Group and Teams
Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have
come together to achieve particular objectives.
A number of individuals considered together because of
A number of people who are connected by some shared activity ,
A designated work group defined
by the organization’s structure.
A group composed of the
individuals who report directly to a
A group that is neither formally
structured now organizationally
determined; appears in response
to the need for social contact.
Those working together to
complete a job or task.
Those working together to attain
a specific objective with which
each is concerned.
Those brought together because
they share one or more common
Why Do People
The Five-Stage Model of Group
The Forming – Storming – Norming –
Performing model of group development
was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in
1965, who maintained that these phases
are all necessary and inevitable in order
for the team to grow, to face up to
challenges, to tackle problems, to find
solutions, to plan work, and to deliver
Five-Stage Model of Group
The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty.
The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesive.
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with
wrapping up activities rather than performance.
An Alternate Model : For Temporary
Groups wth Deadlines el: Temporary
Groups with Deadline
Sequence of actions:
Temporary groups go
through transitions between
inertia and activity.
2. First phase of inertia
1. Sets group direction
3. Half-way point transition
4. Major changes
5. Second phase of inertia
6. Accelerated activity
Group Member Resources
Composition of Group
Almost every group has formal leader. Typically identified by
Manager, supervisor, foreman, project leader, task force head,
Group Structure - Roles
A set of expected
attributed to someone
occupying a given
position in a social unit.
Certain attitudes and
with a role.
An individual’s view of
how he or she is
supposed to act in a given
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)
How others believe a
person should act in a
agreement that sets
out what management
expects from the
employee and vice
A situation in which an
individual is confronted
by divergent role
Group Structure - Norms
Classes of Norms:
Acceptable standards of behavior
within a group that are shared by the
Social arrangement norms
Allocation of resources norms
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)
Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.
Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose
norms individuals are likely to conform.
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established
norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
Deviant workplace behavior
Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior
Leaving early, wasting resource,intentionaly working slow
Sabotage, stealing from organization
Showing favoritism, gossiping & spreading rumors
Personal Aggression verbal abuse
Group Structure - Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by
Group Structure - Size
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working
collectively than when working individually.
• Odd number groups do
better than even.
• Groups of 7 or 9
perform better overall
than larger or smaller
Group Structure - Composition
The degree to which members of a group share a common
demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or
length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on
Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
Group Structure - Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are
motivated to stay in the group
Increasing group cohesiveness:
1.Make the group smaller.
2.Encourage agreement with group goals.
3.Increase time members spend together.
4.Increase group status and admission difficultly.
5.Stimulate competition with other groups.
6.Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
7.Physically isolate the group.
Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex
Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the
implementation of complex tasks.
Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group
processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
Group Decision Making
More complete information&
– Increased diversity of views
– Higher quality of decisions
– Increased acceptance of
More time consuming (slower)
Increased pressure to conform
Domination by one or a few
Effectiveness & Efficiency
Whether groups are more effective than individuals depend on the
criteria you use to determine effectiveness.
Accuracy : group decisions are more accurate than of Individuals .
Speed : if decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed , than
individual decisions are fast.
Creativity : group tends to be more creative than individuals
Acceptance : if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the
final solution achieves , the nod again goes to group.
Effectiveness & Efficiency
Group efficiency is less than of Individuals
1. More time in group activities
2. time required for searching of Information can be
Group Decision Making (cont’d)
Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the
realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.
A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the
individual decision that member within the group would make; can
be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
Have you ever felt like speaking up in a meeting, classroom, or informal
group, but decided against it?
One reason may have been shyness.
On the other hand, you may have been victim of groupthink, the
phenomenon that occurs
when group members become so enamored of seeking
concurrence that the norm for consensus overrides the realistic
appraisal of alternatives courses of action and the full expression
of deviant, minority or unpopular views. It describes deterioration in
an individuals mental efficiency, reality, testing, and moral judgment as a
result of group pressures
Symptoms Of The Groupthink
Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.
Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views
or who question the alternative favored by the majority.
Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.
There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
In comparing group decisions with the individual decisions of members within the group,
evidence suggests that there are differences. In some cases, the group decisions are more
conservative than the individual decisions.
More often, the shift is towards greater risk. What appears to happen in groups is that the
discussion leads to a significant shift in a position of members towards a more extreme position
in the direction in which they were already leaning before the discussion.
So conservative types become more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk.
The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group.
Group shift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision of the group
reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group's discussion.
Whether the shift in the group's decision is towards greater caution or more risk depends on the
dominant pre-discussion norm.
Group Decision-Making Techniques
Typical groups, in which the members interact with
each other face-to-face.
Nominal Group Technique
A group decision-making method in which individual members
meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but
Group Decision-Making Techniques
An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while
withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of
action. The "brainstorming session" is usually relatively unstructured.
The group leader or facilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Once the
ideas of the group members have been exhausted, the group members then begin the
process of evaluating the utility of the different suggestions presented. Brainstorming is a
useful means by which to generate alternatives, but does not offer much in the way of
process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action.
Group Decision-Making Techniques
The Delphi technique is a group decision-making process that can be used by
decision-making groups when the individual members are in different physical
locations. The technique was developed at the Rand Corporation.
The individuals in the Delphi "group" are usually selected because of the specific
knowledge or expertise of the problem they possess. In the Delphi technique,
each group member is asked to independently provide ideas, input, and/or
alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages.
Why Have Teams Become So Popular
Teams typically outperform individuals.
Teams use employee talents better.
Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.
Teams facilitate employee involvement.
Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase
Team Versus Group: What’s the
A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help
each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.
A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the
sum of the individual inputs.
----- Accountability---Random & Varied ---- Skills-----
Individual & Mutual
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a
few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and
the work environment.
Self-Managed Work Teams
Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their
Types of Teams (cont’d)
Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but
from different work areas, who come together to
accomplish a task.
• Task forces
Types of Teams (cont’d)
Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed
members in order to achieve a common goal.
1. The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues
2. A limited social context
3. The ability to overcome time and space
-Leadership & Structure
--Climate of trust
--Performance Evaluation and reward systems
--Abilities of Members
---Size of Teams
Turning Individuals Into Team Players
Countering the influence of individualistic cultures.
Overcoming individual resistance to team membership.
Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement.
Shaping Team Players
Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles.
Training employees to become team players.
Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to
recognize individual contributions.
Teams and Quality Management
Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams:
Are small enough to be efficient and effective.
Are properly trained in required skills.
Allocated enough time to work on problems.
Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective
Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the
Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives?
Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the
group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals?
Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?