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Group and Teams
Group Dynamics
MBA SEM-1
PREPARED BYNISHIT
ARPAN

GROUP 1
Defining Group


Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have
come together to achieve particular objectives.



A number of individuals considered together because of
similarities.



A number of people who are connected by some shared activity ,
interest,or quality.
Classifying Groups
Formal Group
A designated work group defined
by the organization’s structure.

Command Group
A group composed of the
individuals who report directly to a
given manager.

Informal Group
A group that is neither formally
structured now organizationally
determined; appears in response
to the need for social contact.
Task Group
Those working together to
complete a job or task.
Classifying Groups(contd.)
Interest Group
Those working together to attain
a specific objective with which
each is concerned.

Friendship Group
Those brought together because
they share one or more common
characteristics.
Why Do People
join Group?

1.SECURITY
•2.STATUS
•3.SELF-ESTEEM
•4.AFFILIATION
•5.POWER

•6.GOAL

ACHIEVEMENT
Stages of Group Development
The Five-Stage Model of Group
Development


The Forming – Storming – Norming –
Performing model of group development
was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in
1965, who maintained that these phases
are all necessary and inevitable in order
for the team to grow, to face up to
challenges, to tackle problems, to find
solutions, to plan work, and to deliver
results
Five-Stage Model of Group
Development







Forming Stage
The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty.
Storming Stage
The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict.
Norming Stage
The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesive.
Performing stage
The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional.
Adjourning Stage
The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with
wrapping up activities rather than performance.
An Alternate Model : For Temporary
Groups wth Deadlines el: Temporary
Groups with Deadline

Punctuated-Equilibrium
Model

Sequence of actions:

Temporary groups go
through transitions between
inertia and activity.

2. First phase of inertia

1. Sets group direction
3. Half-way point transition
4. Major changes
5. Second phase of inertia
6. Accelerated activity
Group Member Resources


Knowledge



Skills



Abilities



Personality characters

o

Sociabilty,initiative,openness,flexibility
Group Structure
STRUCTURAL VARIABLES


Formal Leadership



Roles



Norms



Group Size



Composition of Group
Formal Leadership


Almost every group has formal leader. Typically identified by
Manager, supervisor, foreman, project leader, task force head,
committee chair.



Group success
Group Structure - Roles

Role(s)

Role Identity

Role Perception

A set of expected
behavior patterns
attributed to someone
occupying a given
position in a social unit.

Certain attitudes and
behaviors consistent
with a role.

An individual’s view of
how he or she is
supposed to act in a given
situation.
Group Structure - Roles (cont’d)

Role Expectations
How others believe a
person should act in a
given situation.

Psychological
Contract
An unwritten
agreement that sets
out what management
expects from the
employee and vice
versa.

Role Conflict
A situation in which an
individual is confronted
by divergent role
expectations.
Group Structure - Norms

Norms

Classes of Norms:

Acceptable standards of behavior
within a group that are shared by the
group’s members.



Performance norms



Appearance norms



Social arrangement norms



Allocation of resources norms
Group Structure - Norms (cont’d)
Conformity
Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group.
Reference Groups
Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose
norms individuals are likely to conform.
Deviant Workplace Behavior
Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established
norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
Deviant workplace behavior


Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior
Category

Examples

Production

Leaving early, wasting resource,intentionaly working slow

Property

Sabotage, stealing from organization

Political

Showing favoritism, gossiping & spreading rumors

Personal Aggression verbal abuse
Group Structure - Status
Status
A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by
others.
Group Norms
Status Equity
Culture

Group Member
Status
Group Structure - Size
Social Loafing
The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working
collectively than when working individually.

Other conclusions:
Performance

• Odd number groups do
better than even.
• Groups of 7 or 9
perform better overall
than larger or smaller
groups.

Group Size
Group Structure - Composition
Group Demography
The degree to which members of a group share a common
demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or
length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on
turnover.
Cohorts
Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
Group Structure - Cohesiveness
Cohesiveness
Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are
motivated to stay in the group
Increasing group cohesiveness:
1.Make the group smaller.
2.Encourage agreement with group goals.
3.Increase time members spend together.
4.Increase group status and admission difficultly.
5.Stimulate competition with other groups.
6.Give rewards to the group, not individuals.
7.Physically isolate the group.
Group Tasks


Decision-making
–

Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex
tasks.

–

Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the
implementation of complex tasks.

–

Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group
processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
Group Decision Making



Strengths

More complete information&
knowledge
– Increased diversity of views
– Higher quality of decisions
(more accuracy)
– Increased acceptance of
solutions
–

Weaknesses

More time consuming (slower)
Increased pressure to conform
Domination by one or a few
members
Ambiguous responsibility
Effectiveness & Efficiency

Effectiveness
Whether groups are more effective than individuals depend on the
criteria you use to determine effectiveness.
Accuracy : group decisions are more accurate than of Individuals .
Speed : if decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed , than
individual decisions are fast.
Creativity : group tends to be more creative than individuals
Acceptance : if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the
final solution achieves , the nod again goes to group.
Effectiveness & Efficiency

Efficiency
Group efficiency is less than of Individuals
Because
1. More time in group activities
2. time required for searching of Information can be
reduced
Group Decision Making (cont’d)
Groupthink
Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the
realistic appraisal of alternative course of action.

Group shift

A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the
individual decision that member within the group would make; can
be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
Group think
Have you ever felt like speaking up in a meeting, classroom, or informal
group, but decided against it?
One reason may have been shyness.
On the other hand, you may have been victim of groupthink, the
phenomenon that occurs
when group members become so enamored of seeking
concurrence that the norm for consensus overrides the realistic
appraisal of alternatives courses of action and the full expression
of deviant, minority or unpopular views. It describes deterioration in
an individuals mental efficiency, reality, testing, and moral judgment as a
result of group pressures
Symptoms Of The Groupthink
Phenomenon



Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.



Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views
or who question the alternative favored by the majority.



Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.



There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
Groupshift
In comparing group decisions with the individual decisions of members within the group,
evidence suggests that there are differences. In some cases, the group decisions are more
conservative than the individual decisions.
More often, the shift is towards greater risk. What appears to happen in groups is that the
discussion leads to a significant shift in a position of members towards a more extreme position
in the direction in which they were already leaning before the discussion.

So conservative types become more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk.
The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group.
Group shift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision of the group
reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group's discussion.
Whether the shift in the group's decision is towards greater caution or more risk depends on the
dominant pre-discussion norm.
8–
30

Group Decision-Making Techniques
Interacting Groups
Typical groups, in which the members interact with
each other face-to-face.

Nominal Group Technique
A group decision-making method in which individual members
meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but
independent fashion.
Group Decision-Making Techniques

Brainstorming
An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while
withholding any criticism of those alternatives.
Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of
action. The "brainstorming session" is usually relatively unstructured.
The group leader or facilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Once the
ideas of the group members have been exhausted, the group members then begin the
process of evaluating the utility of the different suggestions presented. Brainstorming is a
useful means by which to generate alternatives, but does not offer much in the way of
process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action.
Group Decision-Making Techniques
The Delphi technique is a group decision-making process that can be used by
decision-making groups when the individual members are in different physical
locations. The technique was developed at the Rand Corporation.
The individuals in the Delphi "group" are usually selected because of the specific
knowledge or expertise of the problem they possess. In the Delphi technique,
each group member is asked to independently provide ideas, input, and/or
alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages.
Understanding
Work Teams
Why Have Teams Become So Popular


Teams typically outperform individuals.



Teams use employee talents better.



Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.



Teams facilitate employee involvement.



Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase
motivation.
Team Versus Group: What’s the
Difference
Work Group
A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help
each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility.

Work Team

A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the
sum of the individual inputs.
Work Groups
Share Information
--- Goal--Neutral
--- Synergy---Individual
----- Accountability---Random & Varied ---- Skills-----

Work Teams
Collective Performance
Positive
Individual & Mutual
Complementary
Problem-Solving Teams
Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a
few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and
the work environment.

Self-Managed Work Teams
Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their
former supervisors.
Types of Teams (cont’d)
Cross-Functional Teams
Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but
from different work areas, who come together to
accomplish a task.
• Task forces
• Committees
Types of Teams (cont’d)
Virtual Teams
Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed
members in order to achieve a common goal.

Team Characteristics
1. The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues
2. A limited social context
3. The ability to overcome time and space
constraints
Context
-Adequate resources
-Leadership & Structure
--Climate of trust
--Performance Evaluation and reward systems
Composition
--Abilities of Members
---Personality
---Allocating Roles
---Diversity
---Size of Teams
--Member Flexibility
--Member Preferences

Work Design
--Autonomy
--Skill variety
--Task Identity
--Task Significance
Process
--Common Purpose
--Specific Goals
--Team Efficacy
--Conflict levels
--Social Loafing

Team effectiveness
Turning Individuals Into Team Players


The Challenges
–
–

Countering the influence of individualistic cultures.

–


Overcoming individual resistance to team membership.

Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement.

Shaping Team Players
–

Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles.

–

Training employees to become team players.

–

Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to
recognize individual contributions.
Teams and Quality Management


Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams:
1.

Are small enough to be efficient and effective.

2.

Are properly trained in required skills.

3.

Allocated enough time to work on problems.

4.

Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective
action.

5.

Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the
Answer


Three tests to see if a team fits the situation:
–

Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives?

–

Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the
group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals?

–

Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?

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Group and teams,

  • 1. Group and Teams Group Dynamics MBA SEM-1 PREPARED BYNISHIT ARPAN GROUP 1
  • 2. Defining Group  Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent, who have come together to achieve particular objectives.  A number of individuals considered together because of similarities.  A number of people who are connected by some shared activity , interest,or quality.
  • 3. Classifying Groups Formal Group A designated work group defined by the organization’s structure. Command Group A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager. Informal Group A group that is neither formally structured now organizationally determined; appears in response to the need for social contact. Task Group Those working together to complete a job or task.
  • 4. Classifying Groups(contd.) Interest Group Those working together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned. Friendship Group Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics.
  • 5. Why Do People join Group? 1.SECURITY •2.STATUS •3.SELF-ESTEEM •4.AFFILIATION •5.POWER •6.GOAL ACHIEVEMENT
  • 6. Stages of Group Development
  • 7. The Five-Stage Model of Group Development  The Forming – Storming – Norming – Performing model of group development was first proposed by Bruce Tuckman in 1965, who maintained that these phases are all necessary and inevitable in order for the team to grow, to face up to challenges, to tackle problems, to find solutions, to plan work, and to deliver results
  • 8. Five-Stage Model of Group Development      Forming Stage The first stage in group development, characterized by much uncertainty. Storming Stage The second stage in group development, characterized by intragroup conflict. Norming Stage The third stage in group development, characterized by close relationships and cohesive. Performing stage The fourth stage in group development, when the group is fully functional. Adjourning Stage The final stage in group development for temporary groups, characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance.
  • 9. An Alternate Model : For Temporary Groups wth Deadlines el: Temporary Groups with Deadline Punctuated-Equilibrium Model Sequence of actions: Temporary groups go through transitions between inertia and activity. 2. First phase of inertia 1. Sets group direction 3. Half-way point transition 4. Major changes 5. Second phase of inertia 6. Accelerated activity
  • 10. Group Member Resources  Knowledge  Skills  Abilities  Personality characters o Sociabilty,initiative,openness,flexibility
  • 11. Group Structure STRUCTURAL VARIABLES  Formal Leadership  Roles  Norms  Group Size  Composition of Group
  • 12. Formal Leadership  Almost every group has formal leader. Typically identified by Manager, supervisor, foreman, project leader, task force head, committee chair.  Group success
  • 13. Group Structure - Roles Role(s) Role Identity Role Perception A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role. An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation.
  • 14. Group Structure - Roles (cont’d) Role Expectations How others believe a person should act in a given situation. Psychological Contract An unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee and vice versa. Role Conflict A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations.
  • 15. Group Structure - Norms Norms Classes of Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members.  Performance norms  Appearance norms  Social arrangement norms  Allocation of resources norms
  • 16. Group Structure - Norms (cont’d) Conformity Adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group. Reference Groups Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform. Deviant Workplace Behavior Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and result in negative consequences for the organization, its members, or both.
  • 17. Deviant workplace behavior  Typology of Deviant Workplace Behavior Category Examples Production Leaving early, wasting resource,intentionaly working slow Property Sabotage, stealing from organization Political Showing favoritism, gossiping & spreading rumors Personal Aggression verbal abuse
  • 18. Group Structure - Status Status A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others. Group Norms Status Equity Culture Group Member Status
  • 19. Group Structure - Size Social Loafing The tendency for individuals to expend less effort when working collectively than when working individually. Other conclusions: Performance • Odd number groups do better than even. • Groups of 7 or 9 perform better overall than larger or smaller groups. Group Size
  • 20. Group Structure - Composition Group Demography The degree to which members of a group share a common demographic attribute, such as age, sex, race, educational level, or length of service in the organization, and the impact of this attribute on turnover. Cohorts Individuals who, as part of a group, hold a common attribute.
  • 21. Group Structure - Cohesiveness Cohesiveness Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group Increasing group cohesiveness: 1.Make the group smaller. 2.Encourage agreement with group goals. 3.Increase time members spend together. 4.Increase group status and admission difficultly. 5.Stimulate competition with other groups. 6.Give rewards to the group, not individuals. 7.Physically isolate the group.
  • 22. Group Tasks  Decision-making – Large groups facilitate the pooling of information about complex tasks. – Smaller groups are better suited to coordinating and facilitating the implementation of complex tasks. – Simple, routine standardized tasks reduce the requirement that group processes be effective in order for the group to perform well.
  • 23. Group Decision Making  Strengths More complete information& knowledge – Increased diversity of views – Higher quality of decisions (more accuracy) – Increased acceptance of solutions – Weaknesses More time consuming (slower) Increased pressure to conform Domination by one or a few members Ambiguous responsibility
  • 24. Effectiveness & Efficiency Effectiveness Whether groups are more effective than individuals depend on the criteria you use to determine effectiveness. Accuracy : group decisions are more accurate than of Individuals . Speed : if decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed , than individual decisions are fast. Creativity : group tends to be more creative than individuals Acceptance : if effectiveness means the degree of acceptance the final solution achieves , the nod again goes to group.
  • 25. Effectiveness & Efficiency Efficiency Group efficiency is less than of Individuals Because 1. More time in group activities 2. time required for searching of Information can be reduced
  • 26. Group Decision Making (cont’d) Groupthink Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative course of action. Group shift A change in decision risk between the group’s decision and the individual decision that member within the group would make; can be either toward conservatism or greater risk.
  • 27. Group think Have you ever felt like speaking up in a meeting, classroom, or informal group, but decided against it? One reason may have been shyness. On the other hand, you may have been victim of groupthink, the phenomenon that occurs when group members become so enamored of seeking concurrence that the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternatives courses of action and the full expression of deviant, minority or unpopular views. It describes deterioration in an individuals mental efficiency, reality, testing, and moral judgment as a result of group pressures
  • 28. Symptoms Of The Groupthink Phenomenon  Group members rationalize any resistance to the assumptions they have made.  Members apply direct pressures on those who express doubts about shared views or who question the alternative favored by the majority.  Members who have doubts or differing points of view keep silent about misgivings.  There appears to be an illusion of unanimity.
  • 29. Groupshift In comparing group decisions with the individual decisions of members within the group, evidence suggests that there are differences. In some cases, the group decisions are more conservative than the individual decisions. More often, the shift is towards greater risk. What appears to happen in groups is that the discussion leads to a significant shift in a position of members towards a more extreme position in the direction in which they were already leaning before the discussion. So conservative types become more cautious and the more aggressive types take on more risk. The group discussion tends to exaggerate the initial position of the group. Group shift can be viewed as actually a special case of groupthink. The decision of the group reflects the dominant decision-making norm that develops during the group's discussion. Whether the shift in the group's decision is towards greater caution or more risk depends on the dominant pre-discussion norm.
  • 30. 8– 30 Group Decision-Making Techniques Interacting Groups Typical groups, in which the members interact with each other face-to-face. Nominal Group Technique A group decision-making method in which individual members meet face-to-face to pool their judgments in a systematic but independent fashion.
  • 31. Group Decision-Making Techniques Brainstorming An idea-generation process that specifically encourages any and all alternatives, while withholding any criticism of those alternatives. Brainstorming involves group members verbally suggesting ideas or alternative courses of action. The "brainstorming session" is usually relatively unstructured. The group leader or facilitator then solicits ideas from all members of the group. Once the ideas of the group members have been exhausted, the group members then begin the process of evaluating the utility of the different suggestions presented. Brainstorming is a useful means by which to generate alternatives, but does not offer much in the way of process for the evaluation of alternatives or the selection of a proposed course of action.
  • 32. Group Decision-Making Techniques The Delphi technique is a group decision-making process that can be used by decision-making groups when the individual members are in different physical locations. The technique was developed at the Rand Corporation. The individuals in the Delphi "group" are usually selected because of the specific knowledge or expertise of the problem they possess. In the Delphi technique, each group member is asked to independently provide ideas, input, and/or alternative solutions to the decision problem in successive stages.
  • 34. Why Have Teams Become So Popular  Teams typically outperform individuals.  Teams use employee talents better.  Teams are more flexible and responsive to changes in the environment.  Teams facilitate employee involvement.  Teams are an effective way to democratize and organization and increase motivation.
  • 35. Team Versus Group: What’s the Difference Work Group A group that interacts primarily to share information and to make decisions to help each group member perform within his or her area of responsibility. Work Team A group whose individual efforts result in a performance that is greater than the sum of the individual inputs.
  • 36. Work Groups Share Information --- Goal--Neutral --- Synergy---Individual ----- Accountability---Random & Varied ---- Skills----- Work Teams Collective Performance Positive Individual & Mutual Complementary
  • 37. Problem-Solving Teams Groups of 5 to 12 employees from the same department who meet for a few hours each week to discuss ways of improving quality, efficiency, and the work environment. Self-Managed Work Teams Groups of 10 to 15 people who take on the responsibilities of their former supervisors.
  • 38. Types of Teams (cont’d) Cross-Functional Teams Employees from about the same hierarchical level, but from different work areas, who come together to accomplish a task. • Task forces • Committees
  • 39. Types of Teams (cont’d) Virtual Teams Teams that use computer technology to tie together physically dispersed members in order to achieve a common goal. Team Characteristics 1. The absence of preverbal and nonverbal cues 2. A limited social context 3. The ability to overcome time and space constraints
  • 40. Context -Adequate resources -Leadership & Structure --Climate of trust --Performance Evaluation and reward systems Composition --Abilities of Members ---Personality ---Allocating Roles ---Diversity ---Size of Teams --Member Flexibility --Member Preferences Work Design --Autonomy --Skill variety --Task Identity --Task Significance Process --Common Purpose --Specific Goals --Team Efficacy --Conflict levels --Social Loafing Team effectiveness
  • 41. Turning Individuals Into Team Players  The Challenges – – Countering the influence of individualistic cultures. –  Overcoming individual resistance to team membership. Introducing teams in an organization that has historically valued individual achievement. Shaping Team Players – Selecting employees who can fulfill their team roles. – Training employees to become team players. – Reworking the reward system to encourage cooperative efforts while continuing to recognize individual contributions.
  • 42. Teams and Quality Management  Team Effectiveness and Quality Management Requires That Teams: 1. Are small enough to be efficient and effective. 2. Are properly trained in required skills. 3. Allocated enough time to work on problems. 4. Are given authority to resolve problems and take corrective action. 5. Have a designated “champion” to call on when needed.
  • 43. Beware: Teams Aren’t Always the Answer  Three tests to see if a team fits the situation: – Is the work complex and is there a need for different perspectives? – Does the work create a common purpose or set of goals for the group that is larger than the aggregate of the goals for individuals? – Are members of the group involved in interdependent tasks?