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Project Management     8. Managing Project Conflict
Week 8
QWhy is learning about conflict management relevant?ATo help develop and facilitate leadership, team building,performance ...
Required reading:  Darling, J., & Walker, W. (2001).    Effective conflict management.    Leadership and Organization    D...
Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress
Nature of ConflictResponding to Conflict                         4Handling GrievancesEmotional Stress
ConflictConflict is a form of relating orinteracting where we find ourselves(either as individuals or groups) undersome so...
Sources of Conflict       (Bisno)                      Project Sources of Conflict                            (Thamhain & ...
Sources of Conflict            (Bisno)          BiosocialPersonality and interactional         Structural  Cultural and id...
Bisno’s Sources of Conflict(Condliffe, 1991, p6)
Sources of Conflict            (Bisno)          BiosocialPersonality and interactional         Structural  Cultural and id...
Sources of Conflict            (Bisno)          BiosocialPersonality and interactional         Structural  Cultural and id...
(Nicholas, 2001, p519)
(Nicholas, 2001, p519)
Components of   Conflict
Components of Conflict Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)
Components of Conflict Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests
Components of ConflictEmotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear,reject, and loss
Components of Conflict             When you have to deal with conflict             tackle the emotional issues first      ...
Consequences of conflict
Good Consequences    of Conflict
increased creativity
It forces people to clarify their views
It can produceconstructive social change
It gives people theopportunity to testtheir capacities
development of group andorganization cohesion
Bad Consequences of      Conflict
Violence
breakdown of relationships
polarization of views into static positions
A breakdown ofcollaborative ventures
destruction ofcommunication
Groupthink
GroupthinkGroupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures withingroups to lead to the breakdown of critical think...
Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity.
It is unhealthy when there is no conflict
You needdiversity of  opinion
Consequences of conflict
Nature of ConflictResponding to Conflict                         3Handling GrievancesEmotional Stress
Conflict Handling Styles  Avoiding  Compromise  Competition  Accommodation  Collaboration
Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?
Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?Project Managers may have a preferredstyle for managing conflict
Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?Project Managers may have a preferredstyle for managing conflictYou should use d...
avoiding compromise competitionaccommodation collaboration
AvoidingCharacteristics                   When to use• ignoring conflicts and hoping   • Trivial, small/unimportant  they’...
CompromiseCharacteristics             When to use• negotiation               • goals are important, but not worth effort• ...
CompetitionCharacteristics        When to use• create win-lose      • quick, decisive action is vital, very  situations   ...
AccommodationCharacteristics    When to use• giving way       • find you are wrong• submission and   • issues more importa...
CollaborationCharacteristics                      When to use• problem-solving carriage           • find an integrative so...
2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team• Role Clarification Technique (RAT)• Intergroup Conflict Resolution
Role Clarification Technique (RAT)This is a systematic procedure which involves all team membersunderstanding the requirem...
Intergroup Conflict ResolutionEach group should prepare list of what they would like the othergroups to start doing, stop ...
Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress         2
What is a Grievance?
A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member ormembers of a team, which has or is likely to have an unreasonab...
Most grievances are never raised with management                                               Why?
Our complaints    Lack of trustare trivialized   No action  gets taken!            They only take                         ...
What you should do?
ListenDiscuss Plan
Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress         1
Stress
What is Stress?A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurringin situations where individuals perceive...
Effects of Stress                Physical illness                  Lack of sleep Reduction in task performance  Poor q...
Causes of Stress in ProjectsCauses of Stress in Projects      Long hours   Tight schedules Transient work force       High...
A Stress Survey             How many of these for you                      in the last year?
(Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238)
Stress Management  1. Organizational Level      2. Individual Level
Stress Management at  the Organizational        Levelsetting reasonable work plans        and schedules delegating respons...
Stress Management for the Individualstress management program    relaxation trainingdiversions from work-related          ...
Review1. Conflict is the opposition of people or forces that develops into an   aggressive state or action.2. Sources of I...
ReferencesCondliffe, P. (1991). Conflict management – A practical guide. Collingwood,Vic.: RMIT.Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. ...
Photo credits                                        Photos come care of Flickr, CC and generous                          ...
BetterProjects.netTitle page pic care of Helico & CC @ Flickr
Conflict Management
Conflict Management
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Conflict Management

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Conflict Management

  1. 1. Project Management 8. Managing Project Conflict
  2. 2. Week 8
  3. 3. QWhy is learning about conflict management relevant?ATo help develop and facilitate leadership, team building,performance management, and conflict management skills in an ITenvironment
  4. 4. Required reading: Darling, J., & Walker, W. (2001). Effective conflict management. Leadership and Organization Development Journal, 22 (5), 230- 242. Retrieved February 10, 2006 from: http://faculty.business.utsa.edu/dwalz/Classes/Recommended reading: Cadle & Yeates, 2004, Ch 23.
  5. 5. Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress
  6. 6. Nature of ConflictResponding to Conflict 4Handling GrievancesEmotional Stress
  7. 7. ConflictConflict is a form of relating orinteracting where we find ourselves(either as individuals or groups) undersome sort of perceived threat to ourpersonal or collective goals.These goals are usually to do with ourinterpersonal wants. These perceivedthreats may be either real or imagined(Condliffe, 1991, p3).
  8. 8. Sources of Conflict (Bisno) Project Sources of Conflict (Thamhain & Wilemon)
  9. 9. Sources of Conflict (Bisno) BiosocialPersonality and interactional Structural Cultural and ideological Convergence
  10. 10. Bisno’s Sources of Conflict(Condliffe, 1991, p6)
  11. 11. Sources of Conflict (Bisno) BiosocialPersonality and interactional Structural Cultural and ideological Convergence
  12. 12. Sources of Conflict (Bisno) BiosocialPersonality and interactional Structural Cultural and ideological Convergence Project Sources of Conflict (Thamhain & Wilemon) Project schedules Project priorities Workforce
  13. 13. (Nicholas, 2001, p519)
  14. 14. (Nicholas, 2001, p519)
  15. 15. Components of Conflict
  16. 16. Components of Conflict Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)
  17. 17. Components of Conflict Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests
  18. 18. Components of ConflictEmotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear,reject, and loss
  19. 19. Components of Conflict When you have to deal with conflict tackle the emotional issues first then address values and interests Emotional: feelings that accompany human interactions eg. anger, fear, reject, and loss Interests: things that motivate eg. managers and workers have different interests Values: ideas and feelings about right and wrong (difficult to resolve)
  20. 20. Consequences of conflict
  21. 21. Good Consequences of Conflict
  22. 22. increased creativity
  23. 23. It forces people to clarify their views
  24. 24. It can produceconstructive social change
  25. 25. It gives people theopportunity to testtheir capacities
  26. 26. development of group andorganization cohesion
  27. 27. Bad Consequences of Conflict
  28. 28. Violence
  29. 29. breakdown of relationships
  30. 30. polarization of views into static positions
  31. 31. A breakdown ofcollaborative ventures
  32. 32. destruction ofcommunication
  33. 33. Groupthink
  34. 34. GroupthinkGroupthink is a tendency for strong conformity pressures withingroups to lead to the breakdown of critical thinking and encouragepremature acceptance of questionable decisions
  35. 35. Lack of conflict is a sign of over conformity.
  36. 36. It is unhealthy when there is no conflict
  37. 37. You needdiversity of opinion
  38. 38. Consequences of conflict
  39. 39. Nature of ConflictResponding to Conflict 3Handling GrievancesEmotional Stress
  40. 40. Conflict Handling Styles Avoiding Compromise Competition Accommodation Collaboration
  41. 41. Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?
  42. 42. Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?Project Managers may have a preferredstyle for managing conflict
  43. 43. Which conflict handlingstyle will you use?Project Managers may have a preferredstyle for managing conflictYou should use different styles dependingon the problem – and get there by usingyour ability to read situation
  44. 44. avoiding compromise competitionaccommodation collaboration
  45. 45. AvoidingCharacteristics When to use• ignoring conflicts and hoping • Trivial, small/unimportant they’ll go away issue• putting problems under • no perceived chance of consideration or on hold resolution• use of secrecy to avoid • To allow a cool down period confrontation • To allow others to resolve the• appeal to bureaucratic rules situation
  46. 46. CompromiseCharacteristics When to use• negotiation • goals are important, but not worth effort• looking for deals and • opponents with equal power are committed trade-offs to mutually exclusive goals• finding satisfactory or • achieve temporary settlements to issues acceptable solutions • arrive at solutions under time pressure • back-up to collaboration or competition
  47. 47. CompetitionCharacteristics When to use• create win-lose • quick, decisive action is vital, very situations important• use of power plays • unpopular actions eg. cost cutting• forcing submission • issues are vital to company welfare • against people who take advantage of non- competitive behavior
  48. 48. AccommodationCharacteristics When to use• giving way • find you are wrong• submission and • issues more important to others than yourself fulfillment • maintain cooperation • build social credits for later on • minimize loss • harmony and stability are important • allow team members to learn from their mistakes
  49. 49. CollaborationCharacteristics When to use• problem-solving carriage • find an integrative solution when• tackle differences both sets of concerns are• sharing ideas and information important• seeing problems and conflicts as • objective is to learn challenges
  50. 50. 2 Methods for Resolving Conflict in a team• Role Clarification Technique (RAT)• Intergroup Conflict Resolution
  51. 51. Role Clarification Technique (RAT)This is a systematic procedure which involves all team membersunderstanding the requirements of their of own and everyoneelses position, duties and expectationsYou’ll need to clarify roles for team and individuals; for examplevia questionnaires (or for project teams - RAM matrices!)
  52. 52. Intergroup Conflict ResolutionEach group should prepare list of what they would like the othergroups to start doing, stop doing, and continue to do.This list narrows he scope of the dispute and makes it easier to workon the core problems.
  53. 53. Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress 2
  54. 54. What is a Grievance?
  55. 55. A grievance is any behaviour or action of another member ormembers of a team, which has or is likely to have an unreasonablenegative impact on the ability of a team member to undertake theirduties
  56. 56. Most grievances are never raised with management Why?
  57. 57. Our complaints Lack of trustare trivialized No action gets taken! They only take defensive action
  58. 58. What you should do?
  59. 59. ListenDiscuss Plan
  60. 60. Nature of ConflictResponding to ConflictHandling GrievancesEmotional Stress 1
  61. 61. Stress
  62. 62. What is Stress?A pattern of emotional states and physiological reactions occurringin situations where individuals perceive threats to their importantgoals that they feel unable to meet (Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p257).
  63. 63. Effects of Stress  Physical illness  Lack of sleep Reduction in task performance  Poor quality decision making
  64. 64. Causes of Stress in ProjectsCauses of Stress in Projects Long hours Tight schedules Transient work force High risks Work overload Role uncertainty Social relations
  65. 65. A Stress Survey How many of these for you in the last year?
  66. 66. (Greenberg & Baron, 1993, p238)
  67. 67. Stress Management 1. Organizational Level 2. Individual Level
  68. 68. Stress Management at the Organizational Levelsetting reasonable work plans and schedules delegating responsibility and increasing independence clarifying responsibilities, authority, and performance criteriaclarifying goals, procedures, and decision criteria giving consideration and support in leadership
  69. 69. Stress Management for the Individualstress management program relaxation trainingdiversions from work-related problems
  70. 70. Review1. Conflict is the opposition of people or forces that develops into an aggressive state or action.2. Sources of IT project conflict includes; schedules, priorities and workforce issues.3. Conflict can be good and bad.4. Conflict handling styles include; avoiding, compromise, competition, accommodation, and collaboration.5. Grievance handling strategies include; listen, discuss, and plan. Not dealing with grievances can be harmful to projects.6. Work environment improvements and reducing stress is essential to a team’s health and the success of the project.
  71. 71. ReferencesCondliffe, P. (1991). Conflict management – A practical guide. Collingwood,Vic.: RMIT.Greenberg, J. & Baron, R. (1993). Behavior in organizations (4th ed.). Syd.,NSW: Allyn and Bacon.Nicholas, J. (2001). Project management for business technology – Principlesand practice (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice-Hall.
  72. 72. Photo credits Photos come care of Flickr, CC and generous community members. Most photo credits are in the notes section of the page itself. Some are below.Steve9091 Karthik kodama Helico assbach orionoir bfick bootload Destinys Agent BryonRealey James Gordon _uncommon Sudhir
  73. 73. BetterProjects.netTitle page pic care of Helico & CC @ Flickr

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