSERTIVENESS COOPERATIVENESS Compete Collaborate Avoid Accommodate Compromise Low High High Modes of Handling Conflict
  29. 29. Dysfunctional Consequences <ul><li>When it keeps people from getting work done. </li></ul><ul><li>When it threatens the relationship; destroys </li></ul><ul><li>confidence and trust. </li></ul><ul><li>When it becomes personal; feelings are hurt. </li></ul><ul><li>When it dictates conformity; people are forced to </li></ul><ul><li>a decision. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Functional Consequences <ul><li>When it increases the involvement </li></ul><ul><li>of people. </li></ul><ul><li>When it leads to growth. </li></ul><ul><li>When relationships are clearly defined. </li></ul><ul><li>When it provides an outlet for stress, anxiety, </li></ul><ul><li>frustration, anger. </li></ul><ul><li>When it leads to cohesion within the group. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Wilson’s Method of Conflict Management 1. Evaluate interpersonally: know and understand the conflict. 2. Define interpersonally: share feelings and perceptions publicly. 3. Identify shared goals: this may mean developing some ideas about both parties would like to have as a result. 4. Generate possible resolutions: develop a list of all possible ways the differences can be resolved.
  32. 32. 5. Weigh the resolutions against the goals: find out how well each of the possible resolutions satisfy or meet the goal or goals generated in step 3. 6. Select best solution: identify which among the alternatives is the best, most satisfying and agreeable one. 7. Evaluate resolution: when the resolution has been put into place or acted upon, ascertain whether it had its intended effect
  33. 33. Conclusion: Conflict Management <ul><li>Individual worth and integrity remain intact or are </li></ul><ul><li>preserved. </li></ul><ul><li>Unreal assumptions are filtered out, and replaced </li></ul><ul><li>with reality centered and agreed upon ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Goal setting becomes realistic and futuristic. </li></ul><ul><li>Action steps for what was decided are clearly </li></ul><ul><li>outlined and agreed upon. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hints for Conflict management <ul><li>Focus on positive outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>One issue at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Review previous issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose correct timing. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid inclusive words. </li></ul><ul><li>Agree to disagree. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t insist on being right. </li></ul>
  35. 35. THANK YOU