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Group and teams,


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Understanding Group and Work teams.Organizational Behavior By Robbins

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Group and teams,

  1. 1. Group and Teams Group Dynamics MBA SEM-1 PREPARED BYNISHIT ARPAN GROUP 1
  2. 2. Defining Group  Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.  A number of individuals considered together because of similarities.  A number of people who are connected by some shared activity , interest,or quality.
  3. 3. Classifying Groups Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Informal Group A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact. Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task.
  4. 4. Classifying Groups(contd.) Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
  6. 6. Stages of Group Development
  7. 7. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development  The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results
  8. 8. Five-Stage Model of Group Development      Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesive. Performing stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
  9. 9. An Alternate Model : For Temporary Groups wth Deadlines el: Temporary Groups with Deadline Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Sequence of actions: Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. 2. First phase of inertia 1. Sets group direction 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
  10. 10. Group Member Resources  Knowledge  Skills  Abilities  Personality characters o Sociabilty,initiative,openness,flexibility
  11. 11. Group Structure STRUCTURAL VARIABLES  Formal Leadership  Roles  Norms  Group Size  Composition of Group
  12. 12. Formal Leadership  Almost every group has formal leader. Typically identified by Manager, supervisor, foreman, project leader, task force head, committee chair.  Group success
  13. 13. Group Structure - Roles Role(s) Role Identity Role Perception A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  14. 14. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
  15. 15. Group Structure - Norms Norms Classes of Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.  Performance norms  Appearance norms  Social arrangement norms  Allocation of resources norms
  16. 16. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Deviant Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
  17. 17. Deviant workplace behavior  Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early, wasting resource,intentionaly working slow Property Sabotage, stealing from organization Political Showing favoritism, gossiping & spreading rumors Personal Aggression verbal abuse
  18. 18. Group Structure - Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Group Norms Status Equity Culture Group Member Status
  19. 19. Group Structure - Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Other conclusions: Performance • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Group Size
  20. 20. Group Structure - Composition Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
  21. 21. Group Structure - Cohesiveness Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Increasing group cohesiveness: 1.Make the group smaller. 2.Encourage agreement with group goals. 3.Increase time members spend together. 4.Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5.Stimulate competition with other groups. 6.Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7.Physically isolate the group.
  22. 22. Group Tasks  Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
  23. 23. Group Decision Making  Strengths More complete information& knowledge – Increased diversity of views – Higher quality of decisions (more accuracy) – Increased acceptance of solutions – Weaknesses More time consuming (slower) Increased pressure to conform Domination by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility
  24. 24. Effectiveness & Efficiency Effectiveness Whether groups are more effective than individuals depend on the criteria you use to determine effectiveness. Accuracy : group decisions are more accurate than of Individuals . Speed : if decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed , than individual decisions are fast. Creativity : group tends to be more creative than individuals Acceptance : if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the final solution achieves , the nod again goes to group.
  25. 25. Effectiveness & Efficiency Efficiency Group efficiency is less than of Individuals Because 1. More time in group activities 2. time required for searching of Information can be reduced
  26. 26. Group Decision Making (cont’d) Groupthink Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Group shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
  27. 27. Group think Have you ever felt like speaking up in a meeting, classroom, or informal group, but decided against it? One reason may have been shyness. On the other hand, you may have been victim of groupthink, the phenomenon that occurs when group members become so enamored of seeking concurrence that the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives courses of action and the full expression of deviant, minority or unpopular views. It describes deterioration in an individuals mental efficiency, reality, testing, and moral judgment as a result of group pressures
  28. 28. Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon  Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.  Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.  Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.  There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
  29. 29. Groupshift In comparing group decisions with the individual decisions of members within the group, evidence suggests that there are differences. In some cases, the group decisions are more conservative than the individual decisions. More often, the shift is towards greater risk. What appears to happen in groups is that the discussion leads to a significant shift in a position of members towards a more extreme position in the direction in which they were already leaning before the discussion. So conservative types become more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk. The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group. Group shift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group's discussion. Whether the shift in the group's decision is towards greater caution or more risk depends on the dominant pre-discussion norm.
  30. 30. 8– 30 Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
  31. 31. Group Decision-Making Techniques Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of action. The "brainstorming session" is usually relatively unstructured. The group leader or facilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Once the ideas of the group members have been exhausted, the group members then begin the process of evaluating the utility of the different suggestions presented. Brainstorming is a useful means by which to generate alternatives, but does not offer much in the way of process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action.
  32. 32. Group Decision-Making Techniques The Delphi technique is a group decision-making process that can be used by decision-making groups when the individual members are in different physical locations. The technique was developed at the Rand Corporation. The individuals in the Delphi "group" are usually selected because of the specific knowledge or expertise of the problem they possess. In the Delphi technique, each group member is asked to independently provide ideas, input, and/or alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages.
  33. 33. Understanding Work Teams
  34. 34. Why Have Teams Become So Popular  Teams typically outperform individuals.  Teams use employee talents better.  Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.  Teams facilitate employee involvement.  Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation.
  35. 35. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  36. 36. Work Groups Share Information --- Goal--Neutral --- Synergy---Individual ----- Accountability---Random & Varied ---- Skills----- Work Teams Collective Performance Positive Individual & Mutual Complementary
  37. 37. Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  38. 38. Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. • Task forces • Committees
  39. 39. Types of Teams (cont’d) Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Team Characteristics 1. The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues 2. A limited social context 3. The ability to overcome time and space constraints
  40. 40. Context -Adequate resources -Leadership & Structure --Climate of trust --Performance Evaluation and reward systems Composition --Abilities of Members ---Personality ---Allocating Roles ---Diversity ---Size of Teams --Member Flexibility --Member Preferences Work Design --Autonomy --Skill variety --Task Identity --Task Significance Process --Common Purpose --Specific Goals --Team Efficacy --Conflict levels --Social Loafing Team effectiveness
  41. 41. Turning Individuals Into Team Players  The Challenges – – Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. –  Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. Shaping Team Players – Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. – Training employees to become team players. – Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
  42. 42. Teams and Quality Management  Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: 1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective. 2. Are properly trained in required skills. 3. Allocated enough time to work on problems. 4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. 5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
  43. 43. Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer  Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: – Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? – Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? – Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?